MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the term ‘economy’?
Answer:
The meaning of economy is the ownership of economic resource. It includes all economic activities of an area that are used by the people of that place.

Question 2.
Write different types of economy.
Answer:
There are three types of economy:

  1. Capitalisitc economy
  2. Socialistic economy
  3. Mixed economy

Question 3.
What do you mean by an economy of a village?
Answer:
A village economy includes farms, shops, and all other establishments where people work. Thus an economy is a field of earning the living.

Question 4.
What is meant by self sufficiency of villages? (2010)
Answer:
Self sufficiency meant that villagers may fulfill their needs through local resources only.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
State the structure of the Indian rural working community before the arrival of the Britishers?
Answer:
There were three main components of the working population or community in ancient villages – farmers, artisans and village officers.
(1) Farmers: The most important component of the rural economy was the farmer. The special feature was that every farmer in the village had his own house and share in the land. They were resourceful. Livelihood was the primary objective of farming.

(2) Artisans: In every village all types of artisans were there carpenters, blacksmiths, pooters, goldsmiths, craftmen, cobblers, weavers etc. They fulfilled the needs of the villages in the village itself. The remuneration for their work was paid in the form of grain or commodities.

(3) Village officers: The village officers were of three types:

  • Head (Mukhia): He was the chief officer of the village and was responsible for collecting the rent from the farmers and then paying it to the ruler.
  • Meal gujar: Record keepers of land revenue.
  • Kotwal: Who informed the ruler about criminals and provided other important information to the ruler.

Question 2.
Why did the transfer of land-holding start after arrival of Britishers? (2009, 12, 13)
Answer:
The Britishers ruled over our country for about 200 years. They exploited India as well as Indians in every way. They adopted such policies due to which prosperous India had to face poverty and starvation. It affected agriculture and industry adversely. Due to the zamindari system started by the English the farmers became poor.

They started meeting their requirements by taking loans due to widespread poverty. But due to the inability to repay loans, the moneylenders started confiscating their land. Thus the agricultural land was transferred to the money lenders from farmers. As a result the farmers became land-less and homeless.

Question 3.
Why did the Barter system of exchange prevail in ancient India? (2008, 09, 12)
Answer:
In the ancient India, the needs of a person were limited. But he could not fulfill his needs by his own. He had to depend on others for his other needs. Money was not prevalent at that time. The farmers obtained the required goods and services from artisans and money lenders and gave them food grains in exchange. This system of goods exchange was called the barter system of exchange.

All the payments for the services of the pandit, the doctor, the barber, the washerman were made in the form of grains or other things. In other words “Barter system of exchange was a system in which goods were exchanged directly with goods or services. Money was not used.”

Question 4.
What changes occurred in the structure of rural community after Independene?
Or
In how many categories we can divide the rural community on the basis of ownership of land after Independence? Describe. (2008)
Answer:
Structure of the rural community: We can divide the farmers into four categories on the basis of ownership of land available to them after Independence:

  • Big farmers: Farmers who own land between 2-10 hectares, comes under big farmers.
  • Medium farmers: Farmers who own 2 hectare or a little more then 2 hectare of land.
  • Small farmers: Farmers who own less than 2 hectare of land.
  • Landless farmers: Farmers who do not own any land are tanant farmers or agricultural labourers.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why did the population migrate from villages to cities? Explain it. (2008, 09, 13)
Or
Why did the population migrate from villages to cities after the Independence? Explain. (2009)
Answer:
In the ancient time, villages were self-reliant and self-sufficient. The villagers fulfilled their needs through local resources. Due to lack of means of transport and communication they used to stay in their villages. They were happy and prosperous. But after the arrival of Britishers prosperous villagers had to face poverty and starvation. They were unemplyoed and landless.

The zamindari system started by the English had a bad effect on farmers and farming. The rural population started migrating towards urban areas due to poverty, starvation, unemployment, lack of basic facilities etc. In 1951 out of the total population, the percentage of rural population was 82.7 percent which came down to 72.2 percent in 2001 where as the urban population in 1951 was 17.3 which increased to 27.8 in 2001.

From the above data it has been cleared that due to lack of basic necessities the rural population is migrating towards cities.

Question 2.
Explain the rural economy of India after the arrival of Britishers. (2008)
Answer:
(1) Decline of workmanship and handicraft: As a result of policies of the British the handicrafts manship in Indian villages declined. The artisans of the villages became unemployed, prosperity and well being of villages came to an end.

(2) End of self sufficiency of villages: As a result of commercialisation of agriculture, the crops were transported and sold out of the villages and the required commodities were brought from outside to the villages. Thus, the self sufficiency of villages come to an end.

(3) Transfer of agriculture land: Farmers started meeting their requirements by taking loans due to widespread poverty. But due to the inability to repay loans the moneylenders started confiscating their land. Thus the agricultural land was transferred to the money lenders from farmers. As a result the farmers became landless and homeless.

(4) Backwardness of agriculture: The zamindari system started by the English had a bad effect on farmers and farming. The farmers become poor and in debt. Neither the government nor the zamindars showed interest in the improvement and productivity of the land which resulted in the exploitation of farmers and farming.

Question 3.
Write about the characteristics of ancient rural economy of India. (2009, 16)
Or
What were the characteristics of Indian rural economy before arrival of the British? (2011, 17)
Answer:
In ancient times the majority of the population resided in villages. In fact villages were a major unit of the economy. At that time villages were self sufficient, prosperous and happy. The ancient rural economy was very different from the present villages. Its characteristics can be explained on the basis of the following points:
(1) Structure of working community: There were three main components of the working population or community in ancient villages – farmers, artisans and village officers.

(2) Self sufficiency: The ancient villages were self reliant and self sufficient. Villagers fulfilled their needs through local resources because the needs of villagers were limited and there was lack of means of transport and communication.

(3) Barter system: Barter system of exchange was prevalent in the ancient rural economy. The farmers obtained the required goods and services from artisans and moneylenders and gave them food grains in exchange. All the payments for the services of the pandit, the doctor, the barber, the washerman were made in the form of grains or other things.

(4) Simple division of labour: Economic activities were divided. The division of work was hereditary or based on tradition as farming and animal husbandry, and on caste or in accordance with traditions e.g., blacksmiths, goldsmiths, carpenters, cobblers, barbers, washermen etc. This division of labour was absolutely simple.

(5) Immobility of labour: It was a significant characteristic of ancient economy. Due to lack of means of transport, the caste system, the problem of language and food habits, labourers used to stay in their villages. Generally they did not go out of their villages.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

Question 4.
Give a comparative study of ancient and modern rural economy. (2009, 14, 16)
Answer:
A Comparative Study of Ancient and Modern Rural Economy

S. No. Comparison basis Ancient Economy Modern Economy
1. Self-sufficiency Villages were completely independent. Self sufficiency of villages came to an end.
2. Objective of farming The type of fanning was of subsistence. Commercialization has become the chief objective.
3. Contribution of agriculture in the national income Contribution of agriculture was maximum. Contribution of agriculture is decreasing.
4. Economic condition There was prosperity and well being in the villages. Poverty, unemployment still exists but is decreasing steadily.
5. Methods of cultivation Methods of farming were old and irrigation facilities were traditional. At present, ancient and modem both the methods are in use.
6. Rural finance system Loan was provided by big farmers, moneylenders. Today local moneylenders co-operative credit societies, rural banking institutions, are providing loans.

Question 5.
What are the characteristics of an ‘Ideal Village’? Explain. (2008, 10, 14, 15, 17)
Answer:
An ideal village should have the following characteristics:
(1) Advanced agricultural system: For the development of agriculture the small non-economic farms should be merged into one big farm. Consolidation of land should be adopted. Group farming, use of bio and chemical fertilizers to increase the equality of crop use of high yielding variety seeds and modem facilities of irrigation should be in practice.

(2) Housing facilities: In villages there should be proper facilities of housing. The houses should be clean whether they are ‘kuchcha’ or ‘pucca’ and along with this there should be toilets and bathrooms in the houses. There should be separate space for animals and a proper system of preparing bio-gas by collecting cow dung.

(3) Drinking water facilities: The wells, tanks and ‘pucca’ wells with steps should be renovated for clean and safe drinking water. Arrangements should be such that no villager can dump waste into it. Attention should be paid for raising underground water level in villages.

(4) Health facilities: In every village, there should be primary health centres, as well as doctors and medicines so that the problems of villagers can be solved at the village level itself. The villagers can avail the benefits of the government plans at Delhi.

(5) Education facilities: Efforts should be made to educate each and every child of the village. There should be awareness among villagers of the need for the education of girls. There should be provision of adult education in villagers along with traditional education. Nutritive and clean mid day meal should be provided.

Question 6.
What attempts have to be made to make a village self-depended and for its growth? (2009)
Answer:
For the self-sufficiency and growth of a village the following attempts should be made:
(1) Development of irrigation facilities: For the increase in agricultural productivity in villages, irrigation facilities should be developed. Therefore ponds, wells, canals should be made.

(2) Training programmes and awareness: Training programmes for villagers should be arranged, so that they can have the knowledge of preparing bio-manure and realise its importance. Efforts should be made for the development of oil industry.

(3) Construction of godowns: For the economic development of farmers, godowns should be constructed for the storage of agricultural products.

(4) Improvement in the state of animals: Animals should be given good and nutritious fodder, better water, medical and health facilities for improvement of their state.

(5) Development of agriculture based industry: Attention must be paid towards the development of agriculture based industry such as dairy industry, animal husbandry etc. The opportunities for self-employment should be increased.

(6) Check on excessive expenditure: Though the income is low, people spend much money on family and social programmes; for example twenty thousand to ten lakhs of rupees are spent on marriages. In the same way, ten thousand to forty thousand of rupees are spent on mourning programmes Rs. 500 to Rs. 2000 amount of money is spent on festivals etc.

(7) Increase in the tendency to save: Efforts can be made to establish self-help groups to increase the tendency to save among people. Discussions can be arranged in the meetings of Gram Panchayat, Shikshak Palak Sangh etc. for the awareness toward unnecessary expenditures.

(8) Spread in education: There is aneed of spreading in education in villages. Villagers should come out of traditions and superstitions. Akashwani and televison are giving important contribution in it.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

Question 7.
What are the characteristics of Indian rural economy after independence? (2010)
Answer:
The following are the characteristics:

  • Structure of community on the basis of ownership of land.
  • Multi cropping.
  • Migration of population towards urban areas.
  • Rise of monetary system.
  • Inadequate facilities of transport and communication.
  • Development of subsidiary and cottage industry.
  • Institutional changes.
  • Extension of education and health facilities.

Question 8.
What contribution is made by small scale and cottage industry in the economy of India? (2015)
Answer:
Small scale and cottage industries play an important role in Indian economy. This can be made clear by the following facts:
(1) Economic development: In India the contribution of small scale industries in gross national product is 10 percent, in gross industrial product it is 39 percent and in providing employment it is 32 percent and 35 percent in the total exports of the country.

(2) Employment: The small scale industries reduce unemployment as they have potential of employing large number of workers with less capital investment for the same.

(3) Income distribution: The ownership of small-scale industries is distributed among lakhs of people and families as a result of this economic power cannot be centralised hence it helps in equal distribution of income.

(4) Suitable for rural economy: Around 50.4 percent working population of India depends on agriculture, but the farmers do not get work for the whole year. Therefore small scale industries are important for them and suitable for Indian economy.

(5) Decrease pressure of population on agriculture: Major part of population is already dependent on agriculture in India and increasing population increases pressure on agriculture. If small scale industries are set up in rural areas it will reduce pressure on agriculture which will be beneficial for the country.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Who owns resources in a capitalistic economy? (2008)
(i) Individual
(ii) Government
(iii) Both (i) and (ii)
(iv) None of these.
Answer:
(i) Individual

Question 2.
Which Mughal ruler gave priority to the construction of canals to increase irrigation facilities? (2015)
(i) Mohammed Tughlaq
(ii) Akbar
(iii) Shahjahan
(iv) Humayun
Answer:
(i) Mohammed Tughlaq

Question 3.
Before the arrival of the Britishers rural economy was based on: (2014)
(i) Currency system
(ii) Self sufficiency
(iii) Imports
(iv) None of these
Answer:
(ii) Self sufficiency

Question 4.
The percentage of rural population in India in the year 2001 was:
(i) 21 – 4
(ii) 32 – 8
(iii) 65 – 7
(iv) 72 – 2
Answer:
(iv) 72 – 2

Question 5.
Which system of exchange was prevalent in the ancient rural economy? (2009)
(i) Currency system
(ii) Barter system
(iii) Rupee system
(iv) (i) and (ii) both.
Answer:
(ii) Barter system

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

Question 6.
According to the 2001 census, what percent of Indian population resides in urban areas?
(i) 37 – 8
(ii) 17 – 8
(iii) 27 – 8
(iv) 47 – 8
Answer:
(iii) 27 – 8

Question 7.
The contribution of agriculture to the gross product of the country is: (2008)
(i) 22%
(ii) 26%
(iii) 20%
(iv) 30%
Answer:
(ii) 26%

Question 8.
When was land reform introduced in India?
(i) After Independence
(ii) Before the arrival of Britishers
(iii) In the Vedic period
(iv) None of these
Answer:
(i) After Independence

Question 9.
Who was the originator of the Zamindari system? (2008)
(i) Lord Cornwallis
(ii) LordCurzon
(iii) Lord Mountbatten
(iv) Lord Dalhousie
Answer:
(i) Lord Cornwallis

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
In socialist economy, resources are owned by (2008)
Answer:
Government

Question 2.
In the capitalistic economy, resources are owned by (2009)
Answer:
individual

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

Question 3.
was not used in the barter system of exchange.
Answer:
Money

Question 4.
Division of work among the labour according to their specific abilities is known as
Answer:
division of labour

Question 5.
The Zamindari system was started by (2016)
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis.

Match the Columns

A B
1. Indian economy (a) Lord Cornwallis
2. Zamindari system (2009, 17) (b) Self sufficiency
3. Rural economy before the arrival of Britishers (c) Mixed economy
4. System prevalent in the ancient rural economy (d) Sher Shah Sur
5. Land measurement (e) Barter system

Answers:
1. (c)
2. (a)
3. (b)
4. (e)
5. (d)

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

True/False

Question 1.
Before the arrival of Britishers, the rural economy was based on imports. (2010)
Answer:
False

Question 2.
The barter system of exchange was prevalent in the ancient rural economy. (2009)
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Kharif crops are crops of the rainy season which are harvested around September-October.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Contribution of agriculture after independence is reducing.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
India has 6,00,000 number of villages today. (2011)
Answer:
False

Answer in One Word/Sentence

Question 1.
The most important part of rural economy. (2012)
Answer:
Farmer.

Question 2.
Who got the measurement of land done in an accurate manner during Akbar’s reign? (2009)
Answer:
Todarmal.

Question 3.
Who owns land from 2 – 10 hectares? (2012)
Answer:
Big farmers.

Question 4.
Direct exchange of one commodity for another. (2009, 10)
Answer:
Barter system.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

Question 5.
The resource on economic system is called private ownership. (2011)
Answer:
Capitalistic economy.

Question 6.
Who constructed canals to increase irrigation facilities? (2008)
Answer:
Mohammed Tughlaq.

Question 7.
Which industries play a significant role in the development of rural areas? (2013)
Answer:
Cottage and small scale industries.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

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