MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 10 Concept of Democracy

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 10 Concept of Democracy

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What right does the Marxist principle of democracy lay emphasis on?
Answer:
The Marxist principle of democracy lays more emphasis on the economic equality rather than on political and civil equality.

Question 2.
What has been mentioned with reference to democracy in the later vedic period?
Answer:
During the later vedic period the republican form of government and local self-governing institutions were prevalent. In the Rigveda and Atharvaveda a reference of Sabha and Samiti is found.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write any two definitions explaining the meaning of democracy. (2008, 09, 13)
Or
Explain the meaning of democracy and give two definitions of it. (2015)
Answer:
By ‘Democracy’ is meant a system of governance where public welfare is of utmost importance. Democracy is not confined to a system of governance. It is a form of state and a society. Therefore it is a mixture of state, society and governance. Democracy gives the power to rule the people, to control and to dismiss the government.

As a form of a society, democracy is a social system where the thought and behaviour of equality is strong. There must be equal importance to dignity of individuals and all must have equal opportunity of growth. It is a total way of life. It is a system of values where the individual’s welfare is the end and the development of personality its goal. It is based on the preconceived notion of freedom, compatibility and mutual co-operation. Abraham Lincoln has called democracy as a ‘rule of the people, by the people and for the people.’

According to Dicey “Democracy is a form of government where the ruling community is comparatively bigger part of the entire nation.”

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Question 2.
What do you understand by direct democracy? In which type of states is it possible?
Answer:
When the people residing in a state, themselves directly discuss public issues on the basis of which policies are decided and laws are made, then such a governance is called direct democracy. It is possible only in states with less population and those which are small in size.

Question 3.
What do you understand by indirect or representative democracy? (2009, 16)
Answer:
When the people participate in the making of laws and controlling the working of the administration through the elected representatives, it is called Indirect democracy,

In the present time indirect democracy is practised. In this the people choose their representatives for a definite period who form the legislature and make laws. In this system the wishes of the people are expressed through the elected representatives.

Question 4.
How does democracy impart political education?
Answer:
Democracy is the best means of political education. People take interest in the political field naturally, due to the right to vote and freedom to hold a political position.

Freedom of expression and the use of means of communication, promote the tendency to exchange ideas among citizens. All political parties keep campaigning continuously
which gives political education to the masses. Therefore in a democracy citizens receive administrative, political and social education.

Question 5.
Describe the importance of Democracy. (2008, 09, 11)
Answer:
Democracy is a system of governance based on freedom, equality, participation and brotherhood. It can also be called a social system. Under this the entire life of man h is based on the democratic belief that every individual has equal importance in the society.

If the importance of a person is only in the political field then democracy will remain incomplete. For realization of true democracy it is important that individuals get equal opportunities of growth in the political, social and economic sphere of life.

In the political sphere of man’s life, democracy means a political system in which the power to take decisions does not vest in an individual but in the hands of the elected representatives of the people.

In the social sphere of man’s life, democracy implies a society where there is no discrimination on the grounds of caste, religion, colour, gender, race, creed or wealth.

In the economic sphere of man’s life, by democracy is meant a system where every member of the society gets the freedom and the right to choose his means of livelihood or any profession. The government is expected to provide the facilities of food, clothing, shelter, health, education, employment etc.

Thus, democracy is not only a special type of rule but it has a special perspective towards life.

Question 6.
Why is the constitution essential for Democracy? (2009, 10, 16)
Answer:
The fundamental belief pf democracy is that the power of governing must be in the interests of the governed for protecting the rights of the people. In a democracy the common people easily get to know the procedure of formation of the Government and rights and duties of the citizens. There should also be a provision to ensure that the constitution may not be easily changed.

In this manner it is important to have a written constitution for safeguarding democracy. Democracy is therefore called the Rule of Law. Here the law is above an individual or a group of individuals, which is ensured through a written constitution. Therefore a constitution is very important for a democracy.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Question 7.
What is meant by Democracy? Write its chief characteristics. (2008, 09)
Or
Write any five features of Democracy and explain any one feature. (2010)
Or
Write any three features of Democracy. (2009, 17)
Answer:
Meaning of Democracy: By ‘Democracy’ is meant a system of governance where public welfare is of utmost importance. Democracy is not confined to a system of governance. It is a form of state and a society. Therefore it is a mixture of state, society and governance. Democracy gives the power to rule the people, to control and to dismiss the government.

Features of Democracy: Democracy is the only administrative system in which all get equal opportunities without any discrimination for their allround development. The fundamental features of democracy are given as ahead:

(1) Accountable ruling system: In a democracy, the people can make the government work in an accountable manner by asking questions and criticising it. Here the power to govern is basically with the people which is handed over to the representatives for a fixed term.

(2) Rule based on equality: Democracy is based on the principle of equality. In this form of government all citizens without any discrimination have equal civil and political rights. No discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, gender, social status and availability of minimum economic needs is considered to be the aim of democracy.

(3) Strengthening the system of freedom: In a democracy various types of freedom are given to the citizens for their around development. Besides political freedom, rights to various types of religious and cultural freedoms are also given to the citizen. In a democracy citizens have the right to vote, get selected, hold public officers, give speeches, freedom to express themselves, form associations, organize meetings, address people or practice any profession of trade.

(4) Rule of law: By rule of law is meant that everyone is equal before law. Similar punishment is given for similar crimes, whatever be the status and position of the individual. In a democratic countiy the fundamental laws are stated in the constitution. These laws are above all.

(5) Independent and Impartial Elections: The will of the people is supreme in a democracy. In this form of government elections are held from time to time. For forming the government various political parties and independent candidates also have the freedom to participate in these elections. Most of democratic countries along with India have a system of open election.

Question 8.
What are the challenges at present to Indian democracy?
Answer:
Challenges to Indian democracy: There are some challenges to Indian democracy. Indian democracy is getting affected by illiteracy, casteism, linguism, regionalism, separatism, communalism, political violence, social and economic inequalities, dominance of money and muscle power, corruption and politics of vote banks.

Question 9.
“Freedom is the soul of Democracy Explain. (2015)
Answer:
In a democracy various types of freedom are given to the citizens for their all rounded development. Besides political freedom, rights to various types of religious and cultural freedoms are also given to the citizen. If the citizens do not agree with the policies of the Government then they have a right to protest. Freedom is the soul of democracy without freedom democracy is not possible.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the fundamental principles of democracy. (2009, 14)
Answer:
The fundamental principles of democracy are as follows:
(1) The classical principle of democracy: According to this principle the basis of governance is the consent of the people, but if the government does not come up to the expectations of the people, then the people can remove the government through next election. The welfare of the people is the aim of the government. This is also known as the liberal principle of democracy.

(2) The elitist principle of democracy: It lays emphasis on the basic natural inequalities among men and believes that all political systems there are two classes: the ruling and the ruled. Though the ruling class is in a minority, as a center of power it is still on elite class. Generally people think that they are participating in the political process but actually their influence is confined to elections. The basis of the elite is selection on the basis of superiority. Their superiority can be on any basis nature, thought, economic status, social and educational background which makes them different from the common people.

The elite also consider themselves different and superior but they act and react with the common people. The power of governing is in the hands of this elite class. In this way integration of people’s sovereignty is attained. The elite have an influential role in deciding the policy or in the money and wealth of the society but in a democracy everyone has an equal opportunity to enter this elite class.

(3) Pluralist principle: This principle believes that in a democracy a person has the freedom to organize himself into various groups for the fulfilment of various interests. These groups are autonomous in their region and pressurise the government for fulfilment of their interests. This principle also believes that acutally power is divided among these groups therefore its basic concept is decentralization of power. According to this, the state alone does not have the right to supreme power. In a democracy all groups of the society have a share in political power and power to govern.

(4) Marxist principle: According to this, in classical democracy or a liberal democratic system real democracy is not possible.because in this governance is controlled by a small resourceful class whereas actually democracy is based on the welfare of all and equality among all.

According to this principle for the establishment of true democracy a classless and stateless society should be established first. The resourceful class is empowered with political power therefore the state itself becomes a group of exploiters. The Marxist principle believes that political power must be vested in the entire society but for this it is important that the economic power should be in the hands of the entire society.

This principle of democracy lays more emphasis on economic equality rather than on political and civil equality. It recognizes that if a person has no food, clothing or shelter then the right to vote or get elected is meaningless for him.

Question 2.
Describe the merits and demerits of democracy.
Or
Describe the merits of democracy. (2012, 17)
Or
What are the defects of democracy? Explain. (2009)
Or
Describe any two merits and demerits of democracy. (2008, 14)
Answer:
Merits of democracy: The merits of democracy are as follows:
(1) Based on the highest value of humanity: Democracy is based on high values like equality, justice and brotherhood and everyone is treated with equality respecting every individual’s dignity. It develops virtues like self-respect and self-reliance in the citizens as it is based on sovereignty and partnership of the citizens.

(2) Public welfare: In a democracy the representatives of the people who are elected by the people for a definite period govern. They are always afraid that if they do not work in accordance with the wishes, feelings and needs of the people then they will be defeated in the next elections. Therefore the government is responsible to the people in a democracy and is always vigilant about their interests.

(3) Political education: People take interest in the political field naturally, due to the right to vote and freedom to hold a political position. All political parties keep campaigning continuously which gives political education to the masses. Therefore in a democracy citizens receive administrative, political and social education.

(4) Growth of the feeling of patriotism: A democracy is the rule of the people for attaining public welfare for the people. People feel associated with the government and state since they are politically conscious. This association promotes the feelings of love and commitment for the nation. This leads to the cultivation of nationalism. Citizens feel that the government is formed by them and they alone have all rights and powers.

(5) Minimum possibilities of violent revolution: Democracy is a philosophy of peace and tolerance. It is based on understanding and consensus. The opposition also has a right to put forth its views. Therefore the opposition also criticises and condemns the government. If the majority of the people are dissatisfied with the ruling class they can easily remove them through constitutional methods. Therefore, there is least possibility of a violent revolution in a democracy.

Demerits of democracy: The main demerits of democracy are as follows:
(1) Emphasis on quantity rather than quality: In a democracy more importance is given to quantity then quality. Only the votes are counted in this system. The vote of every voter has equal value irrespective of the fact whether he is capable or incapable, educated or illiterate. The basis of democracy is the concept, that everyone is equal whereas the potential of all in the society is not equal. Therefore the views/opinion of more capable people are not correctly evaluated.

(2) Rule of the incapable: Government is an art. For this special knowledge and qualifications are required. The aim of welfare of the entire society cannot be realized if the ruler does not have the knowledge of this art. Only a few people have the art, capability and the potential to govern. But in a democracy there is a rule of majority and a capable person is also equated with an incapable one.

(3) Waste of public time and money: Only after a long and complex procedure is the legislature formed. Sometimes it takes years to make important laws. Lot of money is spent on the election process. A lot of money is also spent on the members of parliament, legislative assembly, minister and officers attached to legislature. Therefore there is a waste of both time and money in a democracy.

(4) Domination of the wealthy: To say that everyone participates in the political process in a democracy is only theoretical. Practically elections have become so expensive that common people can not even think of participating in the election for any position. To contest elections based on money has become a common feature of the democratic system. Candidates contesting elections spend a lot of money in campaigning. This has led to the transformation of democracy from ‘Rule of the people’ to the ‘Rule of the Rich’.

(5) Partisanship: Ideally political parties are formed on the basis of ideologies but in practice their main aim is to acquire power. Political parties level baseless charges against each other to influence people and win popularity opposition for the sake of opposing and not for principles or values becomes the aim of the political parties.

Political parties become a battle ground for those who influence the feelings of the people through negative campaigning and find ways and means to fulfil their selfish motives and establish their supremacy. Their immoral behaviour during elections embitters the entire environment.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Question 3.
What is the concept of democracy? Describe the present form of Indian democracy. (2008)
Or
Describe the present form of Indian democracy. (2013)
Answer:
Concept of Democracy: There have been various administrative system in the political development of the human race of which democracy is considered to be the most important system. The main concept of it is that the entire power of the state vests in the people and not in any individual, group or a dynasty. Therefore participation of the people is the basic foundation of democracy. All must participate in the taking of such decisions or work which affects everyone.

In the initial period of democracy when the population and geographical boundaries of the state were small, the entire population was a part in decision making in administration. Therefore it was practised in states with limited boundaries and populations.

The beginning of direct democracy is believed to have started from the city states of Greece. Since the geographical boundaries and population of the states in the present times has increased considerably, direct democracy is no more possible. Therefore in the present times democracy is practised in an indirect form. It is an administered democracy through the representatives of the people.

Present Indian Democracy: After independence, the Indian constitution came into force on 26th January, 1950. India became a sovereign, democratic republic after the enforcement of the constitution. Citizens were given universal adult suffrage in accordance with the fundamental principles of democracy by the constitution.

The commitment of Indian people towards democracy is clear from the various timebound peaceful elections and through change in power from time to time through constitutional methods. Therefore we can hope for perpetuation and success of democracy in India.

Question 4.
Explain the types of democracy. (2011)
Or
Write the difference between direct and indirect democracy. (2012)
Answer:
Generally democracy is of two types:
(1) Direct democracy: When the people residing in a state, themselves directly discuss public issues on the basis of which policies are decided and laws are made, then such a governance is called direct democracy.

It is possible only in states with less population and those which are small in size.

(2) Indirect democracy: When the people participate in the making of laws and controlling the working of the administration through the elected representatives, it is called Indirect democracy.

In the present time indirect democracy is practised. In this the people choose their representatives for a definite period who form the legislature and make laws. In this system the wishes of the people are expressed through the elected representatives.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Democracy is a rule of the people, by the people and for the people: (2008, 14, 15)
(i) Machiavelli
(ii) Rousseau
(iii) Lincoln
(iv) Hautes
Answer:
(iii) Lincoln

Question 2.
Democracy is called as the ‘Rule of Many’: (2008)
(i) Dicey
(ii) Lincoln
(iii) Aristotle
(iv) Lenin
Answer:
(iii) Aristotle

Question 3.
The beginning of direct democracy is believed to have started from: (2008)
(i) The city states of Britain
(ii) The city states of Greece
(iii) The city states of France
(iv) The city states of Germany
Answer:
(ii) The city states of Greece

Question 4.
Which is the democratic concept?
(i) Freedom
(ii) Exploitation
(iii) Inequality
(iv) Individualism
Answer:
(i) Freedom

Question 5.
Which one of the following is not a demerit of democracy?
(i) Waste of public time and money
(ii) Dominance of the wealthy
(iii) Partisanships
(iv) Public welfare
Answer:
(iv) Public welfare

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
The Indian constitution came into force on …………. (2009)
Answer:
26 January, 1950

Question 2.
A group formed by definite geographical area, population, government and sovereignty is called a …………. (2011)
Answer:
state

Question 3.
The classical principle of democracy is also knowan as …………. principle.
Answer:
liberal

Question 4.
At present India is the biggest …………. country in the world. (2012)
Answer:
democratic

Question 5.
Aristotle has called democracy as the …………. (2009, 10)
Answer:
‘Rule of Many’

Question 6.
…………. is a rule of people, by the people and for the people. (2017)
Answer:
Democracy.

Match the Columns

A B
1. Concept of Communism (a) 26 January, 1950
2. Emergency enforced in India (b) Lincoln
3. Indian constitution came into force (c) 1975 – 77
4. ‘Rule of Many’ statement (d) Soviet Union
5. ‘Democracy is a rule of people, by the people and for the people’. (2009) (e) Aristotle

Answer:
1. (d)
2. (c)
3. (a)
4. (e)
5. (b)

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

True/False

Question 1.
There should be fair elections in democracy. (2015)
Answer:
True

Question 2.
In the present times indirect democracy is practised.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Exploitation is the democratic concept. (2017)
Answer:
False

Question 4.
There is no arrangement of accountability in the democratic government. (2009)
Answer:
False

Question 5.
Dicey has called democracy as ‘Rule of Many’. (2014)
Answer:
False

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Answer in One Word/Sentence

Question 1.
Switzerland’s political or administrative province/unit. (2016)
Answer:
Canton.

Question 2.
Which is the democratic concept? (2013)
Answer:
Freedom.

Question 3.
‘Democracy is a rule of the people, by the people and for the people’. Who gave this statement?
Answer:
Abraham Lincoln.

Question 4.
The supreme power of state is. (2016)
Answer:
Sovereignty.

Question 5.
‘Democracy is a form of government where the ruling community is a comparatively bigger part of the entire nation.’ Who gave this statement?
Answer:
Dicey.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

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