## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 10 Concept of Democracy

Question 1.
What right does the Marxist principle of democracy lay emphasis on?
The Marxist principle of democracy lays more emphasis on the economic equality rather than on political and civil equality.

Question 2.
What has been mentioned with reference to democracy in the later vedic period?
During the later vedic period the republican form of government and local self-governing institutions were prevalent. In the Rigveda and Atharvaveda a reference of Sabha and Samiti is found.

Question 1.
Write any two definitions explaining the meaning of democracy. (2008, 09, 13)
Or
Explain the meaning of democracy and give two definitions of it. (2015)
By ‘Democracy’ is meant a system of governance where public welfare is of utmost importance. Democracy is not confined to a system of governance. It is a form of state and a society. Therefore it is a mixture of state, society and governance. Democracy gives the power to rule the people, to control and to dismiss the government.

As a form of a society, democracy is a social system where the thought and behaviour of equality is strong. There must be equal importance to dignity of individuals and all must have equal opportunity of growth. It is a total way of life. It is a system of values where the individual’s welfare is the end and the development of personality its goal. It is based on the preconceived notion of freedom, compatibility and mutual co-operation. Abraham Lincoln has called democracy as a ‘rule of the people, by the people and for the people.’

According to Dicey “Democracy is a form of government where the ruling community is comparatively bigger part of the entire nation.”

Question 2.
What do you understand by direct democracy? In which type of states is it possible?
When the people residing in a state, themselves directly discuss public issues on the basis of which policies are decided and laws are made, then such a governance is called direct democracy. It is possible only in states with less population and those which are small in size.

Question 3.
What do you understand by indirect or representative democracy? (2009, 16)
When the people participate in the making of laws and controlling the working of the administration through the elected representatives, it is called Indirect democracy,

In the present time indirect democracy is practised. In this the people choose their representatives for a definite period who form the legislature and make laws. In this system the wishes of the people are expressed through the elected representatives.

Question 4.
How does democracy impart political education?
Democracy is the best means of political education. People take interest in the political field naturally, due to the right to vote and freedom to hold a political position.

Freedom of expression and the use of means of communication, promote the tendency to exchange ideas among citizens. All political parties keep campaigning continuously
which gives political education to the masses. Therefore in a democracy citizens receive administrative, political and social education.

Question 5.
Describe the importance of Democracy. (2008, 09, 11)
Democracy is a system of governance based on freedom, equality, participation and brotherhood. It can also be called a social system. Under this the entire life of man h is based on the democratic belief that every individual has equal importance in the society.

If the importance of a person is only in the political field then democracy will remain incomplete. For realization of true democracy it is important that individuals get equal opportunities of growth in the political, social and economic sphere of life.

In the political sphere of man’s life, democracy means a political system in which the power to take decisions does not vest in an individual but in the hands of the elected representatives of the people.

In the social sphere of man’s life, democracy implies a society where there is no discrimination on the grounds of caste, religion, colour, gender, race, creed or wealth.

In the economic sphere of man’s life, by democracy is meant a system where every member of the society gets the freedom and the right to choose his means of livelihood or any profession. The government is expected to provide the facilities of food, clothing, shelter, health, education, employment etc.

Thus, democracy is not only a special type of rule but it has a special perspective towards life.

Question 6.
Why is the constitution essential for Democracy? (2009, 10, 16)
The fundamental belief pf democracy is that the power of governing must be in the interests of the governed for protecting the rights of the people. In a democracy the common people easily get to know the procedure of formation of the Government and rights and duties of the citizens. There should also be a provision to ensure that the constitution may not be easily changed.

In this manner it is important to have a written constitution for safeguarding democracy. Democracy is therefore called the Rule of Law. Here the law is above an individual or a group of individuals, which is ensured through a written constitution. Therefore a constitution is very important for a democracy.

Question 7.
What is meant by Democracy? Write its chief characteristics. (2008, 09)
Or
Write any five features of Democracy and explain any one feature. (2010)
Or
Write any three features of Democracy. (2009, 17)
Meaning of Democracy: By ‘Democracy’ is meant a system of governance where public welfare is of utmost importance. Democracy is not confined to a system of governance. It is a form of state and a society. Therefore it is a mixture of state, society and governance. Democracy gives the power to rule the people, to control and to dismiss the government.

Features of Democracy: Democracy is the only administrative system in which all get equal opportunities without any discrimination for their allround development. The fundamental features of democracy are given as ahead:

(1) Accountable ruling system: In a democracy, the people can make the government work in an accountable manner by asking questions and criticising it. Here the power to govern is basically with the people which is handed over to the representatives for a fixed term.

(2) Rule based on equality: Democracy is based on the principle of equality. In this form of government all citizens without any discrimination have equal civil and political rights. No discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, gender, social status and availability of minimum economic needs is considered to be the aim of democracy.

(3) Strengthening the system of freedom: In a democracy various types of freedom are given to the citizens for their around development. Besides political freedom, rights to various types of religious and cultural freedoms are also given to the citizen. In a democracy citizens have the right to vote, get selected, hold public officers, give speeches, freedom to express themselves, form associations, organize meetings, address people or practice any profession of trade.

(4) Rule of law: By rule of law is meant that everyone is equal before law. Similar punishment is given for similar crimes, whatever be the status and position of the individual. In a democratic countiy the fundamental laws are stated in the constitution. These laws are above all.

(5) Independent and Impartial Elections: The will of the people is supreme in a democracy. In this form of government elections are held from time to time. For forming the government various political parties and independent candidates also have the freedom to participate in these elections. Most of democratic countries along with India have a system of open election.

Question 8.
What are the challenges at present to Indian democracy?
Challenges to Indian democracy: There are some challenges to Indian democracy. Indian democracy is getting affected by illiteracy, casteism, linguism, regionalism, separatism, communalism, political violence, social and economic inequalities, dominance of money and muscle power, corruption and politics of vote banks.

Question 9.
“Freedom is the soul of Democracy Explain. (2015)
In a democracy various types of freedom are given to the citizens for their all rounded development. Besides political freedom, rights to various types of religious and cultural freedoms are also given to the citizen. If the citizens do not agree with the policies of the Government then they have a right to protest. Freedom is the soul of democracy without freedom democracy is not possible.

Question 1.
Describe the fundamental principles of democracy. (2009, 14)
The fundamental principles of democracy are as follows:
(1) The classical principle of democracy: According to this principle the basis of governance is the consent of the people, but if the government does not come up to the expectations of the people, then the people can remove the government through next election. The welfare of the people is the aim of the government. This is also known as the liberal principle of democracy.

(2) The elitist principle of democracy: It lays emphasis on the basic natural inequalities among men and believes that all political systems there are two classes: the ruling and the ruled. Though the ruling class is in a minority, as a center of power it is still on elite class. Generally people think that they are participating in the political process but actually their influence is confined to elections. The basis of the elite is selection on the basis of superiority. Their superiority can be on any basis nature, thought, economic status, social and educational background which makes them different from the common people.

The elite also consider themselves different and superior but they act and react with the common people. The power of governing is in the hands of this elite class. In this way integration of people’s sovereignty is attained. The elite have an influential role in deciding the policy or in the money and wealth of the society but in a democracy everyone has an equal opportunity to enter this elite class.

(3) Pluralist principle: This principle believes that in a democracy a person has the freedom to organize himself into various groups for the fulfilment of various interests. These groups are autonomous in their region and pressurise the government for fulfilment of their interests. This principle also believes that acutally power is divided among these groups therefore its basic concept is decentralization of power. According to this, the state alone does not have the right to supreme power. In a democracy all groups of the society have a share in political power and power to govern.

(4) Marxist principle: According to this, in classical democracy or a liberal democratic system real democracy is not possible.because in this governance is controlled by a small resourceful class whereas actually democracy is based on the welfare of all and equality among all.

According to this principle for the establishment of true democracy a classless and stateless society should be established first. The resourceful class is empowered with political power therefore the state itself becomes a group of exploiters. The Marxist principle believes that political power must be vested in the entire society but for this it is important that the economic power should be in the hands of the entire society.

This principle of democracy lays more emphasis on economic equality rather than on political and civil equality. It recognizes that if a person has no food, clothing or shelter then the right to vote or get elected is meaningless for him.

Question 2.
Describe the merits and demerits of democracy.
Or
Describe the merits of democracy. (2012, 17)
Or
What are the defects of democracy? Explain. (2009)
Or
Describe any two merits and demerits of democracy. (2008, 14)
Merits of democracy: The merits of democracy are as follows:
(1) Based on the highest value of humanity: Democracy is based on high values like equality, justice and brotherhood and everyone is treated with equality respecting every individual’s dignity. It develops virtues like self-respect and self-reliance in the citizens as it is based on sovereignty and partnership of the citizens.

(2) Public welfare: In a democracy the representatives of the people who are elected by the people for a definite period govern. They are always afraid that if they do not work in accordance with the wishes, feelings and needs of the people then they will be defeated in the next elections. Therefore the government is responsible to the people in a democracy and is always vigilant about their interests.

(3) Political education: People take interest in the political field naturally, due to the right to vote and freedom to hold a political position. All political parties keep campaigning continuously which gives political education to the masses. Therefore in a democracy citizens receive administrative, political and social education.

(4) Growth of the feeling of patriotism: A democracy is the rule of the people for attaining public welfare for the people. People feel associated with the government and state since they are politically conscious. This association promotes the feelings of love and commitment for the nation. This leads to the cultivation of nationalism. Citizens feel that the government is formed by them and they alone have all rights and powers.

(5) Minimum possibilities of violent revolution: Democracy is a philosophy of peace and tolerance. It is based on understanding and consensus. The opposition also has a right to put forth its views. Therefore the opposition also criticises and condemns the government. If the majority of the people are dissatisfied with the ruling class they can easily remove them through constitutional methods. Therefore, there is least possibility of a violent revolution in a democracy.

Demerits of democracy: The main demerits of democracy are as follows:
(1) Emphasis on quantity rather than quality: In a democracy more importance is given to quantity then quality. Only the votes are counted in this system. The vote of every voter has equal value irrespective of the fact whether he is capable or incapable, educated or illiterate. The basis of democracy is the concept, that everyone is equal whereas the potential of all in the society is not equal. Therefore the views/opinion of more capable people are not correctly evaluated.

(2) Rule of the incapable: Government is an art. For this special knowledge and qualifications are required. The aim of welfare of the entire society cannot be realized if the ruler does not have the knowledge of this art. Only a few people have the art, capability and the potential to govern. But in a democracy there is a rule of majority and a capable person is also equated with an incapable one.

(3) Waste of public time and money: Only after a long and complex procedure is the legislature formed. Sometimes it takes years to make important laws. Lot of money is spent on the election process. A lot of money is also spent on the members of parliament, legislative assembly, minister and officers attached to legislature. Therefore there is a waste of both time and money in a democracy.

(4) Domination of the wealthy: To say that everyone participates in the political process in a democracy is only theoretical. Practically elections have become so expensive that common people can not even think of participating in the election for any position. To contest elections based on money has become a common feature of the democratic system. Candidates contesting elections spend a lot of money in campaigning. This has led to the transformation of democracy from ‘Rule of the people’ to the ‘Rule of the Rich’.

(5) Partisanship: Ideally political parties are formed on the basis of ideologies but in practice their main aim is to acquire power. Political parties level baseless charges against each other to influence people and win popularity opposition for the sake of opposing and not for principles or values becomes the aim of the political parties.

Political parties become a battle ground for those who influence the feelings of the people through negative campaigning and find ways and means to fulfil their selfish motives and establish their supremacy. Their immoral behaviour during elections embitters the entire environment.

Question 3.
What is the concept of democracy? Describe the present form of Indian democracy. (2008)
Or
Describe the present form of Indian democracy. (2013)
Concept of Democracy: There have been various administrative system in the political development of the human race of which democracy is considered to be the most important system. The main concept of it is that the entire power of the state vests in the people and not in any individual, group or a dynasty. Therefore participation of the people is the basic foundation of democracy. All must participate in the taking of such decisions or work which affects everyone.

In the initial period of democracy when the population and geographical boundaries of the state were small, the entire population was a part in decision making in administration. Therefore it was practised in states with limited boundaries and populations.

The beginning of direct democracy is believed to have started from the city states of Greece. Since the geographical boundaries and population of the states in the present times has increased considerably, direct democracy is no more possible. Therefore in the present times democracy is practised in an indirect form. It is an administered democracy through the representatives of the people.

Present Indian Democracy: After independence, the Indian constitution came into force on 26th January, 1950. India became a sovereign, democratic republic after the enforcement of the constitution. Citizens were given universal adult suffrage in accordance with the fundamental principles of democracy by the constitution.

The commitment of Indian people towards democracy is clear from the various timebound peaceful elections and through change in power from time to time through constitutional methods. Therefore we can hope for perpetuation and success of democracy in India.

Question 4.
Explain the types of democracy. (2011)
Or
Write the difference between direct and indirect democracy. (2012)
Generally democracy is of two types:
(1) Direct democracy: When the people residing in a state, themselves directly discuss public issues on the basis of which policies are decided and laws are made, then such a governance is called direct democracy.

It is possible only in states with less population and those which are small in size.

(2) Indirect democracy: When the people participate in the making of laws and controlling the working of the administration through the elected representatives, it is called Indirect democracy.

In the present time indirect democracy is practised. In this the people choose their representatives for a definite period who form the legislature and make laws. In this system the wishes of the people are expressed through the elected representatives.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Democracy is a rule of the people, by the people and for the people: (2008, 14, 15)
(i) Machiavelli
(ii) Rousseau
(iii) Lincoln
(iv) Hautes
(iii) Lincoln

Question 2.
Democracy is called as the ‘Rule of Many’: (2008)
(i) Dicey
(ii) Lincoln
(iii) Aristotle
(iv) Lenin
(iii) Aristotle

Question 3.
The beginning of direct democracy is believed to have started from: (2008)
(i) The city states of Britain
(ii) The city states of Greece
(iii) The city states of France
(iv) The city states of Germany
(ii) The city states of Greece

Question 4.
Which is the democratic concept?
(i) Freedom
(ii) Exploitation
(iii) Inequality
(iv) Individualism
(i) Freedom

Question 5.
Which one of the following is not a demerit of democracy?
(i) Waste of public time and money
(ii) Dominance of the wealthy
(iii) Partisanships
(iv) Public welfare
(iv) Public welfare

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
The Indian constitution came into force on …………. (2009)
26 January, 1950

Question 2.
A group formed by definite geographical area, population, government and sovereignty is called a …………. (2011)
state

Question 3.
The classical principle of democracy is also knowan as …………. principle.
liberal

Question 4.
At present India is the biggest …………. country in the world. (2012)
democratic

Question 5.
Aristotle has called democracy as the …………. (2009, 10)
‘Rule of Many’

Question 6.
…………. is a rule of people, by the people and for the people. (2017)
Democracy.

Match the Columns

 A B 1. Concept of Communism (a) 26 January, 1950 2. Emergency enforced in India (b) Lincoln 3. Indian constitution came into force (c) 1975 – 77 4. ‘Rule of Many’ statement (d) Soviet Union 5. ‘Democracy is a rule of people, by the people and for the people’. (2009) (e) Aristotle

1. (d)
2. (c)
3. (a)
4. (e)
5. (b)

True/False

Question 1.
There should be fair elections in democracy. (2015)
True

Question 2.
In the present times indirect democracy is practised.
True

Question 3.
Exploitation is the democratic concept. (2017)
False

Question 4.
There is no arrangement of accountability in the democratic government. (2009)
False

Question 5.
Dicey has called democracy as ‘Rule of Many’. (2014)
False

Question 1.
Switzerland’s political or administrative province/unit. (2016)
Canton.

Question 2.
Which is the democratic concept? (2013)
Freedom.

Question 3.
‘Democracy is a rule of the people, by the people and for the people’. Who gave this statement?
Abraham Lincoln.

Question 4.
The supreme power of state is. (2016)
Sovereignty.

Question 5.
‘Democracy is a form of government where the ruling community is a comparatively bigger part of the entire nation.’ Who gave this statement?
Dicey.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 13 Development of Rural Economy

Question 1.
Explain the term ‘economy’?
The meaning of economy is the ownership of economic resource. It includes all economic activities of an area that are used by the people of that place.

Question 2.
Write different types of economy.
There are three types of economy:

1. Capitalisitc economy
2. Socialistic economy
3. Mixed economy

Question 3.
What do you mean by an economy of a village?
A village economy includes farms, shops, and all other establishments where people work. Thus an economy is a field of earning the living.

Question 4.
What is meant by self sufficiency of villages? (2010)
Self sufficiency meant that villagers may fulfill their needs through local resources only.

Question 1.
State the structure of the Indian rural working community before the arrival of the Britishers?
There were three main components of the working population or community in ancient villages – farmers, artisans and village officers.
(1) Farmers: The most important component of the rural economy was the farmer. The special feature was that every farmer in the village had his own house and share in the land. They were resourceful. Livelihood was the primary objective of farming.

(2) Artisans: In every village all types of artisans were there carpenters, blacksmiths, pooters, goldsmiths, craftmen, cobblers, weavers etc. They fulfilled the needs of the villages in the village itself. The remuneration for their work was paid in the form of grain or commodities.

(3) Village officers: The village officers were of three types:

• Head (Mukhia): He was the chief officer of the village and was responsible for collecting the rent from the farmers and then paying it to the ruler.
• Meal gujar: Record keepers of land revenue.
• Kotwal: Who informed the ruler about criminals and provided other important information to the ruler.

Question 2.
Why did the transfer of land-holding start after arrival of Britishers? (2009, 12, 13)
The Britishers ruled over our country for about 200 years. They exploited India as well as Indians in every way. They adopted such policies due to which prosperous India had to face poverty and starvation. It affected agriculture and industry adversely. Due to the zamindari system started by the English the farmers became poor.

They started meeting their requirements by taking loans due to widespread poverty. But due to the inability to repay loans, the moneylenders started confiscating their land. Thus the agricultural land was transferred to the money lenders from farmers. As a result the farmers became land-less and homeless.

Question 3.
Why did the Barter system of exchange prevail in ancient India? (2008, 09, 12)
In the ancient India, the needs of a person were limited. But he could not fulfill his needs by his own. He had to depend on others for his other needs. Money was not prevalent at that time. The farmers obtained the required goods and services from artisans and money lenders and gave them food grains in exchange. This system of goods exchange was called the barter system of exchange.

All the payments for the services of the pandit, the doctor, the barber, the washerman were made in the form of grains or other things. In other words “Barter system of exchange was a system in which goods were exchanged directly with goods or services. Money was not used.”

Question 4.
What changes occurred in the structure of rural community after Independene?
Or
In how many categories we can divide the rural community on the basis of ownership of land after Independence? Describe. (2008)
Structure of the rural community: We can divide the farmers into four categories on the basis of ownership of land available to them after Independence:

• Big farmers: Farmers who own land between 2-10 hectares, comes under big farmers.
• Medium farmers: Farmers who own 2 hectare or a little more then 2 hectare of land.
• Small farmers: Farmers who own less than 2 hectare of land.
• Landless farmers: Farmers who do not own any land are tanant farmers or agricultural labourers.

Question 1.
Why did the population migrate from villages to cities? Explain it. (2008, 09, 13)
Or
Why did the population migrate from villages to cities after the Independence? Explain. (2009)
In the ancient time, villages were self-reliant and self-sufficient. The villagers fulfilled their needs through local resources. Due to lack of means of transport and communication they used to stay in their villages. They were happy and prosperous. But after the arrival of Britishers prosperous villagers had to face poverty and starvation. They were unemplyoed and landless.

The zamindari system started by the English had a bad effect on farmers and farming. The rural population started migrating towards urban areas due to poverty, starvation, unemployment, lack of basic facilities etc. In 1951 out of the total population, the percentage of rural population was 82.7 percent which came down to 72.2 percent in 2001 where as the urban population in 1951 was 17.3 which increased to 27.8 in 2001.

From the above data it has been cleared that due to lack of basic necessities the rural population is migrating towards cities.

Question 2.
Explain the rural economy of India after the arrival of Britishers. (2008)
(1) Decline of workmanship and handicraft: As a result of policies of the British the handicrafts manship in Indian villages declined. The artisans of the villages became unemployed, prosperity and well being of villages came to an end.

(2) End of self sufficiency of villages: As a result of commercialisation of agriculture, the crops were transported and sold out of the villages and the required commodities were brought from outside to the villages. Thus, the self sufficiency of villages come to an end.

(3) Transfer of agriculture land: Farmers started meeting their requirements by taking loans due to widespread poverty. But due to the inability to repay loans the moneylenders started confiscating their land. Thus the agricultural land was transferred to the money lenders from farmers. As a result the farmers became landless and homeless.

(4) Backwardness of agriculture: The zamindari system started by the English had a bad effect on farmers and farming. The farmers become poor and in debt. Neither the government nor the zamindars showed interest in the improvement and productivity of the land which resulted in the exploitation of farmers and farming.

Question 3.
Write about the characteristics of ancient rural economy of India. (2009, 16)
Or
What were the characteristics of Indian rural economy before arrival of the British? (2011, 17)
In ancient times the majority of the population resided in villages. In fact villages were a major unit of the economy. At that time villages were self sufficient, prosperous and happy. The ancient rural economy was very different from the present villages. Its characteristics can be explained on the basis of the following points:
(1) Structure of working community: There were three main components of the working population or community in ancient villages – farmers, artisans and village officers.

(2) Self sufficiency: The ancient villages were self reliant and self sufficient. Villagers fulfilled their needs through local resources because the needs of villagers were limited and there was lack of means of transport and communication.

(3) Barter system: Barter system of exchange was prevalent in the ancient rural economy. The farmers obtained the required goods and services from artisans and moneylenders and gave them food grains in exchange. All the payments for the services of the pandit, the doctor, the barber, the washerman were made in the form of grains or other things.

(4) Simple division of labour: Economic activities were divided. The division of work was hereditary or based on tradition as farming and animal husbandry, and on caste or in accordance with traditions e.g., blacksmiths, goldsmiths, carpenters, cobblers, barbers, washermen etc. This division of labour was absolutely simple.

(5) Immobility of labour: It was a significant characteristic of ancient economy. Due to lack of means of transport, the caste system, the problem of language and food habits, labourers used to stay in their villages. Generally they did not go out of their villages.

Question 4.
Give a comparative study of ancient and modern rural economy. (2009, 14, 16)
A Comparative Study of Ancient and Modern Rural Economy

 S. No. Comparison basis Ancient Economy Modern Economy 1. Self-sufficiency Villages were completely independent. Self sufficiency of villages came to an end. 2. Objective of farming The type of fanning was of subsistence. Commercialization has become the chief objective. 3. Contribution of agriculture in the national income Contribution of agriculture was maximum. Contribution of agriculture is decreasing. 4. Economic condition There was prosperity and well being in the villages. Poverty, unemployment still exists but is decreasing steadily. 5. Methods of cultivation Methods of farming were old and irrigation facilities were traditional. At present, ancient and modem both the methods are in use. 6. Rural finance system Loan was provided by big farmers, moneylenders. Today local moneylenders co-operative credit societies, rural banking institutions, are providing loans.

Question 5.
What are the characteristics of an ‘Ideal Village’? Explain. (2008, 10, 14, 15, 17)
An ideal village should have the following characteristics:
(1) Advanced agricultural system: For the development of agriculture the small non-economic farms should be merged into one big farm. Consolidation of land should be adopted. Group farming, use of bio and chemical fertilizers to increase the equality of crop use of high yielding variety seeds and modem facilities of irrigation should be in practice.

(2) Housing facilities: In villages there should be proper facilities of housing. The houses should be clean whether they are ‘kuchcha’ or ‘pucca’ and along with this there should be toilets and bathrooms in the houses. There should be separate space for animals and a proper system of preparing bio-gas by collecting cow dung.

(3) Drinking water facilities: The wells, tanks and ‘pucca’ wells with steps should be renovated for clean and safe drinking water. Arrangements should be such that no villager can dump waste into it. Attention should be paid for raising underground water level in villages.

(4) Health facilities: In every village, there should be primary health centres, as well as doctors and medicines so that the problems of villagers can be solved at the village level itself. The villagers can avail the benefits of the government plans at Delhi.

(5) Education facilities: Efforts should be made to educate each and every child of the village. There should be awareness among villagers of the need for the education of girls. There should be provision of adult education in villagers along with traditional education. Nutritive and clean mid day meal should be provided.

Question 6.
What attempts have to be made to make a village self-depended and for its growth? (2009)
For the self-sufficiency and growth of a village the following attempts should be made:
(1) Development of irrigation facilities: For the increase in agricultural productivity in villages, irrigation facilities should be developed. Therefore ponds, wells, canals should be made.

(2) Training programmes and awareness: Training programmes for villagers should be arranged, so that they can have the knowledge of preparing bio-manure and realise its importance. Efforts should be made for the development of oil industry.

(3) Construction of godowns: For the economic development of farmers, godowns should be constructed for the storage of agricultural products.

(4) Improvement in the state of animals: Animals should be given good and nutritious fodder, better water, medical and health facilities for improvement of their state.

(5) Development of agriculture based industry: Attention must be paid towards the development of agriculture based industry such as dairy industry, animal husbandry etc. The opportunities for self-employment should be increased.

(6) Check on excessive expenditure: Though the income is low, people spend much money on family and social programmes; for example twenty thousand to ten lakhs of rupees are spent on marriages. In the same way, ten thousand to forty thousand of rupees are spent on mourning programmes Rs. 500 to Rs. 2000 amount of money is spent on festivals etc.

(7) Increase in the tendency to save: Efforts can be made to establish self-help groups to increase the tendency to save among people. Discussions can be arranged in the meetings of Gram Panchayat, Shikshak Palak Sangh etc. for the awareness toward unnecessary expenditures.

(8) Spread in education: There is aneed of spreading in education in villages. Villagers should come out of traditions and superstitions. Akashwani and televison are giving important contribution in it.

Question 7.
What are the characteristics of Indian rural economy after independence? (2010)
The following are the characteristics:

• Structure of community on the basis of ownership of land.
• Multi cropping.
• Migration of population towards urban areas.
• Rise of monetary system.
• Inadequate facilities of transport and communication.
• Development of subsidiary and cottage industry.
• Institutional changes.
• Extension of education and health facilities.

Question 8.
What contribution is made by small scale and cottage industry in the economy of India? (2015)
Small scale and cottage industries play an important role in Indian economy. This can be made clear by the following facts:
(1) Economic development: In India the contribution of small scale industries in gross national product is 10 percent, in gross industrial product it is 39 percent and in providing employment it is 32 percent and 35 percent in the total exports of the country.

(2) Employment: The small scale industries reduce unemployment as they have potential of employing large number of workers with less capital investment for the same.

(3) Income distribution: The ownership of small-scale industries is distributed among lakhs of people and families as a result of this economic power cannot be centralised hence it helps in equal distribution of income.

(4) Suitable for rural economy: Around 50.4 percent working population of India depends on agriculture, but the farmers do not get work for the whole year. Therefore small scale industries are important for them and suitable for Indian economy.

(5) Decrease pressure of population on agriculture: Major part of population is already dependent on agriculture in India and increasing population increases pressure on agriculture. If small scale industries are set up in rural areas it will reduce pressure on agriculture which will be beneficial for the country.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Who owns resources in a capitalistic economy? (2008)
(i) Individual
(ii) Government
(iii) Both (i) and (ii)
(iv) None of these.
(i) Individual

Question 2.
Which Mughal ruler gave priority to the construction of canals to increase irrigation facilities? (2015)
(i) Mohammed Tughlaq
(ii) Akbar
(iii) Shahjahan
(iv) Humayun
(i) Mohammed Tughlaq

Question 3.
Before the arrival of the Britishers rural economy was based on: (2014)
(i) Currency system
(ii) Self sufficiency
(iii) Imports
(iv) None of these
(ii) Self sufficiency

Question 4.
The percentage of rural population in India in the year 2001 was:
(i) 21 – 4
(ii) 32 – 8
(iii) 65 – 7
(iv) 72 – 2
(iv) 72 – 2

Question 5.
Which system of exchange was prevalent in the ancient rural economy? (2009)
(i) Currency system
(ii) Barter system
(iii) Rupee system
(iv) (i) and (ii) both.
(ii) Barter system

Question 6.
According to the 2001 census, what percent of Indian population resides in urban areas?
(i) 37 – 8
(ii) 17 – 8
(iii) 27 – 8
(iv) 47 – 8
(iii) 27 – 8

Question 7.
The contribution of agriculture to the gross product of the country is: (2008)
(i) 22%
(ii) 26%
(iii) 20%
(iv) 30%
(ii) 26%

Question 8.
When was land reform introduced in India?
(i) After Independence
(ii) Before the arrival of Britishers
(iii) In the Vedic period
(iv) None of these
(i) After Independence

Question 9.
Who was the originator of the Zamindari system? (2008)
(i) Lord Cornwallis
(ii) LordCurzon
(iii) Lord Mountbatten
(iv) Lord Dalhousie
(i) Lord Cornwallis

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
In socialist economy, resources are owned by (2008)
Government

Question 2.
In the capitalistic economy, resources are owned by (2009)
individual

Question 3.
was not used in the barter system of exchange.
Money

Question 4.
Division of work among the labour according to their specific abilities is known as
division of labour

Question 5.
The Zamindari system was started by (2016)
Lord Cornwallis.

Match the Columns

 A B 1. Indian economy (a) Lord Cornwallis 2. Zamindari system (2009, 17) (b) Self sufficiency 3. Rural economy before the arrival of Britishers (c) Mixed economy 4. System prevalent in the ancient rural economy (d) Sher Shah Sur 5. Land measurement (e) Barter system

1. (c)
2. (a)
3. (b)
4. (e)
5. (d)

True/False

Question 1.
Before the arrival of Britishers, the rural economy was based on imports. (2010)
False

Question 2.
The barter system of exchange was prevalent in the ancient rural economy. (2009)
True

Question 3.
Kharif crops are crops of the rainy season which are harvested around September-October.
True

Question 4.
Contribution of agriculture after independence is reducing.
True

Question 5.
India has 6,00,000 number of villages today. (2011)
False

Question 1.
The most important part of rural economy. (2012)
Farmer.

Question 2.
Who got the measurement of land done in an accurate manner during Akbar’s reign? (2009)
Todarmal.

Question 3.
Who owns land from 2 – 10 hectares? (2012)
Big farmers.

Question 4.
Direct exchange of one commodity for another. (2009, 10)
Barter system.

Question 5.
The resource on economic system is called private ownership. (2011)
Capitalistic economy.

Question 6.
Who constructed canals to increase irrigation facilities? (2008)
Mohammed Tughlaq.

Question 7.
Which industries play a significant role in the development of rural areas? (2013)
Cottage and small scale industries.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 10 Medieval India

Question 1.
What were the features of Chalukya’s administration? (MP 2011)
The chief features of Chalukya’s administration were:

• They ruled for nearly 200 years.
• Monarchial form of government was prevalent. Emperor was the pivot of administrative system.
• They gave the federal lords the right to govern over the conquered territories.
• Villages was the smallest unit of administration.

Question 2.
Write a short note on AUauddin Khilji. (MP 2011)
Allauddin Khilji (1296 A.D. to 1316 A.D.) was very ambitious. His desire was to become the emperor of entire India. In order to accomplish this aim he attacked Sindh, Multan, Gujrat, Jalore, Jaisalmer, Ranthambor, Chittor, Ujjain, and Chanderi and won them. In order to win over four kingdoms of south Devagiri, Warangal, Dwar Samudra and Madhurai, he sent his military commander malik Kafur. He organized a big army and an espionage department. He crushed the power of revolting Sardars and Arms.

In order to make goods available to his army on less prices he implemented “market control policy” in Delhi. With his death in 1316 A.D. the Khilji dynasty also declined.

Question 3.
Who was Iltutmish?
The most efficient ruler among the slave dynasty rulers was Iltutmish. He crushed the power of the rebel Subedars and Sardars and formed a union of the Turks. Due to this far sightedness and diplomacy he saved Delhi from the attacks of the Mongol leader Chengiz Khan. Iltutmish attacked Ranthambor, Mandor, Nagod, Sambhar, Nayana, Jalore and Gwalior to contain the rising Rajput power. He won the Gwalior fort in 1232 A.D. The Sultan attacked Bhelsa and Ujjain parts of Malwa empire in 1234 A.D. and won them. He died in 1236 A.D.

Question 4.
What was the market policy of Allauddin? (MP 2013, 15)
Allauddin was very ambitious: In order to make goods available to his army on less prices he implemented market control in Delhi, which benefited the people of Delhi. He also implemented the rationing system. He made government granaries keeping in view the sudden change in the weather.

He fixed the rates of goods not on the basis of one’s wishes but in accordance to the cost of production, Bami in his book Tarikh-i-Firozshai has given a descriptive account of market control and a list of prices of goods. Excessive taxes were imposed on farmers, traders and Hindus. Taxes were collected strictly and without respite.

Question 5.
Write the contribution of Sher Shah’s administrative organization in Indian history. (MP 2010, 12)
Sher Shah’s brief period of rule has an important place in Indian history because he restored the lost Afghan pride and rekindled the old administrative system with fundamental reforms which proved to be foundation stones for future. Sher Shah gave utmost importance to the welfare of the people and laid the foundation of a strong administration, the advantage of which went to the Mughals.

He started many works in the field of military administration, judicial system, and land revenue system which was later adopted by Akbar. Sher Shah divided his Empire into Sarkars’ and Sarkars into Parganas. He made reforms in the currency system. The silver coin started by him was known as ‘Rupaiya’.

In the field of education he constructed Madarsas. For travellers he made arrangements for Sarais (Guest houses) and wells for travellers and got trees planted. Sher Shah got the entire land measured. He got reconstructed the old royal road from Kolkata to Peshawar ‘Grand Trunk road’ (Present G T. road) from Agra to Rajasthan and Gujarat and in south to Burhan got new roads constructed. He had a strong espionage system.

Question 6.
Write the contribution of Prithvi Raj Chouhan.
Prithvi Raj Chouhan was an able, brave, valiant and powerful Emperor. He had a fine army and army commanders. Prithvi Raj faced Ghori in 1191 A.D. on the plains of Tarain, this is known as the first Battle of Tarain. Ghori’s army could not with stand the massive attack launched by Prithvi Raj Chauhan’s army and were forced to flee. Ghori also fled in a wounded state. Prithvi Raj did not chase the fleeing army as it was against the Rajput honour and tradition to chase a fleeing army.

Consequently Ghori managed to escape. Ghori could not forget his disgraceful defeat and again made preparations for the war and attacked India the very next year. There was another battle fought in the plains of Tarain in 1192, which is known as the second battle of Tarain. Prithvi Raj fought valiantly and compelled the forces of Ghori to retreat but through diplomatic manovers Ghori imprisoned Prithvi Raj Chouhan.

Question 7.
Describe why Maharana Pratap is famous in Indian History? (MP 2015)
After udai Singh’s death in 1572 AD. his son Rana Pratap became the ruler of Mewar. He had to face many problems at home and outside after becoming the king. He spent a tough time with his father in jungles valleys and mountains. Maharana Pratap gave a tough challenge to Akbar till he lived. Rana Pratap, started organizing Me war to give Mughals a fight. He organized vassals (Samants) and Bheels.

For the first time Rana Pratap included the Bheels in his army and honoured them by giving them high positions. He shifted his residence from Kumbhalgarh to Gogunde so that Akbar could not attack it easily. Through public relations he created awareness against the Mughal power. These efforts brought unity and the entire Mewar rose against the Mughal power.

Question 8.
Write short notes on the following:
(1) Rani Durgawati (2) Chhatrapati Shivajee.
(1) Rani Durgawati: Rani Durgawati was a valiant warrior of medieval Indian history. She faced Mughal emperor Akbars greed for extension of the Empire with bravery courage and patience. Rani Duragwati was the Chandel princess of Mahoba. She was trained in horseriding armaments and kisher (iron claw) right from the childhood. She was married to the king of Garha Dalpat Shah. Nearly eight years after his marriage Dalpat Shah died.

Durgawati had to shoulder the responsibility of the state as guardian to her minor son Veemarayan. Rani managed the affairs of the state with courage and bravery. She cleverly made Baj Bahadur’s (rule of Malwa’s) attack unsuccessful.

Akbar sent Asaf Khan with a big army to attack on Garha state for extending his empire. Rani Durgawati decided to fight than surrendering. Asaf Khan attacked Garha in 1564 A.D.

Rani Durgawati bravely fought against the forces of Asaf Khan but in the end was wounded seriously. In the wounded state brave Durgawati was unable to continue the war but she did not want Akbar’s soldiers to imprison and humiliate her. Therefore, she killed herself with a sword while her son Veemarayan died while fighting.

(2) Chhatrapati Shivajee: Maharaja Shivaji was born on 20 April, 1627 A.D. in the hilly fort of Shivner in Maharashtra. His mother’s name was Jeejabai and father’s name was Shahji Bhonsle. During his childhood he also received military education. He learnt the lessons of honesty, uprightness, bravery and religiousness from his mother.

Shivaji did not like his father’s serving under the Sultan of Bijapur. Therefore, he decided to fight against the Sultan and organized an army. He won the first Torana in 1646 A.D. from Bijapur. He got fort Raigarh constructed five miles east of Torana. Hereafter he won one fort after the other. He won over Chakan. Kondana, Purandar, Javali, Konkan, etc.

Shivaji coronated himself in 1674 and became Chhatrapati. He made Raigarh his capital. After coronation Shivaji organized the entire state and states administrative system. Shivaji’s administration was based on public welfare. In his administration Ashtapradhan was important. By Ashtapradhan is meant the eight ministers who were responsible towards Shivaji. He died in 1680 A.D.

In management and administration Shivaji attained the highest success. He built powerful state. Shivaji had played an important role in routing out Mughal power from southern India. After Shivaji his successors Shahji, Raja Ram Sahu, Tarabai, etc. continued.

Question 9.
Describe Akbar’s religious policy. (MP 2010)
Akbar’s religious policy: After hearing discussion of various religions, Akbar felt that there was something good in every religion but due to the narrow mindedness of religious officials the religion was disrupted from its path and misunderstood. Therefore to end this he established a universal religion ‘Din-E-Illahi’.

Consequences of religious policy: There were the following consequences of religious policy propounded by Akbar:

• The long lasting bitterness between Hindus and Muslims ended and hence they came near.
• There was coordination between Hindu and Muslim policies in the fields of art, literature and tradition.
• Due to Akbar’s religious policy, Rajputs cooperated Mughal empire and assisted in its extension.
• Majority of citizens in the empire were Hindus which due to Akbar’s religious policy became supporters of Mughal empire.
• Due to the religious policy Akbar got non-muslim able administrators and brave warriors which strengthened Mughal empire.

Question 10.
What was the contribution of Prithvi Raj Chauhan in Indian History? (MP 2008, 09, 10, 12, 13)
Prithvi Raj Chauhan: Prithvi Raj Chauhan was an able, brave, valiant and powerful emperor of Delhi and Ajmer. He had a fine army and army commanders. Chandravardai was the contemporary poet during Prithvi Raj’s reign. He composed Prithvi Raj Raso in which he has described about Prithvi Raj’s valour and fame. Prithvi Raj faced Ghori in 1191 A.D. on the plains of Tarain, this is known as the first Battle of Tarain.

In this battle Mohammad Ghori was defeated by Prithvi Raj. Ghori could not forget his disgraceful defeat and again made preparations for the war and attacked India the very next year. There was another battle fought in the plains of Tarain in 1192 which is known as the second battle of Tarain. In the battle, Prithvi Raj was defeated by Mohammad Ghori.

Question 11.
Why is Maharanit Pratap famous in Indian history? Explain. (MP 2008, 10)
Or
Write a short note on Maharana Pratap. (MP 2009)
Maharana Pratap was a brave and courageous Rajput ruler. He was the son of Rana Udai Singh and successorofRana Sanga. He made Kumbhanerhis capital. Akbar tried to befriend him but was unsuccessful and hence on 18 June, 1576 sent his army for attack in Haldi Ghati under the leadership of Man Single There was a war between the two armies.

Man Singh became victorious. Maharana Pratap fled away after being defeated. But he did not accept defeat. He carried on war against the Mughals and managed to win back many of the lost areas. He died in 1597 A.D. Akbar remained unsuccessful in suppressing Maharana Pratap till the end.

Question 12.
Who founded the mughal empire in India and under what circumstances? (MP 2010)
Babar who laid the foundation of the mughal empire in India was the son of the ruler of Fargana state in central Asia and a descendant of Taimur. During the time of Babar’s attack there was a political instability in north and south India. These was a predominance of national fighting, struggle and conspiracies.

Babar took full advantage of this political disorders. In 1526, the First Battle of Panipat’, was fought between Babar and Ibrahim lodhi, the ruler of Delhi. Ibrahim was killed in the battle and success gave him control of Delhi and Agra.

He wanted to crush the Rajput power to rule over India. On the other hand Rajput ruler were determined to crush the Mughals from India under the leadership of Rana Sanga. fierce battle between the arms of Babar and Rana Sanga.

Question 13.
Write the chief characteristics of Chola empire. (MP 2008, 09)
The most powerful ancient dynasty in southern India was the Cholas. The ancient Chola rulers have been described in the Sangam literature. Chola dynasty is known in history for its administrative reforms.

• King was the highest official of the state.
• Administration was done with the help of Council of Ministers.
• Empire was divided into Provinces, Mandalams, valanadus (districts).
• The smallest unit or administration was the Gram and this important unit Grama was divided into 3 parts (assembly of the common people), Sabha (intellectuals, Brahmins), Nagaram (trades, shopkeepers, sculptors). There were several committees for the administrative organization of the Grama.
• Agriculture and trade was well developed.
• The chief source of state’s income was land revenue and tax on trade
• Trade as means of communication were developed and there was foreign trade too.

Question 14.
How did Tughlaq dynasty make a control over Delhi Sultanate? Analyse (MP 2009)
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq laid the foundation of Tughlaq dynasty. He could not bear the chaos prevailing after the death of Alauddin Khilji. In 1320 A.D. he removed the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty Nasir-ud-din Khusro and became the Sultan of Delhi. He led military campaigns to Warangal, Orissa and Bengal after becoming the Sultan.

Question 15.
What do you know about later medieval period?
The period from 13th century A.D. to 18th century A.D. is known as the later medieval period. During this period the foreign invaders carried on their destructive activities one after the other on India which Indian stiffly resisted from time to time. After stiff struggle the invaders were able to establish their rule on India.

Question 16.
Who was Ghiyas-ud-din Balban? Give brief description.
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban: Balban bought by sultan Ututmish. He impressed his master with his ability and services and was soon made a member of group of 40 Amirs ‘Chalisa’ Balban served Ututmish and his successors with full loyalty. He sat on the throne in 1206 A.D. After the death of Nasruddin Mahmood, Balban followed the policy of ‘blood and Iron’ for regulating his administration. He organised a despotic monarchical administrative organisation. He reorganised the army for the security of his kingdom and established a powerful espionage system.

Question 1.
Write down the live kingdoms of 8th century A.D. of North India and explain any one kingdom. (MP 2010)
The chief five kingdoms of north were during the 8th century A.D.:

1. Rashtrakutas/Gurjar Prathihar
2. Pala dynasty
3. Chalukya dynasty (solanki)
4. Parmar dynasty
5. Chandel dynasty

Gurjar Pratihar: Nagabhatt I was the founder of Pratihar dynasty. He took whole Maiwa and East Rajasthan under his control. After Nagabhatt there were two other rulers but there is no description about their region. The fourth important ruler was Vatsraj who tried to expand the empire. After Vatsraj Nagabhatt-II, Ramchandra, Mihir Bhoj, Mahendra Pal, Bhoj-II and Mahipal were the prominent rulers. After Mahipal, Pratihar dynasty saw its downfall. Guijar Pratihar dynasty ruled from 8th to 11th century A.D.

Question 2.
What were the objectives of Mahmud Gaznavi’s and Mohammad Gori’s attack on India? Write the causes of their success.
Mohammad Gori’s invasion: After 150 years of Mahmood Gaznavi’s invasion, Mohammed Gori ruler of a small principality Gor in Afghanistan in the north west India. Taking advantage of the mutual conflicts of the Indian rulers Gori first invaded India in nearly 1175 A.D. and brought Multan and Sindh under his domination.

The objective of Mohammad Gori’s invasion on India was acquiring wealth and propagating Islam. During this time, Hindu states in northern India induded-Chouhan state of Delhi and Ajmer Solanki Kingdom in Kannauj, Sena Kingdom in Bengal-Bihar and Chandel kingdom in Bundelkhand. In southern India Devgiri and Warangal and Hoysal were prominent states.

Invasions of Mahmood Gaznavi: Mahmood was an ambitious ruler of a small principality of Western Asia. He needed money for his army. He had heard many legends about Indian wealth. In order to plunder India’s wealth, he invaded many parts of northern India from about 1000 to 1027 A.D. Mahmood made 17 (seventeen) successful attacks on India. Punjab, Multan, Bhatinda, Nagarkot, Narainpur, Kashmir, Thanesar. Mathura, Kalinjar and Somnath were prominent centres of invasion. Places on the given map.

Gaznavi destroyed many religious places and looted and carried immense wealth to Gaznavi. The famous writer Alberuni who came to India with Mahmood Gaznavi has written about the carnage of Mahmoods destruction. His attacks led to great economic and cultural loss to the country. The contemporary Hindu rulers faced Mahmood Gaznavi but were unsuccessful due to lack of political unity.

Question 3.
Describe the administrative organization of king Krishna Dev Raja and its impact on the people.
The form of administration of Vijaynagar Empire was despotic monarchy. The powers of the king were uncontrolled and unlimited. The basis of the state was Hindu religion. The administration of Vijaynagar was divided into Central, provincial and local administration.

In the Central administration of Vijaynagar the Emperor, minister Council, Kings assembly, Prince played an important role.

The Emperor had the chief position in the State and was called the Raja. All powers of the state were concentrated in his hands. He himself administered the state. Declaration of war and treaty, appointment of officers and workers organization of law and justice, etc. were in his hands. There was a central secretariat for the administration of the state in which there were various departments, Chairman, secretaries and officers.

Vijaynagar administration can be divided into two.

(1) Provincial administration: The Empire was divided into provinces, Provinces were divided into Kottams or Valanadus. Kottam was a district which was divided into Nadus. Nadus were divided into cities. Village was the smallest unit of the state. The responsibility of the province was in the hands of a member of the royal family or powerful feudal lord.

(2) Local administration: The smallest unit of administration was the village. There was a representative body (Pratinidhi Sabha) for the administration of the village which had the representatives of the village. The Pradhan (chief) of the Gram Panchayat was called Iyengar. He was also given some powers of justice and punishment. He also collected royal taxes. Gram Sabha could donate or sell the land under it. Gram Sabha was given the power to decide some diwani (revenue) and Fauijdari (criminal) cases.

Question 4.
Examine the Rajput and religious policy of Akbar. (MP 2013)
Akbar followed a policy of diplomacy and friendship to win over entire India. Akbar won Malwa, Jaunpur, Chinnaur, Meerut, Gondwana, Ranthambhor, Kalinjar, Marwar, Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal, Kabul, Kashmir, Sindh, Orissa and many parts of South India. After along struggle in 1567-1588 A.D. he conquered Chittor. Rajputs gave a tough challenge to Akbar under the leadership of Jaimal and Fatta.

Akbar was clever ruler. He understood that Rajputs were loyal and served their masters even at the cost of their lives, it was therefore necessary to work in association with the Rajputs. He did not have the courage to fight with all the Rajput states therefore he followed a separate policy towards the Rajputs. Akbar befriended the Rajputs and took fine and loyal and brave Rajputs in his service, which prolonged the life of Mughal empire.

Akbar gave high mansabs to some Rajput kings like Bhagwandas, Raja Mansingh, Birbal and Todarmal. Akbar also established friendly and matrimonial alliances with the Rajputs. Akbar married the princess of Amer (Jaipur) Bikaner and Jaisalmer. In this manner Rajputs had an important contribution in realization of Akbar’s dream of a powerful and extensive empire.

He waged wars against the Rajput kingdoms who did not accept his sovereignty. Akbar established a universal religion Din-I-Illahi. He got Ibadatkhana constructed in Fatehpur Sikri where he held religious discussions with the followers of all religions.

Question 5.
What were the causes of decline of Mugal Empire? (MP 2010)
Following were the causes of decline of Mugal empire:
(1) Excessive Taxes: Mughal rulers imposed heavy taxes on the people for their pleasures and wars, paying which became impossible for the people. Their were voices of revolt among the common man.

(2) Vastness of Empire: The vastness of Mughal Empire in and outside India also became a cause of decline of Mughal Empire. A vast empire could have only been regulated through a centralized authority. Due to weak central authority the Mughal Empire also started breaking up. Akbar had saved the empire by his diplomacy but his successors were not successful in this.

(3) Revolts of Chieftains and Prince: Revolts of Loyal Chieftains and Princes also helped in the decline of Mughal Empire. The revolts of royal leaders like Saleem, Khusro, Shah Jahan and Amangzeb also gave a blow to the unity of the Empire.

(4) War of Succession: The war of Succession for power also gave a deep wound to the Mughal Empire. There was no certain rule of succession in Muslim royal power. There were many claimants to the throne due to which the successor was decided on the bayonet point. The war of succession between the sons of Jehangir and among the sons of Shahjahan for power aided the decline of Mughal Empire.

(5) Moral decline of Mughal rulers: Early Mughal rulers were loyal and virtuous towards their state. But the Mughal rulers from Jehangir were pleasure seeking and complacements.

(6) Religious Policy: The religious policy of the Mughals was bias. Most of the rulers were staunch followers of Islam. They supported the spread and growth of Islam, whereas harmed other religions and other religion followers, due to which Mughal Empire could not get their support.

(7) Rise of Hindu Powers: The rise of new Hindu powers also played a role in the decline of Mughal Empire. Marathas, Jats, Sikhs, Rajputs, etc. reorganized themselves and rose against the Mughal empire which had struck Hindu culture.

Continuous wars, autocratic rule decline of military power, moral decline of Amirs (nobles), groupism and other reasons also aided the decline of mughal empire.

Question 6.
What is the contribution of Sher Shah’s administrative system in Indian hisrofy: (MP 2012)
Sher Shah Suri: Sher Shah Sun holds and important place among the Medieval period’s of Indian rulers. He ruled only for five years but in this brief period, he extended the empire and laid a strong administrative system. He gave utmost important to the welfare of the people and laid the foundation of a strong administration, the advantage of which went to the Mughals. His important works were as follows:

• He started many works in the field of military administration, judicial system, and land revenue system which was later adopted by Akbar.
• Sher Shah divided his empire into Sarkars, and Sarkars into Parganas.
• He got reconstructed the old royal road from Kolkata to Peshawar, Grand Trunk Road (Present G.T. Road), from Agra to Rajasthan and Gujarat and in south to Burhan got new roads constructed.
• For travellers he made arrangements for Sarais (Guest houses) and wells and got trees planted on both sides of roads.

I. Choose the correct alternative:

Question 1.
Mahmood Gaznavi was the ruler of:
(a) Multan
(b) Gazni
(c) Bahamani
(d) Iraq
(b) Gazni

Question 2.
The founder of the slave dynasty was: (MP 2009)
(a) Iltutmish
(c) Qutub-ud-din Aibak
(d) Balban
(a) Iltutmish

Question 3.
Who injured Ghori in the 1st battle of Tarain:
(a) Prithviraj
(b) Krishna Raya
(c) Govindraj
(d) Deepakraj
(a) Prithviraj

Question 4.
Which empire did Harihar and Bukka found: (MP 2015)
(a) Bahamani empire
(b) Vijay Nagar empire
(c) Delhi Sultanat
(b) Vijay Nagar empire

Question 5.
Who Killed Afzal Khan:
(a) Shivajee
(b) Raja Ram
(c) Sahu
(d) Tarabai
(a) Shivajee

Question 6.
In 1266 Delhi sultanat was taken by:
(a) Iltutmis
(b) Razia Sultan
(c) Qutab-ud-din Aibak
(d) Balban
(d) Balban

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Krishna Dev Rai was the ruler of …………..
Tuluv dynasty

Question 2.
The head of the Gram panchayat is called …………..
Ayangar

Question 3.
The elder son of Babar was …………..
Humayun

Question 4.
The ruler of Mewar was …………..
Maharana Sanga

Question 5.
After Jahangir became ………….. ruler.
Shahjahan

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Gurjar Pratihar dynasty (a) Dalpatishah 2. Pal dynasty main rule (b) vijay Nagar 3. Harihar, Bukka (c) Nagbhatta I 4. Iltutmish (d) Dharma Pal 5. Durgavati (e) Slave dynasty

1. (c)
2. (d)
3. (b)
4. (e)
5. (a)

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

Question 1.
Akbar was clever emperor.
True

Question 2.
Guru Govind Singh established Khalsa organization in 1699.
True

Question 3.
The first battle of Panipat was fought in 1536.
False

Question 4.
The minister of Vijay Nagar Ramrai was diplomat.
True

Question 5.
The first ruler of Vijay Nagar was Harihar.
True

Question 6.
Jaziya tax was levied on Hindus.
True

V. Write answers in one word:

Question 1.
Sher Shah Suri

Question 2.
Founder of Khalsa Panth.
Guru Govind Singh

Question 3.
Din-i-Illahi religion.
Akbar

Question 4.
Defeated Ibrahim Lodi and founded Mugal dynasty in Delhi.
Babar

Question 5.
Cousin of Krishna Dev Rai.
Achyutdev Rai

Question 6.
By whom was the land measurement policy made in Akbars’ reign correctly?
Todar Mai as Todar Mai Bandobust

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 12 Constitutional Rights and Duties of Citizen

Question 1.
What are the fundamental rights?
The rights which are essential for the all round development and dignity of a citizen are incorporated in the constitutions of the country and are protected by the judiciary are called the fundamental rights.

Question 2.
In how many parts is the Indian constitution divided?
The Indian constitution is divided into 22 parts.

Question 3.
What is meant by the equality before law?
Article 14 of the constitution guarantees to each citizen equality and protection before the law. Nobody is above the law and the law is considered paramount authority and every person whatever be his rank or position, is subject to the jurisdiction of an ordinary court regarding a common offence.

Question 4.
In the constitution what provisions have been made for abolition of untouchability?
Article 17 of the constitution has abolished untouchability with a view to bring social equality among its citizens. Civil Right Protection Act of 1955 provides that the practice of untouchability by the state or citizens be a punishable offence.

Question 1.
What is the difference between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy? Explain. (2008, 09, 10)
The followings are the major differences between fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy:
(1) The constitution stands behind the enforcement of fundamental rights whereas a public opinion is the force behind the directive principles of state policy. If there is a violence of fundamental right of citizens by any law of the government then for its protection the court declares the law as null and void. If there is any law against the directive principles of state policy then the court cannot declare those laws as null and void. But the state cannot violate these principles easily due to the fear of public opinion.

(2) Fundamental rights are prohibitory whereas directive principles of the state policy are not prohibitory. Fundamental rights can stop the government from performing some functions whereas directive principles of state policy direct the government to fulfill their duties.

(3) The aim of fundamental rights is to establish political democracy whereas directive principles of state policy aims at the establishment of economic and social democracy.

(4) Fundamental rights are for citizens whereas directive principles of the state policy is the duty of the government. These are the instructions given to the government for policy-making and practice.

Question 2.
Describe the right to freedom of religion. (2009)
The Republic of India has been declared a secular state. It means that the state has no religion of its own or is atheistic and this means that every religion has been given equal respect in the state. Articles 25-28 explain the right to freedom of religions which include:

• All persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to freely profess, practice and propagate their religion.
• All religious communities shall have the right to establish and maintain religious institutions.
• Taxes cannot be imposed for the maintenance of any particular religion.
• No person shall be compelled to acquire religious education or worship.
• No religious education shall be imparted in government aided educational institutions.

Question 3.
“Fundamental rights and fundamental duties are two sides of the same coin.” Explain the statement. (2008)
Duties and rights are two sides of the same coin. We cannot enjoy rights without fulfilling the duties. If citizens fulfill their fundamental duties than it will be easier for them to enjoy their fundamental rights. If citizens do not follow their duties than there will be irregularities and the environment will be disturbed. Fulfillment of fundamental duties develops a healthy social environment. There is no legal action for violence of fundamental duties in the constitution. There is no provision for punishment if these are disrespected but they are our responsibilities towards our nation.

Fundamental duties are the inspiration for strengthening the country’s culture, heritage, national property, individual and collective progress, defence system of the country etc. and to protect the environment to respect national ideals and to maintain social harmony.

Question 4.
What are the directions for the promotion of international peace in the directive principle of policy? Write.
The directive principles of state policy are included in the constitution to establish a welfare state and to provide all the citizens social, economic and political justice. Directive principles of state policy is the dream of the fulfilment of economic and social revolution in India. The directions for the promotion of international peace are as follows:

• To promote international peace and security.
• To maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
• To respect international laws and treaties.
• To make efforts for the settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

Question 5.
What are fundamental duties described in the constitution? (2013)
Or
Which fundamental duties should be exercised by Indians? (2008)
According to Indian constitution, the Indian citizen should follow the following fundamental duties:

• To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and instructions, the national flag and the national anthem.
• To protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
• To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
• To promote harmony and the spirit of brotherhood amongst all the people of India.

Question 6.
Explain the right to equality.
The right to equality is a veiy important right. The following rights to equality are provided to us:

• All people are equal before the law. Nobody is above the law.
• No discrimination shall be made by the state between citizens on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth.
• No discrimination shall be made on the basis of untouchability.
• No one can be barred from using shops, public places, hotels and all places of public entertainment on the above grounds.
• Constitution provides equal opportunities for all citizens in matters of public employment.
• All titles have been abolished except the special honours relating to military, education and science and non-military citations conferred by the President of India.

Question 7.
What are the freedoms enjoyed by the citizens under the right of freedom? (2009, 12, 13, 17)
Or
Explain the rights to freedom. (2015)
Articles 19 to 22 of the constitution guarantee the right to freedom to citizens. This article provides them the right to freedom of expression, belief, religion and worship. This help them in developing their personality. We enjoy the following freedoms:

• Freedom to speech and expression.
• Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms.
• Freedom to form associations and unions.
• Freedom of movement.
• Freedom to live and settle in any part of India.
• Freedom to take up any job or trade anywhere in India.

Question 8.
“Practice of untouchability in any form is a punishable offence under the Indian constitution.” Explain. (2008)
Or
What provision has been made for the abolition of untouchability in Indian constitution. (2011)
Article 17 of the constitution has abolished untouchability with a view to bring social equality among its citizens. Civil Rights Protection Act of 1955 provides that the practice of untouchability by the state or citizens be a punishable offence. Therefore no person shall be prohibited from entering public institution places and religious areas etc. No person can be humiliated on account of their caste or any other basis.

Question 1.
Describe the importance of fundamental rights.
Or
What are the fundamental rights? Explain their importance.
Fundamental rights: The rights which are essential for the all round development and dignity of a citizen are incorporated in the constitutions of the country and are protected by the judiciary are called the fundamental rights.

Importance of Fundamental Rights:
(1) Helpful in the development of an individual: Fundamental rights provide those conditions which are helpful in mental, physical, moral, social, religions etc. development of an individual. Fundamental rights also provide freedom and security to an individual in these areas. In this way fundamental rights are helpful in the development of personality of citizens.

(2) Basis of successful democracy: Our country, adopts the democratic system of governance. ‘Freedom’ and ‘Equality’ are the main bases of democracy. Without these, we cannot expect democracy. Every citizen has a right to criticise the government. All people have equal right to vote, to contest and win elections. In this way fundamental rights provide favourable environment for successful democracy.

(3) Supremacy of the judiciary: Fundamental rights are protected by the Supreme Court of India. Therefore legislature and executive cannot interfere in the matters of the fundamental rights.

(4) In accordance with social and economical conditions of country: Fundamental rights are in accordance with the social and economical conditions of the country, therefore right to choose any job and educational rights etc. are included in the fundamental right.

(5) Recognised by Indian society: Fundamental rights are associated with the basic needs and dignity of the people. The society recognise them because they are essential for all.

Question 2.
Describe the fundamental duties described in the Indian constitution. (2008, 13, 15)
When the Indian constitution was framed only fundamental rights were incorporated in it, there was no discussion on duties in it, whereas rights and duties are two sides of the same coin. Through the incorporation of fundamental rights only, citizens became aware of their rights but remained indifferent about their duties. For correcting this drawback 10 fundamental duties were enumerated for the citizens by adding part IV A to the constitution in the year 1976 by the 42nd constitutional amendment by the parliament, which are given below:

• To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institution, the national flag and national anthem.
• To protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
• To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
• To promote harmony and the spirit of brotherhood amongst all the people of India.
• To maintain the tradition of rich heritage of our composite culture.
• To protect and improve the natural environment.
• To develop a scientific temper and curiosity.
• To safeguard public property.
• To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity.

Question 3.
What do you mean by right to constitutional remedies? (2010)
Or
What are the main writs issued by the court under right to constitutional remedies?
The arrangements for the security of the fundamental rights have been made in the articles of the constitution from 32 to 35. The court for this purpose can issue five types of writs:

• Habeas Corpus: The court can issue an order to be detaining authority to present the detained person before the court.
• Mandamus: The court issue orders to an officer or institution to perform an act which falls within its jurisdiction.
• Prohibition: It is a writ issued by High Courts to lower courts when they exceed the limits of their power of jurisdiction.
• Certiorari: The writ of Certiorari is exercised by the High Court. The high court can summon the record file or a case from the lower court in order to verify the records.
• Quo Warranto: When a person, officer or an institution does such a work which is legally not in his jurisdiction then this writ of Quo Warranto is issued by the high court to the lower courts. These writs are issued for the violation of fundamental rights, against those persons or institution who have violated them.

Question 4.
Mention and explain the types of directive principles of state policy. (2008, 16)
Or
What are the directive principles in accordance with the ideals of Gandhiji? (2009)
[Hint: See title “Directive principles in accordance with the ideals of Gandhiji”.]
Or
Describe the directive principles of state policy by explaining their aims. (2009)
The directive principles of state policy are enumerated in the articles 36 to 51 of part IV in the constitution. They aim at:

1. A welfare state,
2. Developing India in accordance with the ideals of Gandhiji and
3. Promoting international peace and security by the state.

I. The welfare system:

• To make available equal means of livelihood for both men and women.
• Utilisation of resources of the country for the welfare of the people.
• Wealth and means of production should not be concentrated in the hands of a few but their utilisation should be for public welfare.
• There should be equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Their health and their childrens’ health and energy should not be misused.
• The youth and children should be protected from economic and moral degeneration.
• There should be employment and education for all and the states should help in case of unemployment and inability.
• The state should provide just and human working conditions.
• All should be provided and dignified standard of living in enough live and social and cultural facilities, the standard of food and health should be good.
• Compulsory and free education should be made available for children. The 86th Amendment of the Constitution 2002, provides equal opportunities of education to children between 6 to 14 years of age.

II. Directive principles in accordance with the ideals of Gandhiji:

• To promote cottage industries.
• Organisation of village panchayats and to make them function as self governing unit.
• Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled caste, scheduled tribes and other backward sections and to save them from exploitation.
• Prohibition of consumption of intoxicating goods,(Except medicines).
• To organise agriculture and animal husbandry on a modern and scientific basis.
• To protect and improve the breeds of milk and draught cattle.
• Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife.
• Protection of important national and historical monuments.
• Separation of judiciary from the executive in public service.
• To frame civil and criminal laws for the country.

III. Promotion of international peace:

• To promote international peace and security.
• To maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
• To respect international laws and treaties.
• To make efforts for the settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

Question 5.
How many fundamental rights are mentioned in the constitution? Describe the ‘Right to equality’. (2009)
We are provided six fundamental rights by our constitution:

• Right to equality
• Right to freedom
• Right against exploitation
• Right to freedom of religion
• Cultural and educational rights
• Right to constitutional remedies.

Right to equality: The right to equality is a very important right.
The following rights to equality are provided to us:

• All people are equal before the law. Nobody is above the law.
• No discrimination shall be made by the state between citizens on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth.
• No discrimination shall be made on the basis of untouchability.
• No one can be barred from using shops, public places, hotels and all places of public entertainment on the above grounds.
• Constitution provides equal opportunities for all citizens in matters of public employment.
• All titles have been abolished except the special honours relating to military, education and science and non military citations conferred by the President of India.

Question 6.
What are fundamental rights? How many fundamental rights have been given to us by the Constitution of India? (2011, 12)
The rights which are essential for the all round development and dignity of a citizen are incorporated in the constitution of the country, and are protected by the judiciary and called the fundamental rights. The following six fundamental rights have been included in the Indian constitutions:
We are provided six fundamental rights by our constitution:

• Right to equality
• Right to freedom
• Right against exploitation
• Right to freedom of religion
• Cultural and educational rights
• Right to constitutional remedies.

Right to equality: The right to equality is a very important right.
The following rights to equality are provided to us:

• All people are equal before the law. Nobody is above the law.
• No discrimination shall be made by the state between citizens on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth.
• No discrimination shall be made on the basis of untouchability.
• No one can be barred from using shops, public places, hotels and all places of public entertainment on the above grounds.
• Constitution provides equal opportunities for all citizens in matters of public employment.
• All titles have been abolished except the special honours relating to military, education and science and non military citations conferred by the President of India.

Question 7.
What do you understand by the Right to Information? Clarify the special features related to the Right to Information Act. (2014)
Right to Information: The Right to Information Act was passed in Indian Parliament in May 2005. According to this Act, the people of country have been given the right to obtain information from any government office. Efforts have been made from last many years to increase the participation of people in development programmes.

The establishment of Panchayati Raj and participation of local communities in the supervision of public service in an important step of this. Without the knowledge of public services, facilities and plans, rules and regulations, people are not able to participate in the development programmes properly, but now because of the right to information, transparency may be brought in the developmental plans and public works. This is an important step towards the end of corruption and possibility of partiality and favouritism in the process of decision making in government working.

Features related to Right to Information Act: Important features of this Act are the following:
(1) Who have the Right to Information: Right of Information is available to every citizen of the country. Any citizen may obtain information from public system related to it. In addition, all public systems demonstrate the necessary information related to their daily working on their notice-board for the people.

(2) Meaning of Public Authority: All such authorities or institutions which have been established under the law passed by Parliament or Legislative Assembly, they come under the category of public authority. In addition, such organisation, which are self-government or non-government but which receive aid from government or which are controlled by central or state government are also included in this. Thus, public authority refers to government, bodies consituted under the constitution and departments.

Question 8.
Explain the importance of Right to Information. (2017)
Importance of Right to Information: The importance of Right to Information is clear from the following points:
(1) Enabling people to effectively use the fundamental rights: Right to information is also included in fundamental rights. It protects the fundamental right to speech and expression. It is not possible to express opinion in an impressive way to a person in the absence of information. It has also been added with the right to life under section A21 to our constitution by the Supreme Court. Without the right to know, the right to live is incomplete.

(2) Making the government working transparent: An important objective of this act is to bring transparency in government functioning. People must have the information whether their representatives are using their rights in a suitable manner or not, money is being properly used or not. Thus the objective of w el fare of people may be achieved with money of the public. There will be transparency with the right to information and a pressure will be created to use the public funds in an appropriate manner.

(3) Increasing the participation of people in government functioning: Indian constitution is based on the principle of participatory democracy. For this, people elect their representative by the mode of election. Hence this right is an important tool for increasing the participation of people in government functioning.

(4) Check on Corruption: Right to information is an important weapon to stop the increasing corruption. Since this right is based on the principle of transparency and answerability, a corrupt person will be quickly identified and legal action may be taken against him. Thus responsible persons will move away from doing illegal works because of fear and good governance may also be ensured.

(5) Making the government schemes successful: Right to information also plays an important part in making government schemes successful. The success of government schemes mainly depends on two things – First, the schemes are carried out in desired manner and are completed in scheduled time and Second, the benefit of the schemes may reach out to the real beneficiaries. The right to information is a useful weapon for the fulfilment of both these two objectives.

In this way, it is clear that the right to information is a very important right.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which of the following is not a fundamental right? (2008)
(i) Right to work and rest
(ii) Right to freedom
(iii) Right to equality
(iv) Right against exploitation
(i) Right to work and rest

Question 2.
Right to free and compulsory education of all children between 6 and 14 years of age comes under which fundamental right?
(i) Right to equality
(ii) Cultural and educational right
(iii) Right to freedom
(iv) Right to constitutional remedies
(ii) Cultural and educational right

Question 3.
Which fundamental right has been eliminated from the list of fundamental rights through 44th Amendment Act?
(i) Right to property
(ii) Right to freedom
(iii) Right to equality
(iv) Cultural and educational rights
(i) Right to property

Question 4.
Which function out of these comes under the category of child labour?
(i) A child of less than 14 years of age working in hotels, construction companies
(ii) Movement and acquiring education by a child below 14 years of age
(iii) Playing of children below 14 years of age
(iv) Doing physical exercise by children below 14 years of age
(i) A child of less than 14 years of age working in hotels, construction companies

Question 5.
Which one of these rights is not associated with the fundamental right of freedom?
(i) Freedom of speech
(ii) Abolition of titles
(iii) Freedom to reside or settle
(iv) Freedom of movement
(ii) Abolition of titles

Question 6.
Out of the following who protects the fundamental rights? (2009)
(i) Parliament
(ii) Legislative Assemblies
(iii) Supreme Court
(iv) Government of India
(iii) Supreme Court

Question 7.
Through which writ can the High Court or Supreme Court summon any record of life from its lower court?
(i) Habeas Corpus
(ii) Certiorari
(iii) Quo Warranto
(iv) Mandamus
(ii) Certiorari

Question 8.
Out of these which is the directive principle of state policy?
(i) Bound by law
(ii) Eligible for justice
(iii) Creative direction to the state
(iv) Directives of judiciary
(iii) Creative direction to the state

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
………… protects the fundamental rights. (2009)
Supreme court

Question 2.
In all, the Indian constitution is divided into ………… parts. (2010)
22

Question 3.
………… fundamental rights have been included in the Indian constitution. (2011, 13)
Six

Question 4.
Fundamental rights are for ………… (2014)
citizens

Question 5.
Right to information is available to every………… of the country. (2013)
citizen

Question 6.
The Right to Information Act is a strong medium to stop the (2017)
corruption.

Match the Columns

 A B 1. Protection of public property (2009) (a) Article 16 of constitution 2. Equal opportunity in public appointments (b) Fundamental duties 3. Right to freedom (c) Article 22 of constitution 4. Constitution (2017) (d) Article 10 of constitution 5. Prevention against arrest and detention (e) Supreme Law of Country

1. (b)
2. (a)
3. (d)
4. (e)
5. (c)

True/False

Question 1.
Article 19 of the constitution guarantees to each citizen equality and protection before laws. (2014)
False

Question 2.
Supreme court protects the fundamental rights. (2015)
True

Question 3.
School education up to the age of 20 years should be made free and compulsory. (2012)
False

Question 4.
The directive principles of state policy are the creative directions or the state. (2009)
True

Question 5.
It is the responsibility of every citizen or the state to follow the fundamental duties. (2009)
True

Question 6.
The constitution provided the 8 fundamental rights to its citizens. (2009)
False

Question 7.
Cultural and educational rights are fundamental rights. (2016)
True

Question 8.
Practice of untouchability in any form is a punishable offence under the Indian constitution. (2016)
True

Question 1.
Who protects the fundamental rights? (2008)
The Supreme Court.

Question 2.
The labour below the age of 14 is called? (2012, 15)
Child labour.

Question 3.
The changes in the constitution of any country brought about by the parliament of that country. (2010)
Constitutional Amendments.

Question 4.
Freedom to express views and give speech. (2012)
Right to freedom.

Question 5.
Compulsory service.

Question 6.
Supreme law of country which consists of the fundamental laws for running society and politics of any country. (2011)
Constitution.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

Question 1.
How does air or noise pollution affect health? Explain.
Effect of air pollution: Disturbance of balance among various gases in the air or presence of unwanted gases is known as air pollution. Burning of coal and mineral oil also adds sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere which leads to burning sensation in eyes, burning is throat, respiratory and lung diseases. Air pollution also cause acid rains. The danger of increase in the hole of the ozone layer is also on rise because of air pollution.

Due to the hole in the ozone layer the ultraviolet rays on the earth surface is spreading. As a result the possibility of skin cancer is increasing. It also reduces the immunity of human body.

Effect of noise pollution on health: Any sound that disturbs the mental peace is known as noise pollution. Due to noise pollution man becomes psychic and tense. This increases irritability and headache and also has ill effects on the health of infants.

Question 2.
What do you mean by population explosion? (MP 2010)
Population explosion means sudden increase in the birth rate and decrease in death rate, in any country when the population grows at a rapid rate it is called population explosion. Human lifestyle has improved due to progress in the field of medicine. The fertility and mortality rates have come down. Deaths due to war are decline. As a result mortality rate have unexpectedly gone down and population has gone up.

Question 3.
How does over grazing affects the quality of land?
Excessive intake of vegetation by domestic animals is called over grazing. As a result the vegetation does not grow again very fast in these areas. The ill effect is that layer of vegetation from land is destroyed. Due to soil erosion the danger of desertification on arises. In such areas soil absorbs less water and plants do not get adequate water. Such situation has developed the highlands of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Western Madhya Pradesh.

Question 4.
Show the relation of human being and environment.
Man and environment are dependent on each other. Like man other living beings are also dependent on environment for food, water, air and shelter. Man is dependent on the factors of environment for his physical, cultural, industrial and economic progress. By using the elements of natural environment he has built farms, factories, towns, cities, road railways, dams and canals. Religion, beliefs and practices and culture have all developed on the same basis.

The quality of environment has declined due to human interference with the natural environment. As a result of population growth, urbanization, industrialization, farming, transportation and progress in technology the natural structure has changed. Previously man considered nature as means of life saving but in the modem industrial era he is exploiting his treasure in irrational ways. This has intoxicated the air, water and food.

At some places forests are being of destroyed whereas in other places vegetation is being destroyed. Thousand of pebple are suffering from droughts, floods and land sliding. The stores of natural resources are gradually exhausting. Deserts are increasing and agricultural land is decreasing. Food supply is inadequate to supply for growing population. All these conditions are created by man himself. Man creates imbalance in the environment.

Question 5.
Why is it necessary to protect our Preserve Resources?
Man is completely dependent on natural resources. Man uses land, water, air, forest, minerals etc. in his life. Population is increasing so demand of these natural resources is increasing day by day. Natural resources available on the land are limited but the demand of these resources is very high. Gradually these resources are going to finish and pollution is increasing. That is why it is essential to conserve the resources so that they will be used by us for a longer time.

Question 6.
What will be the effect of carbon dioxide increase in the atmosphere?
Increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will increase the temperature of the atmosphere. As a result the polar ice caps will melt and sea level would rise in near future. There is always danger of submerging the coastal regions.

Question 7.
Radioactive pollution: Radioactive pollution is a curse for modem age. The habitants of Earth are suffering from the hazardous results of atom and nuclear, test explosions, power plants, radioisotope use in medicine, industry and research, etc.

Nuclear tests and weapons of war using nuclear power are the greatest threat to the human race. During explosion, the radioactive substances like Strontium 90, Cesium 137 and Cobalt 60 are produced which are long lived. Strontium 90 can accumulate in bones and causes cancer. It replaces calcium due to which bones become weak. It causes leukemia, bone cancer and other diseases.

Question 1.
What is the relation between man and environment?
Man and environment are dependent on each other. Like man other living beings are also dependent on environment for food, water, air and shelter. Man is dependent on the factors of environment for his physical, cultural, industrial and economic progress. By using the elements of natural environment he has built farms, factories, towns, cities, road railways, dams and canals. Religion, beliefs and practices and culture have all developed on the same basis.

The quality of environment has declined due to human interference with the natural environment. As a result of population growth, urbanization, industrialization, farming, transportation and progress in technology the natural structure has changed. Previously man considered nature as means of life saving but in the modem industrial era he is exploiting his treasure in irrational ways. This has intoxicated the air, water and food.

At some places forests are being of destroyed whereas in other places vegetation is being destroyed. Thousand of pebple are suffering from droughts, floods and land sliding. The stores of natural resources are gradually exhausting. Deserts are increasing and agricultural land is decreasing. Food supply is inadequate to supply for growing population. All these conditions are created by man himself. Man creates imbalance in the environment.

Question 2.
What is Environment? What are its main elements? (MP 2009,11)
By Environment, it is a broad term. It includes all that surrounds us such as air water, flora and fauna.

It also means all those conditions which are necessary for a living being. The main elements of environment are:

1. Natural Environment or Physical.
2. Cultural and Social Environment.

(1) Natural or Physical Environment: Includes all natural elements given by nature. e.g., location, rocks, climate, vegetation, wildlife etc.

(2) Cultural or Social Environment: Develops due to the mutual relationship between man and natural environment. It includes the economic and social activities coated, developed and conducted by man such as farming, industry, rites and rituals, settlements, roads, railways, air services, means of services, government system etc.
Man keeps changing and modifying the environment.

Question 3.
What do you mean by pollution? Explain its kinds. (MP 2013)
Enviionnent pollution is unfavourable altcration of our sunrounding, wholly or largely as a by-product of man’s actions through direct or indirect effect of changes in energy patterns, radiation levels; chemicals and physical constitution and abundance of organism.

Thus, the environmental pollution is that process where the purity of environmental is destroyed.
1. Air pollution: When, some poisonous gases, such as, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, etc. enter into the pure and clear air, then its balance is disturb and the air gets polluted.

The problem of air pollution is worse in the cities and in the metropolitan cities, it has reached the extreme point. Due to poisonous smoke and gases the people have to suffer from many diseases, like – Asthma, skin diseases and eye sight problems. The air pollution has taken place because of increase in industries, chemical, metallurgical, oil refineries, etc. The industrial and domestic consumption of coal, oil and fuel are other sources of sulphur dioxide and harmful smoke. In an estimate, it is found that sixty per cent of air pollution is due to emission of vehicles moving on road network.

2. Soil pollution: With the increase in the world population, the quantity of waste material is also increasing day by day, on account of this the problem of soil pollution takes place.

Polluted air and water affect the pollution of soil because air polluting gases in dissolved form with rain water reach on earth and pollute the soil. Increased use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers has deteriorated the soil.

The soil pollution is of three types:

• Physical soil pollution: Pollution, caused by man and other organism is called physical soil pollution.
• Chemical soil pollution: Polluted air and water combined cause soil pollution because they dissolve in rain water and reach to the earth and pollute soil.

3. Noise or Sound pollution: Man can tolerate the noise around him up to a limit, because the ear also has a limit to capture sound. The sound, which is above that limit is harmful for man. If we define noise as an unwanted sound, then noise pollution is an unwanted sound, having adverse effect upon the people living around. It produces restlessness in man.

The problem of noise pollution is increasing due to industrialization and machines. Noise pollution should be checked otherwise it have disastrous result in future.

4. Radioactive pollution: Radioactive pollution is a curse for modern age. The habitants of Earth are suffering from the hazardous results of atom and nuclear, test explosions, power plants, radioisotope use in medicine, industry and research, etc.

Nuclear tests and weapons of war using nuclear power are the greatest threat to the human race. During explosion, the radioactive substances like Strontium 90, Cesium 137 and Cobalt 60 are produced which are long lived. Strontium 90 can accumulate in bones and causes cancer. It replaces calcium due to which bones become weak. It causes leukaemia, bone cancer and other diseases.

5. Industrial pollution: Industrial pollution means, pollution by mills and factories. Due to their residues (i) Soil pollution, (ii) Water pollution and (iii) Air pollution is increasing. We must devise measures to control the pollution by chimney wastes.

Question 4.
Explain the problem of ozone depletion. (MP 2010)
Ozone Hole: It is about 20-35 km, above the sea level in the atmosphere. This layer absorbs the ultraviolet rays coming from the sun and saves living being on the earth.

Due to excessive use of Chloro Floro Carbon (CFC), in the appliances as refrigerator and use of air conditioner, there is a hole in ozone layer. It was first observed in Antarctica in 1985.

Due to the hole in the ozone layer, the ultraviolet rays on the earth surface is spreading. As a result the possibility of skin cancer is increasing. It also reduces the immunity of the body. Due to decreasing rate of photosynthesis growth of flora and fauna is hampered and forests are drying.

“Carbon dioxide and other heat resistant gases absorb some part of heat and reverse it back to the earth surface. As a result extra heat is stored in the lower atmosphere and its temperature increases called “Global warming.”

Question 5.
What do you mean by resources? Explain the types of resources.
When any physical thing or matter is useful or valuable to man it is called a resource. Nature has given many gifts to man for fulfilment of his needs such as rocks, minerals, soil, rivers plants and animals etc. When these gifts of nature are useful to man they are called resources.

Types of Resources:
1. Natural resources: The resources which are given to us by nature and man’s role in its creation is negligible are called the Natural Resources.
Natural resources are of two types:

• Renewable
• Non-renewable.

(a) Renewable resources: Renewable resources which are recyclable after the use or can be used again e.g., forests, pastures and agricultural land.
(b) Non-renewable resources: Those resources which once exploited cannot be recycled or supplied in the near future such as petroleum, coal.

2. Human resources: Human resources means the resources which are qualities of man. Education and health increase man’s physical and mental capacity. Man himself is major resources who uses the natural elements as resources on the basis of his knowledge, labour and technical know-how.

3. Man made resources: Man made resources are those resources which are produced by man to utilize the physical matters of environment such as machines, buildings, tools etc.

4. Land resources: Land is an important natural resources. Land is used for housing, roads, railways, farming pasture etc.

5. Water resources: Water on the earth surface is obtained through rains, rivers, lakes ponds, glaciers etc. The water is used for irrigation, industry, domestic supply and water transport. For better use of water multipurpose river valley project in prepared.

6. Soil resources: Good soil is essential for the growth of vegetation, the living beings are dependent on plants for their food. The soil formation is a slow process. In the soil formation types of rocks, climate, land slope, type of vegetation have specific contribution. Fertility of soil depends on all these.

7. Forest resources: 30% of the total area of the world is covered by forests. Forest do not grow in dry and snowy areas. Forests have specific importance for us. The trees absorbs Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen, therefore forests are considered as the store house of life giving for all living beings. Forest conserve water and soil. They increase the underground water level.

Question 6.
What is excessive Grazing. What are its ill effects? (MP 2011)
Excessive intake of vegetation by domestic animals is called over grazing. As a result the vegetation does not grow again very fast in these areas. The ill effect is that layer of vegetation from land is destroyed. Due to soil erosion the danger of desertification on arises. In such areas soil absorbs less water and plants do not get adequate water. Such situation has developed the highlands of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Western Madhya Pradesh.

Question 7.
How does the over population affect the human life? Explain.
Population explosion is a major problem of our country. Because of this many problems are arising. They are as follows:
1. Hunger: Because of high population the problem of food is faced by people. Production capacity of our country is less in compare to increase in population. Many people in the world are not getting two meals also in a day. Some of them get meals but they are not nutritious.

2. Problem of housing: People are facing the problem of housing because of increase in population. Many people are living on footpath, railway platform and bus stands. Some people live under the open sheets and huts.

3. Shortage resources: Because of over population people are facing the shortage of resources. Water problem, soil resources are used on large scale because of heavy burden of population on it. Resources are limited which we cannot increase. So population have to be controlled by us.

4. Unemployment: There is a great problem of under employment and unemployment. Wealth is required by man. But because of unemployment problem people cannot earn wealth. Nowadays in every part of the world people are facing the problem of educated unemployment. Sometimes people get the job but not according to their interest.

5. Problem of pollution: Because of high population the problem of pollution is faced by every country of the world. There is a problem of noise pollution, water pollution and soil pollution because of over population. All the metro cities are facing the problem of pollution because of excess burden of people on the earth.

Question 8.
How does the construction of huge dams harmful for environment? Explain with example.
Under the multipurpose river valley project many dams are constructed on big rivers. By these dams various purposes are solved at a time. About 700 dams have been constructed after independence but apart from their advantages there are certain disadvantages also. The harmful effects can be studied under the following heads:

1. Clearing of green plants: Whenever a river valley project is started the construction of houses for the workers, construction of roads, railway and underground tunnels become essential. As a result the greenery of large areas disappears. The artificial pond made from the huge dams drawn forests and farm land. Damodar valley project, Hirakund project are the example of it, where greenery of large area is cleared.

2. Effect on agriculture: Wherever a river valley project in started the artificial pond made from the huge dam drowns the agricultural land also. The alkalinity of the land increases due to water drained from the canals of the dam and its fertility decreases. Due to the prevalence of continuous water in dam and canal area the nearby land become unsuitable for agriculture.

3. Salty water: Nearby dam area the amount of salty water increases. This salty water is not suitable for agriculture and other purposes.

4. Displacement of human settlement: Human settlements are displaced from the dam areas. Many families have to leave their places and settle at other places. Bhakara dam and Pong dam are the best examples of it. For the construction of Sardar Sarovar Dams of Narmada river many families were displaces.

5. High economic cost: The economic cost of dam is very high and their profits are not in proportion to the cost. So it is better to construct lower cost small dam instead of huge dam.

Question 9.
“Centralization of industries is dangerous for environment.” Explain with example. (MP 2009, 15)
Construction of industries on one land is very useful but at the same time centralization of industries in dangerous also. The following problems are there:
1. Air pollution The factories release poisonous gases in the atmosphere. This disturb atmospheric balance and increases air pollution. It causes many diseases.

2. Increase in temperature: Because of smoke of factories the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increase. It increases the temperature of the atmosphere. If this temperature goes on increasing continuously the existence of life on the earth will be over.

3. Ozone layer: Air pollution causes acid rains. The danger of increase in the hole of the ozone layer is also rising because of air pollution. Due to the hole in the ozone layer the ultraviolet rays on the earth surface is spreading. As a result the possibility of skin cancer is increasing.

4. Clearing of forest: Because of industrialization forests are cut. Deforestation is causing less rainfall, increase in temperature. Environmental balance is also getting disturb due to reckless cutting of forest. Content of oxygen is increasing in the atmosphere.

5. Noise pollution: Because of industrialization. Noise pollution is also increasing. Sound of machines and syrans are very harsh and they create sound pollution.

6. Water pollution: Because of industrialization water is also polluted. The polluted water is drained in the rivers which directly influences human health and environment. Damodar and Hugli river have been poisoned by the effluents of surrounding factorises.

Question 10.
What do you mean by water pollution? Describe the increasing river polution in India.
Some unwanted substances in the natural water that reduces its purity is known as water pollution.
Causes of water are many such as industrial effluents, domestic drainage and sewage fertilizers used in agriculture etc.

Main causes of water pollution in rivers are:

• Paper and sugar mills and tanneries drain their wastes into rivers or into open land is a major cause of water pollution.
• Water get polluted by the effluents of coastal cities and by dripping of oil.
• Big industrial units and lot of small factories use the river water and deposit their harmful wastes back into the rivers causing water pollution.

I. Choose the correct alternatives:

Question 1.
Unit of measuring noise is: (MP 2010)
(a) Centimetre
(b) Decibel
(c) Celsius
(d) Millibar
(b) Decibel

Question 2.
Where was the ozone hole observed in 1985?
(a) Australia
(b) Antarctica
(c) Western Europe
(b) Antarctica

Question 3.
City with the highest intensity of noise in the world: (MP 2012)
(a) Mumbai
(b) New York
(c) Rio-de-Janerio
(d) Tokyo
(c) Rio-de-Janerio

Question 4.
Ozone layer is:
(a) 15 km above the earth surface
(b) 5 – 10 km above the earth surface
(c) 75 – 100 km above the earth surface
(d) 32 – 80 km above the earth surface
(d) 32 – 80 km above the earth surface

Question 5.
Main cause of environmental degradation is:
(a) Increase in tourism
(b) Shifting cultivation
(c) Changing nature of land use
(d) All the above.
(c) Changing nature of land use

Question 6.
Population explosion is:
(a) Migration
(b) Equal death rate and birth rate
(c) Crowding
(d) Continuous increase in number of humans
(d) Continuous increase in number of humans

Question 7.
‘Cut and Burn’ is related: (MP 2011)
(a) Shifting cultivation
(b) Tourism and pilgrimage
(c) Mining
(d) Construction of dam
(a) Shifting cultivation

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
God Buddha got the divya gyan under the ……………
Banyan tree

Question 2.
…………… of total area of world is covered by forest.
30%

Question 3.
…………… decibel of sound makes man mad.
140

Question 4.
Unit of …………… is Decibel.
noise

Question 5.
…………… rays on the earth causes skin cancer.
Ultra violet

Question 6.
First of all ozone hole observed in 1985 in area of …………… (MP 2009)
Antarctica.

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Renewable (a) Means of irrigation 2. Natural pollutant (b) Modifying 3. Protection (c) Pasture land 4.  Pollution (d) Insecticide 5. Social environment (e) Preserve 6. The Radio Active substance (f) Rio-De-Janerio.      (MP 2012) 7. The city having highest noise in the world. (g) Cancer       (MP 2011)

1. (c)
2. (d)
3. (e)
4. (b)
5. (a)
6. (g)
7. (f)

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

Question 1.
Organic environment is physical environment.
True

Question 2.
Petroleum is renewable resource.
False

Question 3.
Man and environment is depending on each other.
True

Question 4.
Literary meaning of environment is all that surrounds us.
True

Question 5.
Machine is a man made resource.
True

V. Give answer in one word:

Question 1.
To keep more than one purposes.
multipurpose

Question 2.
One who creates
creater

Question 3.
Capacity to resist a disease.
disease resistant

Question 4.
In take vegetation by domestic animal is called.
excessive grazing

Question 5.
The process of extension of cities is called.
excessive grazing urbanization.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

Question 1.
What are the basic necessities of human life?
The basic necessities of human life are food, clothing and housing.

Question 2.
What is meant by food security?
According to the World Development Report, 1986 “Food security is the availability of adequate food at all times an active and healthy life for all.”

Question 3.
Why has food security become very important in the present Indian situation?
On the one hand our economy is developing while on the other hand our population is also increasing rapidly. So to meet the increasing demand, food security has become necessary.

Question 4.
Mention the famines faced by Indian people.
Indian people faced the following famines in which lakhs of people died of hunger:

• The famine in Orissa of 1835.
• The famine in West Bengal of 1943.

Question 1.
What are the elements included in food security? (2009)
The elements included in food security are as follows:

• Availability of food for the whole population of the country.
• Availability of enough money of purchase the necessary food.
• Food should be available to all the affordable price.
• The quality of the available food should be good.
• Availability of adequate quantity of food grains at all times.

Question 2.
What is the difference between the Kharif and Rabi crops? Explain. (2008, 09, 14)
Kharif Crops:

1. Kharif crops are sown in the month of July.
2. These crops take less time to ripe.
3. Per hectare production is less.
4. These crops are harvested in the month of October.
5. They include rice, millets, maize, cottons, groundnut etc.

Rabi Crops:

1. Rabi crops are sown in the month of October.
2. These crops take comparatively more time to ripe.
3. Per hectare production is more.
4. These crops are harvested in the end of the March or in April.
5. They include wheat, oats, gram, mustard etc.

Question 3.
What is Buffer Stock? Explain. (2008, 09, 11)
If the production of food grain is less, then to face such crisis of shortage and to distribute them through the public distribution system, the stock food grains kept by the government is known as Buffer Stocks. A Buffter stock is the stock of food grains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corpration of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from fanners in states where there is surplus production.

The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for thier crops. This price is called a ‘Minimum Support Price’. The government declares these prices before the sowing season to provide incentives to farmers for raising production of these crops. These food grains are stored in large granaries. It helps in resolving the problem of shortage of food grain during emergencies.

Question 4.
How is the Public distribution system conducted? Explain. (2009)
The public distribution system is regulated by the central and the state government together. The central government allots food grains and other commodities to states and also determines prices. The state has the right to add transportation charge etc. to the prices fixed by the central government. The transportation, collection, distribution and inspection of the goods received under this system is done by the state government. The state government can also include those goods which can purchase in public distribution system.

Question 5.
What is revised public distribution system? Explain.
Or
Write characteristics of revised public distribution system. (2017)
In January 1992 the public distribution system was amended and a revised public distribution system was introduced to supply essential goods to consumers of remote areas, schedule tribes, backward classes, drought affected and mountaineous areas of the country. Its characters are as follows:

(1) Preference is giving to the people of drought affected areas, desert areas, mountaineous area and slums in urban areas.

(2) It is aimed at providing more quantity of food at comparatively low prices. Six other chief essential commodities like tea, soap, pulse, iodized salt are also including in it.

(3) ‘Rojgar Aswasan Plan’ has been started in the development blocks included under this plan, in which 100 days employment can be provided to 18 – 60 years old unskilled labour, so that they are able to earn at purchase food grains through revamped for public distribution system.

Question 6.
What is the role of co-operatives in food security? Explain. (2008, 09)
Or
What is the relation between the food security and co-operative system? (2010)
A co-operative is a form voluntary organisation of people which works for collective interest on the basis of quality, self help and domestic system. In India the role of co-operative is very important in providing food security. This work is done by the consumer co-operative societies through ration shops for the sale of food grain for the poor.

In India, there are different systems of consumer co-operatives at national, state, district and village levels. There are 794 consumer co-operative stores at the central level (wholesale) and 24,078 stores at the primary level.

In rural areas nearly 44,418 village level primary agriculture credit societies are distributing essential goods along with their ordinary business. To fulfil the needs of consumers, consumer co-operatives societies are running nearly 37,226 retail selling centres in urban and semi-urban areas.

The government started a scheme named ‘Sarvpriya’ in July 2000. Under this plan some selected distribution system at selling centres of state consumers co-operative federation distributes and procured cereals from Food Corporation of India (FCI) to the poor sections of the society through ration shops.

Question 1.
Which are the chief food crops of India? Explain. (2008, 14, 15)
Or
Which cereals are known as coarse cereals? Where are these produced? (2011)
[Hint: See titles Jowar, Bajara and Maize for coarse cereals].
Or
In how many parts, the food crops of India may be distributed? (2010)
Major food grains of India: In India different kinds of cereals are grown. India stands third after China and America in the production of food grains. The major food grains of India are described as follow:
(1) Rice: Rice is the staple food of India. It is grown in about 25 percent of the total cultivated area. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. India accounts for 11.4% of the world production.

Important rice growing states in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh and Assam. The production of rice is increasing continuously. In the field of production of rice, the use of high yielding variety of seeds and chemical fertilizers has shown a huge rise in its production. At present India has become not only self sufficient in the production of rice but has also started to export it.

(2) Wheat: In the production of cereals in India the rank of wheat is second after rice. As regards production of wheat, India’s rank is third after China and the United States of America and as regards areas of production India’s rank is fifth in the world. The major wheat producing states of the country are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

(3) Sorghum (Jowar): In India Jowar has been grown from ancient times. It is used as fodder for cattle and as food for human being. In India it is food of the poor. In foreign countries it is used to prepare starch and glucose. In northern India it is a Kharif crop but in southern India it is a crop of Kharif and Rabi both. About 87 percent of the total production of Jowar in the country is produced in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

(4) Bajara: It is a Kharif crop in northen India. In southern India it is a crop of Rabi and Kharif both. It is used as fodder for cattle. India is the largest producer of Bajara in the world. In India the main Bajara producing states are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab. Of the total production of Bajara in the country 96 per cent is grown here.

(5) Maize: Maize is the crop of the plains and mountainous regions. It is used as fodder for cattle and as a food to eat. Man uses its different varieties for food products. In foreign countries, starch and glucose are prepared from this. In India it is grown in nearby all states but mainly it is grown in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Karnataka.

Question 2.
What is food security and why is it necessary? Explain. (2009)
Or
Describe the internal causes of food security. (2013)
[Nore: See title “Internal causes”]
Or
Why is food security necessary? Explain. (2017)
Meaning of food security: Food security is related to the food related needs of man. In simple words food security means availability of nutritive food to all. Also people should have purchasing power (money) for the arrangement and availability of food at reasonable prices. According to the World Development Report, 1986.

“Food security is the availability of adequate food at all times for an active and healthy life for all”. According to the institute for food and agriculture, “Food security ensures availability of basic necessary food for all, physically as well as economically.”

Need of food security: The causes responsible for this can be divided into two parts:

1. Internal causes
2. External causes.

(i) Internal causes: Internal causes include those which are related to the internal conditions of the country. The following factors are included in these:

• Basis of life: India is a country with a large population and the birth rate is also very high. Therefore food security is necessary.
• Low productivity: In India the productivity of food grains per hectare is low. From this point of view also food security is necessary.
• Natural calamities: Other then the problem of the monsoon, flood, insects and pests, cold waves, social erosion etc. also destroy the food crops in some or the other parts of the country.
• Continuously rising price: The prices of food grains are increasing continuously which results in starvation so food security is necessary to overcome this problem.
• Progress of the country: No country can progress without self sufficiency in food production and for this food security is necessary.

(ii) External causes: These include the cause which are related to the relation of other countries with our country. The following are the external causes:
(1) Dependence of foreign countries: If there is a shortage of food, we have to depend on foreign countries. Whenever there is inadequate supply of food grains in our country we have to import even if food grains are costly or cheap, the quality is good or bad. Thus, dependence on foreign countries increases.

(2) Foreign pressure: Countries which supply food grains to other countries become influential and then they force them to follow their policies. These countries dominate those countries which import food grains from them as a result they lose their freedom to decide thier foreign policies. During the frequent emergencies of food grains India experienced that food security is very essential to save people from starvation, to protect self respect, honour and sovereignty and for the development of the country.

(3) Decrease in foreign exchange: Whenever we import things like food grains we have to spend our foreign exchange unnecessarily. We can meet our demand for food ourselves but we cannot. This results in shortage of foreign exchange to purchase very important commodities.

Question 3.
How does government provide food security to the poor? Explain. (2009, 12, 13, 15)
Or
What is the Minimum Support Price? Explain. (2008)
Or
What steps has the government taken to increase food grains? (2008, 09, 12, 16)
Efforts of the Government for Food Security:
Food security system has been developed in India to make food grains available at reasonable price to poor and other people during periods of food crisis arising due to some reason or other or due to natural calamities. The important components of this system are as follows:

(1) Effort to increase food grains: For food security it is important that the production of food grains should be enough in quantity. In this the contribution of the green revolution is quite important. Under the green revolution mechanization of agriculture, use of high yielding hybrid variety of seeds, fertilizers and insecticides and irrigation facilities were extended. Also due to promotion of consolidation of land holdings, abolishing of mediators, today the country has become self sufficient in the field of food grains.

(2) Minimum support price: The prices of agricultural products are very flexible, at the time of harvesting the supply increases due to which there is enough decrease in price. As prices at this time go down below the fixed limit the producer finds it difficult to get the costs of their products. Therefore the government declares a minimum support price for agricultural products, under which when market price of food grains becomes less than it support price, the government starts purchasing food grains on self declared support price. Due to this farmers get inspired to produce more and more and the government procures food grains for ‘Buffer stocks.”

(3) Buffer stocks: If the production of food grains is less, then to face such crisis of shortage and to distribute them through the public distribution system. The stock of food grains kept by the government is known as Buffer stock. This stock is distributed among consumers through ration shops. This helps in resolving the problem of shortage of food grains during emergencies.

(4) The public distribution system: By public distribution system is meant that system in which different consumer goods are sold in sufficient quantity at fixed prices to the consumers specially to the poor sections of society. Availability of necessary goods to the consumers and streamliving the distribution process is the main aim of this system.

Question 4.
What is public distribution system and what are its main constituents? Describe. (2008, 16)
Meaning of the public distribution system: By public distribution system is meant that system in which different goods (wheat, rice, sugar, imported edible oil, coal and kerosene oil etc.) are sold to the consumers specially to the poor sections of the society, through ration shops or co-operative consumer stores.

The profit rate for these sellers are fixed and they have to sell the goods to the ration card holders at a fixed price and in fixed quantities. There are three kinds of ration cards B.P.L. card, A.P.L. card and Antyodaya cards.

B.P.L cards are for people below poverty line, A.P.L cards are for people above poverty line and Antyodaya cards are for the poorest of the poor.

Constituents of the public distribution system:
(i) Ration shops or Fair price shops: The government distributes the procured cereals from Food Corporation of India to the poor sections of society through ration shops. Sugar, cereals, kerosene etc. are distributed to the ration card holders through ration shops which are also known as ‘Fair price shops.’

(ii) Co-operative consumer shop: It is also a part of public distribution system. Besides the necessary goods controlled item are also sold to the consumer through these shops. At these centres all the items are sold at a price lower than the market price.

(iii) Super market: Super markets are established in some big cities. The necessary consumer goods are sold here at fair prices.

Question 5.
Why is the food security necessary? What is the role of co-operatives in food security? (2008)
Why is the food security necessary:
Meaning of food security: Food security is related to the food related needs of man. In simple words food security means availability of nutritive food to all. Also people should have purchasing power (money) for the arrangement and availability of food at reasonable prices. According to the World Development Report, 1986.

“Food security is the availability of adequate food at all times for an active and healthy life for all”. According to the institute for food and agriculture, “Food security ensures availability of basic necessary food for all, physically as well as economically.”

Need of food security: The causes responsible for this can be divided into two parts:

1. Internal causes
2. External causes.

(i) Internal causes: Internal causes include those which are related to the internal conditions of the country. The following factors are included in these:

• Basis of life: India is a country with a large population and the birth rate is also very high. Therefore food security is necessary.
• Low productivity: In India the productivity of food grains per hectare is low. From this point of view also food security is necessary.
• Natural calamities: Other then the problem of the monsoon, flood, insects and pests, cold waves, social erosion etc. also destroy the food crops in some or the other parts of the country.
• Continuously rising price: The prices of food grains are increasing continuously which results in starvation so food security is necessary to overcome this problem.
• Progress of the country: No country can progress without self sufficiency in food production and for this food security is necessary.

(ii) External causes: These include the cause which are related to the relation of other countries with our country. The following are the external causes:
(1) Dependence of foreign countries: If there is a shortage of food, we have to depend on foreign countries. Whenever there is inadequate supply of food grains in our country we have to import even if food grains are costly or cheap, the quality is good or bad. Thus, dependence on foreign countries increases.

(2) Foreign pressure: Countries which supply food grains to other countries become influential and then they force them to follow their policies. These countries dominate those countries which import food grains from them as a result they lose their freedom to decide thier foreign policies. During the frequent emergencies of food grains India experienced that food security is very essential to save people from starvation, to protect self respect, honour and sovereignty and for the development of the country.

(3) Decrease in foreign exchange: Whenever we import things like food grains we have to spend our foreign exchange unnecessarily. We can meet our demand for food ourselves but we cannot. This results in shortage of foreign exchange to purchase very important commodities.

Role of co-operatives in food security: A co-operative is a form voluntary organisation of people which works for collective interest on the basis of quality, self help and domestic system. In India the role of co-operative is very important in providing food security. This work is done by the consumer co-operative societies through ration shops for the sale of food grain for the poor.

In India, there are different systems of consumer co-operatives at national, state, district and village levels. There are 794 consumer co-operative stores at the central level (whole sale) and 24,078 stores at the primary level.

In rural areas nearly 44,418 village level primary agriculture credit societies are distributing essential goods along with their ordinary business. To fulfil the needs of consumers, consumer co-operatives societies are running nearly 37,226 retail selling centres in urban and semi-urban areas.

The government started a scheme named ‘Sarvpriya’ in July 2000. Under this plan some selected distribution system at selling centres of state consumers co-operative federation distributes and procured cereals from Food Corporation of India (FCI) to the poor sections of the society through ration shops.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Kharif crop is: (2013)
(i) Wheat
(ii) Gram
(iv) Oat

Question 2.
Which system has been developed in India to make food grains available at reasonable price to poor and other people during periods of food crisis?
(i) Food-Security System
(ii) Market-Interference System
(iii) Value Stabilising System
(iv) Agriculture Price Policy
(i) Food-Security System

Question 3.
When was the minimum support price policy adopted by the government?
(i) 1960
(ii) 1963
(iii) 1962
(iv) 1965
(iii) 1962

Question 4.
Which of the following is a part of public distribution system?
(i) Footwear shop
(ii) Jewellery shop
(iii) Ration shop
(iv) General store
(iii) Ration shop

Question 5.
Targeted public distribution system is related to:
(i) Women
(ii) People living below the poverty line
(iii) Men
(iv) Children under 14
(iii) Men

Question 6.
Which kind of Ration Card is arranged for the poorest of the poor?
(i) B. P. L. cards
(ii) Antyodaya cards
(iii) A. P. L. cards
(iv) None of these
(ii) Antyodaya cards

Question 7.
How much cereal is given under Antyodaya Anna Yojna? (2014)
(i) 5 kg
(ii) 10 kg
(iii) 15 kg
(iv) 25 kg
(iv) 25 kg

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
The majority of crops in India are dependent on the ………… for agriculture.
monsoon

Question 2.
India is a developing country and its chief occupation is …………
agriculture

Question 3.
India accounts for ………… percent of the world production of rice.
11.4

Question 4.
According to seasons the cereal crops are divided into ………… and ………… (2008)
Rabi and Kharif

Question 5.
The Food Corporation of India was established in …………
1945

Question 6.
India ranks ………… in the world production of rice.
second.

Match the Columns

 A B 1. Card for people above the poverty line (2012) (a) August, 1995 2. Beginning of the Mid Day Meal (b) Ration Card 3. Food Corporation of India (2009) (c) A. P. L. 4. Public Distribution System (2017) (d) 1965 5. Kaam ke Badle Anaj Yojna (e) 13 October, 2004

1. (c)
2. (a)
3. (d)
4. (b)
5. (e)

True/False

Question 1.
Of the total world’s production of rice. India produces less than 10%. (2008)
False

Question 2.
Wheat is Kharif crop. (2010)
False

Question 3.
The government started a scheme named ‘Sarvapriya’ in July 2003. (2011)
False

Question 4.
India ranks third in the production of wheat in the world. (2008, 09)
True

Question 1.
Under which category of cereal wheat, millets and maize come?
Coarse grains.

Question 2.
It is a part of the public distribution system. (2008)
Fair price shop.

Question 3.
Who is called the originator of the Green Revolution?
Norman E. Borlog.

Question 4.
Which type of card is available for the poorest of the poor?
Antyodaya Card.

Question 5.
The crop which is sown in March and harvested in April. (2015)
Rabi crops.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 6 India: Natural Vegetation and Wild Life

Question 1.
Why does India possess a great variety of forest? (MP 2015)
India is a vast country and she possess nearly 47,000 types of species of plants. Natural vegetation depends on climatic conditions, temperature, soil, amount of rainfall and land forms. India possess variety of land forms various types of soils, various amount of rainfall and temperature. So, India possesses a great variety of vegetations.

Question 2.
What is Bio-reserve? Give two names.
Bio-reserve is large area of forests in which special efforts are being made to preserve endangered species of plants, wildlife birds and animals, etc. Such as (i) The first biosphere reserve has been set up in Nilgiri. Its area is 5,500 sq. km. This reserve extends to the bordering regions of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It was set up in 1969. (ii) In 1988, the second biosphere reserve of India was set up in Nanda Devi in Uttar Pradesh.

Question 3.
How does forest affect climate?
Forest maintains ecological balance between various gases. Plants take carbon dioxide and release oxygen, which is a life saving gas. It is helpful in rainfall. It reduces hot temperature and evaporation and makes climatic conditions pleasant. It makes the climatic conditions healthy.

Question 4.
Differentiate the evergreen and deciduous forests.
Difference between Evergreen and deciduous forests:
Evergreen:

1. These forests are found in areas receiving more than 200 cm. of rainfall.
2. They cover the areas of Western ghats, West Bengal, Orissa and U.P.
3. The forests having trees which remain green throughout the year.
4. Such forests are a common feature of equatorial climate.
5. Trees like oat, eucalyptus, mahogany, economic rose wood are common in these.

Deciduous forests:

• The deciduous forests are found in areas receiving rainfall between 75 to 200 cm.
• These are commonly found in M.P., Bihar Chhota Nagpur plateau.
• These are leave shedding forests.
• The deciduous are common in subtropical regions.
• The deciduous forests have value, oak, teak, elm are important teak products.

Question 5.
Why is forest essential for ecological balance?
There is direct relation between forest and ecological balance. Forest make the environment pure and controls the temperature. They are helpful for wildlife and birds because they provide habitat for animals. Bio reserves and Bird Sanctuary is possible only by forest. For ecological balance 33% area should be covered by forest.

Question 6.
Why is ecosystem essential for survival of human bein?
It is essential for the survival of human being because man is directly or indirectly dependent on vegetation and wildlife.

Many elements of Ecosystem are used by human beings for his use. For example he depends on cotton for clothes, soil for growing crops, wood for various purposes. All these he gets from Ecosystem or Ecological system. Thus maintenance of Ecosystem is essential for human being.

Question 7.
Write the causes of destruction of forest.
The main causes are:

• The clearing of forest for agricultural land.
• Forests are cut down for obtaining fuel wood.
• Due to uncontrolled rearing of animals and shifting cultivation method adopted by tribal people forest is destroyed.
• Due to construction of new colonies, industries, roads and rail lines forest are cleared.
• Forest fire and spread of insects destroyed the forest.

Question 8.
Differentiate between National Park and Sanctuary.
Difference between National Park and Sanctuary:
National Park:

1. They are relatively a large area where different ecosystem exists.
2. Exploitation and acquisition could not change this region.
3. For specific scientific educative and recreative interests plants and animal species, with their geomorphological sites and habitats are preserved here.
4. Hunting, grazing and human interference are totally banned in national parks.

Sanctuary:

1. A wild life sanctuary is similar to a national Park but is dedicated to protect wild life and conserve species.
2. Exploitation and acquistion could change this region.
3. Perfection is given only to founa and operation such as harvesting of timber, collection of minor forest product and private ownership right are permitted.
4. Without permission hunting is restricted, but grazing and regular movement of row and other animals is permitted. Human activities are allowed in a sanctuary.

Question 9.
Name the factors that affect the vegetation of an area.
The important factors affecting the vegetation of an area are rainfall, temperature, humidity, soil, and geological structure.

Question 10.
What is meant by ecological system?
The physical environment and the organisms which live there, are collectively called ecological system.

Question 1.
What are the four major natural vegetation zones in India? Give detailed account of monsoon forests in India.
Barring the Himalayan region, the whole country is divided into four main vegetation zones, i.e., (i) The tropical rain forests, (ii) The tropical deciduous forests, (iii) The thorny and shrub forests and (iv) The tidal forests.

1. The tropical rain forests: These forests are found in the region having a rainfall of 200 cm and above. In India they are found on the western slopes of western ghats, the plains of Bengal, Orissa and in the north-east M.P.

Important trees: Ebony, Mahogany, Rose-wood are the important trees of these forests. These trees cannot be completely exploited commercially.

2. The tropical deciduous forests: These forests are generally found all over India, particularly between regions of 75 and 200 cm of rainfall. Economically they are very important. These forests are subdivided into two groups.

(i) Moist deciduous forests: These forests are most common in the northeastern parts of peninsula, i.e., around Chhota Nagpur plateau, East Madhya Pradesh, South Bihar and West Orissa. They are also common along the Shiwaliks in the north.
Important trees: Teak is an important tree here. Other important trees are Bija, Tamarind, Mango, etc.

(ii) Dry deciduous forests: These forests are found in all those regions in India which receive an average rainfall between 75-150 cm.
Important trees: Sal is an important tree. Other important trees are Neem, Mango, Bija, Sheesham, etc.

3. The thorny and shrub forests: These forests are found in the north-western part of the country from Saurashtra in the south to Punjab plains in the north. They are also spread over eastern Madhya Pradesh and south-west Uttar Pradesh. The regions receiving an average rainfall less than 75 cm. The thorns and shrubs found in the desert region.
Important trees: Kikar, Babul, Khair, Date palm, etc.

4. The tidal forests: In the deltas of the Ganga Brahmaputra and other rivers mangrove trees are found. Semdan is a well-known mangrove tree.

Question 2.
Why the conservation of forest essential? Suggest some measures.
Need of conservation of natural vegetation: According to accepted norm for ecological health of a country it should have a forest cover of about 33% of its total area. But in our country, it is only 19.47%. 752.3 lacs hectare land is under the forest cover. Now, present good forests are much more restricted in extent because of the following reasons:

• The clearing of extensive forest areas took place to achieve agriculture land.
• Practice of shifting cultivation.
• Tree: Cutting for timber and fuel.
• Forest lands were cleared for development purposes as for construction of dams, roads, industries and for residence.
• There is mounting pressure of increasing population on our forests. They need more land for agriculture, inhabitation, pastures, etc.
• Desert extends due to absence of forests and heavy floods also occur.
• Heavy soil erosion takes place in absence of forests.

Attempts of conservation of forests: Despite heavy population pressure we have to conserve our forests. It is not enough to conserve them but to regenerate them is essential. For this the following attempts have been made:

• Attempts are made to regenerate forests and grasslands.
• The areas are extended by improved methods of silviculture and planting of fast growing plant species.
• Social forestry has played an important role in the regeneration of vegetal cover in the country. Through observ ation of tree planting weeks and Vanmahotsav.
• Nearly all the states and central territories have imposed prohibition on cutting trees without permission.

Question 3.
Write short note on conservation of wildlife and importance of forest.
Conservation of wildlife: India has an extreme variety of animal kingdom, but with the cutting down of forests the animal species are being abolished day by day. For these reasons special efforts are being made to preserve endangered species of wildlife, time to time census is done to know about the animal population.

To control it the government of India formed national wildlife sanctuary in 1983. There are 13 zones in total. In 1986 first reserve was opened at Nilgiri, again in 1988 another reserve was opened at Nanda Devi in U.P., Nokrek in Meghalaya was the third reserve. Fourth was established in Andaman and Nicobar islands. Now the country has 63 national parks, 358 wildlife sanctuaries and 35 zoological gardens covering 1,30,000 sq. km.

Question 4.
Forests play an important role in the country. Explain.
Or
Forest is known as the wealth of nation. Explain.

• Forests play an important role in the country’s economy. They are generally divided into two categories, t.e., major product and minor product.
• Wood is one of the major products used as fuel or as timber, for building houses, bridges, railway sleepers, furnitures, packing paper, cellulose, sal and teak are the two important ones.
• Bamboos are used for making pulp. Rosewood is used for furniture and decorative pieces of wood carvings. Sandalwood is also used for decorative purpose.
• Our forests provide a large number of major products, they include lac, resins, gums, herbs, fodder etc. Charcoal is also obtained from it.
• The forests constitute an important part of our environment. They keep it free from pollution.
• Many industries are based on forests as they yield raw materials.
• Forests affect the climate of a place. Rainfall is caused due to forest only. They keep the places cool and pleasant.
• Soil erosion is checked by the roots of the plants.
• Forest keeps the atmosphere free from pollution carbon dioxide produced by the factories is consumed by the forest.
• From the commercial point of view also forests are very important, they are helpful in developing economy.

Question 5.
Classify forest on the basis of altitude or height.
Or
What is the effect of height on the mountain regions for spread of vegetation?
Altitude is an important consideration in the distribution of vegetation in mountainous regions, as temperature decreases with increasing altitude. They are divided into four regions.

1. Tropical deciduous forest: The Shiwaliks, the foot hills of Himalayas are clothed with tropical, moist, deciduous flora. Sal and bamboo are the important species.

2. Evergreen forest: Heights ranging from 1000-2000 metres above sea level. Trees are broad leaved, here it rains heavily. Trees of oaks, chestnuts, apples are common, whereas chir and chil trees dominate.

3. Coniferous forests: These are about 1600 to 3000 metres above sea level, grow in temperate regions and drier climate of the Himalayas, i.e., pine, cedar, silver fir are important species.

4. Alpine forest: The forest about 3600 metres above sea level is called Alpine forests. They also consist of birches and junipers, silver firs, pines. Alpine forests give way to Alpine grasslands through shrubs and scrub.

Question 6.
Write three indirect advantage of forest.

• The forests constitute an important part of our environment. They keep it free from pollution.
• Many industries are based on forests as they yield raw materials. For all the able advantages of forests is called ‘Treasure of India’.
• Soil conservation is possible by forests. Thus, flood is controlled by forest.
• Forests help in attracting clouds and cause rainfall.
• Forests help to reduce desert areas and swamy areas. It provides humus to soil.
• Forest make the climatic conditions healthy.
• It provides shelter for animals.

I. Choose the correct alternatives:

Question 1.
State with minimum forest area in India is: (MP 2011)
(a) Assam
(b) Rajasthan
(c) Jharkhand
(d) Haryana
(b) Rajasthan

Question 2.
Sundari trees are found in: (MP 2010)
(a) Tropical forests
(b) Himalayan forests
(c) Mangrove forests
(d) Tropical deciduous forests
(c) Mangrove forests

Question 3.
Natural vegetation of Rajasthan is: (MP 2009)
(a) Tropical moist evergreen forests
(b) Tropical moist semi evergreen
(c) Tropical thorny forest
(d) Alpine forest
(c) Tropical thorny forest

Question 4.
Natural habitats reserved for Indian lion is: (MP 2012, IS)
(a) Gujarat Gir forest
(b) Kaziranga forest area of Assam
(c) Sundarvan of west Bengal
(d) Nilgiri forest area
(a) Gujarat Gir forest

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
In M.P. ………………. of total area is covered by forest.
30%

Question 2.
In India wildlife protection Act was passed in …………………. (MP 2011)
1972

Question 3.
Tiger development programme was started in …………………..
1973

Question 4.
The natural habitat of lion in the country is the ………………………. forest of Gujarat. (MP 2010)
Ghir

Question 5.
Crocodile breeding and management project was started in ……………………….
1975

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Bay of Bengal (a) Shivpuri 2. Nanda Devi (b) Mandala 3. Sundervan (MP 2012) (c) Tamil Nadu 4. Kanha (d) W. Bengal 5. Madhav (MP 2012) (e) Uttranchal 6. Bandhavgarh (f) Umariya 7. Van Vihar (g) Bhopal

1. (c)
2. (e)
3. (d)
4. (b)
5. (a)
6. (f)
7. (g)

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

Question 1.
Natural vegetation can be divided into four parts.
False

Question 2.
Wild bears are the animals of mountains.
True

Question 3.
Forest is essential for human life.
True

Question 4.
Forest is not the source of natural balance.
True

Question 5.
There are 14 Biosphere Reserve set up in different regions of the country.
True

V. Give answer in one word:

Question 1.
Known as terror of Bengal. (MP 2015)
Jal kumbhi

Question 2.
The birds coming for short-period. (MP 2012)
Migratory birds

Question 3.
Programme encouraging plantation of trees.
Social forestry

Question 4.
The forest which is green forever.
Evergreen forest

Question 5.
The movement to conserve the endangered species of tiger.
Project tiger

Question 6.
Wet and Marshy area near bhabhar where dense forests and variety of wild life exists. (MP 2010)
Tarai

Question 7.
Natural habitat reserved for Indian lion is. (MP 2009)
Gujarat Gir forest

Question 8.
State with minimum forest area in India is. (MP 2009)
Haryana

Question 9.
Heavy trees, which shed their leave during a particular season of the year. (MP 2011)
Deciduous forest

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 13 Election

Question 1.
What do you mean by political party?
Political party is that party which helps to express public opinions. This party works hard for the nation on the path of democracy. R.G. Gettel says – ‘A political party consists of a group of citizens, more or less organized, who act as a political unit and who, by the use of their voting power, aim to control the government and carry out their general policies.’

Thus, a political party is an organized group of people who stands for certain principles and policies and a clear political programme. A political party is an organized body of citizens who share the same political views and principles (or ideology) to promote public interests and try to control the government.

Question 2.
Explain the meaning of general election and write its importance.
Meaning: The elections to the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha held on the basis of Adult Franchise are called General Elections.

Importance: General elections are important because of the following reasons:

• General elections are important in democracy because it provides an opportunity to the voter to elect or reject the representatives.
• It makes the largest participation of people in choosing their representatives.
• On the basis of Adult Franchise a person can cast his vote and elect or reject the independent candidate.
• By voting the voters show his judgement regarding the candidate.

Question 3.
Describe the formation of Election Commission.
The election commission is an independent body. It is headed by the Chief Election Commissioner and other two Election commissioners. Their appointments are governed by the law passed by the parliament. The Chief Election Commissioner cannot be removed from office by the president unless his misbehavior is proved or incapacity is passed by each house of parliament by an absolute majority.

The election commission consists of the chief election commissioner, two other election commissioners and election commissioner for regional level.

Question 4.
What do you mean by Adult Franchise (MP 2015)
In India every citizen who is 18 years old has right to vote. It is called Adult Franchise. Thus right of voting above the age of 18 without any discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, language and religion is known as Adult Franchise.

Adult means to complete a particular age. This age is different in various countries. For example in England and U.S.A. the age of adult is 18 while in Holland Denmark and Japan it is 25 years, In Norway it is 23 years. Before 1988 in India this age was 21 years but after the amendment of 1989 it became 18 years. In other words the person who has completed 18 years has right to vote.

Question 5.
Who decides the inabilities of MPs and MLAs and what is the process applied?
Whether any member is qualified for parliament or assembly or not any such decision is taken by the President or Governor at the suggestion of the election commission.

Question 6.
Why election symbols are allotted to parties?
Or
What is the role of election symbol in the elections?
Every political party is allotted a specific and easily identifiable election symbol. The Election Commission allots one election symbol to every political party. It helps the voter to locate the name of the candidate of his choice at the time of marking the ballot paper. This is of great help to the illiterate voters. A symbol of the party’s choice is accepted by the commission ensures that there is no resemblance or ground for confusion in any of the symbols thus allotted.

Question 7.
Write the characteristics of political parties. (MP 2012)
Characteristics of political parties:

• To maintain clear identity.
• To opine clearly regarding policy matters.
• To create public opinion is support of its policy.
• Registration in election commission.
• United and governed by one code.
• Main aim is to win election for obtaining power.
• To create public opinion against antipublic policies by keeping an eye on ruling party.
• An election symbol for identity.

Question 8.
In election procedure counting is the important step explain.
In election procedure counting is the most important step:
All ballot boxes and electronic voting machines are collected on a fixed date. Counting takes place in front of district election officer. The candidate who attains maximum number of votes is declared elected. The elected candidate is the representative of his area. After the result of election are declared the elected candidate gets a certificate of winning the election through the district election officer.

The aim of election commission is to conduct impartial and independent elections. On the day of election public holiday is declared so that all citizens got an opportunity to cast vote. On the day of election all liquor shops of that area are closed so that any candidate cannot allure the voters. Special security arrangements are made so that nobody scares or threaten the voters.

Question 9.
Explain the role of opposition parties in the Indian politics. (MP 2009)
The parties which are not in government are called parties of opposition. The work of the opposition is no less important than the ruling party.

In a democracy, the opposition parties also have a very important task. The party which fails to be the majority group in the house, sits in the Legislature as an opposition party. In democracy, it establishes control over finance also.

• (i) It can also hold discussions on budget and also have a right to criticize it
• It is the opposition’s duty to ensure that the government does not take authoritarian measures or disregard the rights of the citizens
• The opposition can also criticize the working and policies of the government
• It keeps the government under restraints
• Opposition members take the advantages of the question hour to criticize the government in general terms
• The opposition also contributes to democratic government plans and projects by the way of exposing defects.

Question 10.
Write the functions of Election Commission. (MP 2008, 09, 10, 12)
Functions of Election Commission – The important functions of Election Commission are the following:
(1) Delimitation of the constituencies: Demarcation of the area of each constituency is an important function of Election Commission. After every 10 years on the basis of population, demarcation of the area of constituency is done.

(2) Preparation of electoral rolls: The Election Commission prepares a list of citizens who are eligible to vote in accordance to the respective polling booth before every election. This is called electoral roll.

(3) Allotment of Election symbols: The election symbols of national and regional political parties are fixed and reserved by the Election Commission. The election symbols of independent candidates are also fixed by the Election Commission.

(4) Registration and recognition of political parties: Registration of political parties and to give recognition as national or regional parties to them on the basis of obtained votes in the last elections of Parliament or Legislative Assembly are the functions of the Commission. The Election Commission takes due care for strict compliance of the election rules.

(5) Holding impartial elections: The Election Commission makes arrangements and efforts for holding free and impartial elections. The instructions regarding time of election, date, Stamp, voting symbols, counting, result etc. are given by the Election Commission.

Question 11.
Differentiate between Mid-term and bi-election. (MP 2010)
Mid-term Election: If the Lok Sabha or State legislative assembly are dissolved before their tenure is over then the elections which take place are called mid-term election.

Bi-election: In any area, if any post is vacant due to the resignation or death or any candidate then such elections are bi-election.

Question 12.
What is the importance of counting election process? (MP 2010)
All ballet boxes and electronic voting machines are collected on a fixed date. Counting takes place in front of district election officers. The candidate who attains maximum, number of votes is declared elected. The elected candidate is the representative of his area. After the results of election are declared the elected candidate gets a certificate of winning the election through the district election officers.

Question 13.
What is an electoral roll? State its uses. (MP 2009)
Preparation of electoral rolls is an important function of the election commission the election commissions prepares a list of citizens who are eligible to vote in accordance to the respecting polling booth before every citizen. This is called “Electoral roll”. The names of the citizens who have attained the age of 18 years is included in the new list and some names of the persons are removed from the list who the electocal roll is also known as have either left the constituency or expired.
“Voters List”

Question 14.
What is National Political Party? Write. (MP 2011)
National Political Party is one which has equal effect in whole country. The party symbol of such parties is identical in the whole country. Although a party is a national party but it does not mean that it will have equal popularity in every state. The influence of national parties varies from state to state. To be recognised as a national political party, any one of the following conditions should be fulfilled:

Any political party which obtains at least 6% seats in the election of Parliament or Legislative Assembly, or if any political party obtains at least 2% of total seats of the parliament and this place should be minimum in this states.

Question 15.
What do you mean by election? States its importance in our country.
Or
What is the administration system in our country? State the importance of election in this system.
Meaning and need of Election – We have adopted the parliamentary type of the government in our country. In this type of government, the elected representatives from the government. The people participate in the government through election. Election is a process in which citizen of a country elect their representatives are elected for a fixed period.

The people of our country exercise their political power by participating in election. India is large and multilingual country. In our country, every citizen has equal right to participate in the election of representatives (without any discrimination). Thus system of franchise.

India has adopted secret suffrage system. In India, Election commission has been constituted for holding free and impartial election.

Question 1.
Explain the election procedure in brief.
The election procedure in India runs through several stages as directed by law. The stages are as follows:
1. Preparation of election rolls: New electoral rolls are prepared by the election commission before every election. This is necessary because some names have to be removed from the list due to transfer, death etc.

2. Notification: The process of election begins with the notification of election. For election of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, such notification is issued by the President. After consultation with the Election Commission this notification is published in the gov¬ernment gazette.

3. Nomination papers: After the publication of the notification, the Election commission announces the dates for filling the nomination papers, scruting of these nominations and the withdrawal of the nominations. The last date for the withdrawal is fixed. If any candidate decides not to contest election, he can now withdraw his nomination.

4. Allotment of the election symbol: Political parties have election symbols re¬served for them. Every political party is allotted a specific symbol which helps the voter to locate the name of the candidate of his choice at the time of marking the ballot paper. This is a great help to illiterate voters.

5. Election campaign: Election campaign is the most important stage in the whole election process. This stage is the most decisive aspect of the entire election process. There are certain definite guidelines also for campaign. Election commission fixes dates for the formal beginning and conclusion of the election campaign. Through campaign, the political party issues its manifestos. The campaign closes 48 hours before the time fixed for closing the polling on the polling day.

6. Polling: The polling station has a staff of five to six persons. They include a presiding officer, three or four officers and messenger. Polling takes place between specific hours on a fixed date. On a due date, voters go to cast their votes.

7. Counting votes and declaration of results: After the voting is over, the ballot boxes are sealed and taken to the counting centres. Counting of votes takes place in the presence of the candidates concerned on a fixed date and time. The counting of vote is generally organized under the supervision of the district.

Question 2.
Describe the functions of the Election Commission.
There are many important functions which are carried away by the Election Commission. They are as follows:
1. Delimitation of the constituencies: The increase in population and consequent changes in the number of seats necessitates fresh delimitation of constituencies. This is done by a delimitation commission set up under the supervision of the Chief Election Commissioner.

2. Preparation of electoral rolls: New electoral rolls are prepared by the Election Commission before every election. This is necessary because some names have to be removed due to transfer, death, etc.

3. Allotment of the election symbol: Election commission allots one election symbol to every electoral party. It helps the voter to locate the name of the candidate of his choice at the time of marking the ballot-paper.

4. Recognition to political parties: The Election commission gives recognition of the political parties. It also lays down the criterion for recognition.

5. Holding of elections: The elections of parliament, the State Vidhan Sabha and the offices of the President and Vice-president are conducted under the supervision of the Election commission.

Question 3.
Explain the main defects of the Indian election system or electoral system. (MP 2010)
Following are the defects in Indian electoral system:
1. Lack of complete participation of voting: The aim of universal Adult Franchise is to make every citizen participate in the government indirectly. We have seen that a large number of voters do not exercise their right to vote in the parliamentary and state legislative elections. Therefore the elected candidate getting maximum votes does not represent the public. Therefore participation of all citizen in franchise is desirable.

2. Use of money in elections: The increasing expenses in elections is a big problem. For every election ceiling on election expenses is fixed but a money is spent by the candidates. Therefore sometimes due to lack of money honest and wise person are not able to contest the election. The use of money in elections is an immoral act on the part a person, which is a very serious problem from the point of view reformation in election system.

3. Influence of muscle power in election: Sometimes the candidates try to win the election by any type of means. For this they take help of criminals also. Often with the use of muscle power, booth capturing is restored to and voters are made to vote in one’s favour by threatening them or illegal voting is exercised.

4. Misuse of government machinery: Before the time of election charming promises being done by the ruling party. During the elections, high officials are transferred and government, money and vehicles and other means are misused. They also try influence the election officers. All these influence the unbiasedness of elections.

5. Number of independent candidates: Sometimes there are too many numbers of candidate in the elections. This creates problems to the election management. Thus too many independent candidates enter the election area and confuse the voters.

6. To influence the sentiments of the voters: At the time of election some candidates try to influence the sentiments of the voters on the basis of religion, caste, region and language. Political parties select their candidates on the basis of caste. The biggest defect of the Indian election system is to influence the election by provoking the sentiments of the public.

7. Fraud franchise: Some times some persons vote in place of other persons, to include ones name in more than one electrol roil casting of vote without the inclusion of his name in the electrol roll etc. all are hypothetical franchise. This is also a big problem of our election system.

8. Other defects: The name of the citizen should compulsorily be included in the electrol roll to vote for a candidate in an election. We often see that several names of the voters are not included in the electrol roil while the names of persons who have left that constituency or have expired are not deleted from the electrol rolls. The political parties do not create awareness among the people. Too many numbers of voters on one voting booth is also a cause of problem.

Question 4.
What is the role of political parties in democracy?
Or
Write the main functions of political parties. (MP 2012)
These are the functions of political parties:

• Runing of the government: The political party that gets the majority votes forms the Government and takes responsibility of functioning of the government.
• Link between the government and the people: Political parties acts as a link between the government and the people. It explain the policies of the government to the people and keep the government in touch with the public opinion.
• Conduct of election: Election to the legislatures and to several high offices are held on party lives. Political parties select their candidates for elections.
• Mouding of public opinion: Political parties acts as the transmitters of ideas and opinion to social needs. Political parties provide political education to citizens and make them aware of social problems.

I. Choose the correct alternatives:

Question 1.
Out of these, whom adult Franchise can be granted:
(a) Minor male and female
(b) Only male
(d) Only female

Question 2.
Who does not have right to vote:
(a) Insave or mentally handicapped
(b) Minor age group
(c) Declared bankrupt
(d) Above all
(d) Above all

Question 3.
In India election procedure is said to have started after which the following:
(a) After filing of nomination paper by candidate.
(c) After beginning of campaigning
(d) By organising public meeting.

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
In our country …………. system is there.
parliamentary

Question 2.
In election commission …………. members are there. (MP 2015)
three

Question 3.
In India there are …………. types of political parties.
tliree

Question 4.
In election commission more than …………. parties and registered parties are there.
750

Question 5.
After the …………. of election commission declares election programme.

Question 6.
…………. is a process in which citizens of a country elect their representatives. (MP 2011)
Election

Question 7.
The office of the Indian election commission is at …………. (MP 2010)
New Delhi.

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Duration of election commissioners (a) Opposition parties 2. Right of voting (MP 2012) (b) Delhi 3. Party which does not get majority (c) 6 years 4. Office of the election commission (d) Prime Minister 5. Leader of the majority party (MP 2012) (e) 18 years

1. (c)
2. (e)
3. (a)
4. (b)
5. (d)

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

Question 1.
Mad person has right to vote.
False

Question 2.
In India multiple system of party is there.
True

Question 3.
President decides the dates of general election.
False

Question 4.
In India for voting secrete system of voting is adopted.
True

Question 5.
In election y part is reserved for women.
True

Question 6.
The Prime Minister appoints the chief election commissioners. (MP 2009)
False

V. Give answer in one word:

Question 1.
The person who use vote or caste vote.
Voter

Question 2.
Voters of a specific geographical area, who elects a representative for that area. (MP 2015)
Polling area

Question 3.
List of citizens who are eligible to vote.
Electoral rolls

Question 4.
Elects the election commissioner in our country.
President of India

Question 5.
Election symbols are fixed by.
Election commission

Question 6.
What is period of the election commissioners. (MP 2009)
6 years

Question 7.
Political parties not getting majority. (MP 2011)
Opposition party.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Question 1.
What are the main economic challenges before India? (2011, 14)
The major economic challenges before India are poverty, rapidly increasing, population, unemployment, rapidly increasing prices i.e., problem of price rise, regional imbalance and increasing economic disparities, lack of basic facilities and food shortage etc.

Question 2.
What is meant by poverty line? (2016)
According to the Indian Planning Commission, those people are considered below poverty line who are unable to obtain nutrition of 2400 calories per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per day in urban area.

Question 3.
What do you mean by under-employment? (2010, 15, 17)
When a person does not get a job according to his efficiency and works below the level of his ability and efficiency then it is categorized as under-employment.

Question 4.
Mention the names of three states of India having the largest population of poorer. (2014)
Bihar, Orissa and Sikkim.

Question 5.
Write about the social causes responsible for poverty. (2010, 13, 16)
People of India spend a big amount of their income on various ceremonies like, birth, death and marriage etc. It decreases savings and increases indebtness. Apart from this, ignorance, fatalism, a conservative attitude are also the causes of poverty in India.

Question 6.
What is the capacity of production of the cement factories established in India?
At present there are 190 big cement plants which have 324.9 million tonnes production capacity. Apart from these, there are 360 small scale cement factories having a production capacity of 111 lakh tonnes.

Question 7.
Mention the agro based industries in India. (2008, 13)
Textile industry, sugar industry, paper industry, jute industry, vegetation industry are the agro based industry in India.

Question 8.
To which countries does India export glass manufactured goods?
India exports glass manufactured goods to Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Afghanistan, Quwait, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Myanmar and Malaysia.

Question 9.
Which states in India are important for the production of silk?

• Kashmir Valley
• East Karnataka and plateau and hilly regions of Tamil Nadu
• Hugh region of West Bengal
• Mountainous regions of Assam

Question 10.
What do you mean by disguised employment? (2015)
Disguised employment: The employment seen in the field of agriculture indicates to the zero marginal productivity of the labour. It means if these laboures are transferred elsewhere from agriculture yet it does not affect the productivity of agriculture adversely directly or indirectly.

Question 11.
Which countries are the major buyers of the lac products from India?
The major buyers of the lack products from India are China, America, Russia and Britain. Apart from these Germany, Brazil, Italy, France and Japan are also important buyers.

Question 1.
How does the growth of population increase poverty? Explain. (2008, 09, 12, 13, 15)
The rapid growth of population is a major cause for increasing poverty. Population growth adversely affects the consumption level of poor and their economic conditions becomes more worse. Increasing population leads to low per capita income and low standard of living.

Low per capita income results in low saving and less demand for consumer articles. As a result capital formation and speed of development decreases. Thus the problem of poverty becomes more complex.

Question 2.
“India is a rich nation but its citizens are poor.” Explain this statement. (2008, 09)
Often it is said about India that India is a rich nation but its residents are poor. India is a wealthy nation but the second part of the statement infers that Indians are poor. Let us understand the irony of this situation.

India is a rich nation: From ancient times India has been considered a geographically and culturally rich nation. Here natural resources are in abundance for development. India’s geographical area is very vast, natural resources are good, climate is favourable, forest wealth is in adequate quantity, essential resources of energy are also available in adequate quantity and human power is also enough. Therefore it is true that India is a rich nation.

The citizens of India are poor. As compared to the developed countries the per capita income in India is very low. According to the recent data the population of poor people living below the poverty line in India is 19.3 percent. There are about 5 crore unemployed people in India. Due to low income and unemployment the standard of living of the Indian people is also very low.

Thus in spite of India being rich in the resources, Indians are poor.

Question 3.
What is Antyodaya Anna Yojna? Write. (2009, 12, 15, 17)
Antyodaya Anna Yojna: It was launched on 25th December, 2001. The main objective of this scheme is to provided food grains to the people living below the poverty line, who are included under the targeted public distribution system. In this scheme 35 kilograms of cereal per month is distributed to 1-50 crore poor families on special concessional prices. The central issue prices of wheat and rice under this scheme are Rs. 2 and Rs. 3 per kilogram respectively.

Question 4.
Mention the main characteristics of the Employment Guarantee Programme, 2005. (2008, 09, 11, 12, 15)
Characteristics of the Employment Guarantee Programme, 2005

• This scheme was implemented in 200 most backward districts of the country.
• Its main aim is to provide 100 days employment every year to at least one adult of each rural or urban poor and low income family.
• Under this programme, it is necessary to provide employment to an applicant within 15 days.
• If employment is not provided within due time than an unemployment allowance will be given to the concerned person.
• The allowance would be at least one third of the minimum wages.

Question 5.
What is meant by bad cycling (dushchakra) of poverty? (2008, 11)
Meaning of vicious cycle (bad cycling) of poverty: The vicious cycle of poverty is such a cyclic process which, both starts and ends at poverty.

According to Prof. Nurkse, “Vicious cycle of poverty means such powers moving on circular path like planets which act and react on each other in such a way that the country remains in the state of poverty.”

Characteristics of the vicious cycle of poverty:

• The cause and result of poverty is poverty itself.
• Poverty moves from its starting and end point acting and reacting on a circular path.
• Its effcet is cumulative that is, poverty found on one level becomes more harmful at another level.
• It is such a continuous process which shifts the related components down.

According to Prof. Nurkse, the point to be noted in this context is that the lowest level of the actual income is the cause and result of the lowest level of the demand and consumption of commodities. The effect of the decrease in actual income is on the demand of the commodities and the saving of the people.

Question 6.
What are the bases to measure poverty? (2008, 09, 16)
Or
Write the differences between absolute poverty and relative poverty. (2011, 12)
Measurement of poverty: Two criteria are generally used to measure poverty. First absolute poverty and second relative poverty.

Absolute poverty: Absolute poverty is the inability to afford the basic amenities (food, clothing and health). All those people living below poverty line are included under it.

Relative poverty: It means disparity of income. It implies international economic inequalities and regional economic disparities. The National Sample Survey Organization measures the population living below poverty line in India from time to time (generally five years).

Question 7.
Describe the condition of main cottage industries of India. (2009, 14)
Cottage Industries of India
(1) Silk industries: It is an agro-based industry. From the very beginning the silk industry has been one of the major industries of India. At present of the total production of silk in the world 17 percent is produced in India. This industry provides employment to 58 lakh people. For encouraging this industry. “The Central Silk Board” was established in the year 1949.

(2) Lac industry: India is a major producer of lac. Before 1950, India was the only country where lac was cleaned but today this work is also done in Thailand. It has affected the Indian lac industry. Earlier 85 percent of the total world production of lac was produced by India which at present has been reduced to 50 percent. In India the maximum lac is produced in the plateau of Chhota Nagpur.

Out of the total production of lac in the world 50 percent of lac is produced in India. Apart from this Chhatisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Orissa, Gujarat and Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh are major centres of production. This industry provides employment to about 10,000 people of the country.

(3) Glass industry: As a cottage industry it is located mainly at Firozabad and Belgaon. There are more than 225 small and big factories of glass in Firozabad, which manufactures bangles. In Etah, Shikohabad, Fatehabad and Hathras also it is run as cottage industry.

Question 8.
Information and technology industry is the faster growing industry of India. Explain. (2008, 09, 13, 14)
The information technology industry is an industry based on technology with the help of computers and its applications, communication, technology and concerned software. The knowledge reaches through means of communication and equipment. It is a knowledge based industry.

In India, the development of information technology is recent, but it is growing rapidly. However, enormous efforts are required for making it competitive with developed countries. In India this industry developed after the International Treaty of 1994. In 2000-01, this industry earned Rs. 33,138 crore rupees which increased to 5,15,536 crore, in the year 2012-13. Its contribution in the gross domestic product is approximate 8 percent in the year 2013. It shows that this is the fastest growing industry of India.

Question 9.
What is the condition of state wise population of India below poverty line? Explain. (2016)
Statewise poverty in India: The extent of poverty in various states of India is not uniform. According to the report issued by Planning Commission in September 2005, Dang (Gujarat) is the poorest district in India. Banswada district of Rajasthan is second and third is Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh.

The estimated situation of poverty in the year 2011-12 in different states is shown in the table.
Percentage of statewise population below poverty line in india

 State/Union Territories 2011 – 12 Andhra Pradesh Bihar Gujarat Haryana Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh (non-divided) Maharashtra Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal 9 – 20 33 – 7 16 – 6 11 – 2 20 – 9 7 – 1 31 – 7 17 – 4 32 – 6 8 – 3 14 – 7 11 – 3 29 – 4 20 – 0 Whole India 21 – 9

According to the above table the numbers of people living below the poverty line in India is maximum in Bihar, Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.

Question 10.
Write a note on the cotton textile industry. (2008, 09)
Cotton textile industry: This is, oldest and main industry of India. The first cotton mill in India was setup in 1818 in Kolkata. This is the largest and most extensive industry of India. Its contribution to the total industrial production of the country is 14 percent, whereas its share in the gross export is 19 percent. Its share in imports is 3 percent.

The cotton textile industry is mainly localised in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat. The capital investment is this industry is about 5,000 crore rupees. This industry is providing employment directly or indirectly to 9 crore people. The Government has freed cotton industry from license through the cloth order of 1993.

Question 11.
Which articles are produced by the leather industry of India?
This is a traditional industry. There are several things which are made of leather such as coats, jerseys, purses, playing material, toys, monkey caps, belts, hand gloves, shoes, footwear etc.

The majority of the leather goods in the country are produced in Tamil Nadu, Kolkata, Kanpur, Mumbai, Aurangabad, Kolhapur, Dewas, Jalandhar and Agra. Out of the total production of leather goods 75 percent is produced by small scale and cottage industries.

Question 12.
Write a note on the Indian Glass industry. (2009)
Glass industry: The glass industry is a very old industry of India but modernised development of the glass industry started after the second world war only. At present in this industry, glass is being produced by modern and latest technology. At present out of 56 big factories of glass 15 are modem factories which manufacture high quality of glass goods, completely with the help of machines.

It is centralised as a modem industry in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Orissa. The maximum number of factories in the country are situated in West Bengal. India exports manufactured glass goods to Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Afghanistan, Quwait, Iran, Greece, Saudia Arabia, Burma and Malaysia etc.

Question 13.
Explain the condition of the paper industry in India. (2009)
Paper Industry: In India the art of paper making by hand developed in the ancient times. The first modem mill was set up at Bali near Kolkata in 1870. At present there are several paper mills in India among which the chief are National News Print and Paper Mills Limited (Nepanagar, Madhya Pradesh) and Security Paper Mill (Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh). At Present there are 515 paper mills in the country.

The contribution of small and medium units is 50 percent of the total product. At present in India, around 15 lakh people are employed in this industry. India ranks twentieth in the world in the production of paper. The turnover of this industry is about Rs. 16,000 crores and it contribution in national revenue in Rs. 2,500 crore.

Question 14.
What is meant by poverty? (2010)
Meaning of poverty: Scarcity of wealth is the reason of poverty. The poor economic condition of some people does not lead to poverty but when a majority of the people of a society are unable to fulfil the minimum requirements of life then this situation is known as poverty. If essential facilities of housing, clothing and food are not available to the majority of people of a society then it is called a situation of poverty.

Question 1.
What are the reasons responsible for poverty in India? (2008)
Or
Describe any two reasons of poverty in India. (2008)
Causes of poverty in India: The following are the main causes of poverty in India:
(1) Rapid growth of population: The population in India is increasing rapidly. As regards population, India ranks 2nd in the world. Every year about 1.81 crores people are added to the existing population in India. According to the census of 2001 the annual growth of population in India during the decade 1991-2001 was 1.93. It leads to low per capita income and consumption and low standard of living. It promotes poverty.

(2) Unemployment: Unemployment in India is widespread. According to an estimate there are about 5 crore unemployed people in India. The number of unemployed persons is increasing continuously, which is an important factor for poverty. In rural areas disguised unemployment also exists along with unemployment and seasonal unemployment. The increasing number of unemployed people decrease the productivity of individuals and the standard of income.

(3) Low per capita income: In India poverty is expanding because of low per capita income. As compared to the developed countries of the world, the per capita income in India is very low. According to the report of the World Bank of the year 2004, the per capita income in India is only 480 dollars (about Rs. 24000/- p.a.). Low per capita income is the chief reason of poverty in India.

(4) Inflation and price rise: A huge amount of wealth is spend on the accomplishment of the development tasks. It generates inflationary pressure on the economy and the prices start increasing. As a result the problem of poverty becomes more severe.

(5) Use of natural resources: Minerals, forests wealth and human resources etc. in India are in abundance. But till now they have not been used in a proper way. The under utilization of natural resources is also a reason of poverty.

(6) Uncertainty in agriculture: Indian economy is based on agriculture, which depends on the monsoons. The Monsoon is always uncertain due to which there are fluctuations in the agricultural production. Natural calamities affect agricultural production adversely, which results in poverty.

Question 2.
What are main programmes for eradication of poverty in India? (Any four). (2009, 10, 17)
Or
Describe the Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana. (2009)
[Note: See title “Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna.”]
Or
Describe any two important programmes for the eradication of poverty in India. (2008)
Main Programmes for eradication of poverty in India:
(1) Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (SGSY): It was started on 1st April 1999. The programme aims at bringing the poor families above poverty line with in a period of three years organizing them into self Help Group through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy. This programme also aims at generating additional income for the rural poor. This is being conducted through the District Village Development Agency (Zila Gramya Vikas Abhikaran).

(2) Prime Minister Rojgar Yojna: The scheme started on 2nd October, 1993. It aims to create self employment opportunities for the educated unemployed youth between the age 18 to 35 years in rural areas and small towns.

(3) Grameen Rojgar Srajan Karyakram: This scheme was launched in April, 1995 with aim to establishing projects and creating self employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns.

(4) Annapoorna Yojna: This scheme was started on 1st April, 2000. This scheme aims to provide food security to people of 65 years of age and above who were eligible to obtain pension under the National Old Age Pension scheme but are not getting it. Under this scheme per month per head 10 kg. of food grains are provided free of cost. In the year 2002-03 the National Social Help programme was merged with it.

(5) Janshri Yojna: This scheme was launched in August 2000, to provide social security to the poor section of society. Under this scheme Rs. 20,000 in case of natural death, Rs. 50,000 in case of death or permanent disability in an accident and Rs. 25,000 in case of partial disability is provided to the concerned person.

Question 3.
State the importance of small scale (2017) and cottage industries in the Indian Economy. (2008, 09)
Importance of Small Scale & Cottage Industries in the Indian Economy:
Small scale and cottage industries play an important role in Indian economy. These industries can be established with less capital and required more human labours. In India due to a large population there is more human labour and also due to poverty there is less capital. For these reasons these are considered an important part of the Indian economy. This can be made clear by the following facts:

(1) Suitable for rural economy: Around 50.4 percent of the working population of India depends on agriculture, but farmer do not get work for the whole years. Therefore small scale industries are important for them and suitable for the Indian economy.

(2) Reduces unemployment: The small scale industries reduces unemployment as they have potential of employing a large number of workers with less capital investment for the same.

(3) Development of individual art: These industries are helpful in developing individual art.

(4) Fast producing industry: Produced goods can be obtained within a short time after the establishment of these industries. Therefore these are called fast producing industries. There is always a shortage of goods in India and these industries can contribute significantly in removing this shortage.

(5) Earning of foreign currency: The export of the goods manufactured by small scale industries is increasing day-by-day which helps the country in obtaining valuable foreign currency. At present out of the total export of the country the share of the goods produced by small scale industries is 35 percent.

(6) Less dependency on imports: We have to depend on imports from foreign countries to establish large scale industries either for technology or for machine or raw material. With small scale industries there is no such requirement, we do not have to import machines or techniques or raw materials. Thus it decreases dependence on imports.

(7) Supplementary to large scale industries: The small scale industries can works as supplementary industries to large scale industries. For example small scale industries can manufacture intermediate goods which can be used by large scale industries to produce final goods.

Question 4.
Mention the Agro based industries of India. (2013)
The Agro based industries of India are as follows:
(1) Cotton textile industry: This is, oldest and main industry of India. The first cotton mill in India was setup in 1818 in Kolkata. This is the largest and most extensive industry of India. Its contribution to the total industrial production of the country is 14 percent, whereas its share in the gross export is 19 percent. Its share in imports is 3 percent.

The cotton textile industry is mainly localised in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat. The capital investment is this industry is about 5,000 crore rupees. This industry is providing employment directly or indirectly to 9 crore people. The Government has freed cotton industry from license through the cloth order of 1993.

(2) Paper industry: In India the art of paper making by hand developed in the ancient times. The first modem mill was set up at Bali near Kolkata in 1870. At present there are several paper mills in India among which the chief are National News Print and Paper Mills Limited (Nepanagar, Madhya Pradesh) and Security Paper Mill (Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh). At Present there are 515 paper mills in the country.

The contribution of small and medium units is 50 percent of the total product. At present in India, around 15 lakh people are employed in this industry. India ranks twentieth in the world in the production of paper. The turnover of this industry is about Rs. 16,000 crores and it contribution in national revenue in Rs. 2,500 crore.

(3) Jute industry: India stands first in the production of Jute and second in the export of the jute products in the world. Gunny bags, rugs, ropes, decorative items etc. are made of jute. The jute industry in India started in 1855. At present there are 73 jute mills running in India. The capital investment in this industry in about Rs. 300 crores, 85% of jute mills are located in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Odisha.

(4) Sugar industry : It is an ancient and major industry of India, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra play an important role in the production of sugar in the country. Now number of sugar mills in India are about 566. In the year 1998 it was declared free from license restriction.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The basis of the comparison of income level is:
(i) Absolute poverty
(ii) Relative proverty
(iii) Complete poverty
(iv) None of these
(ii) Relative proverty

Question 2.
The state having maximum population of poor, in India:
(i) Meghalaya
(ii) Assam
(iii) Bihar
(iii) Bihar

Question 3.
For how many days is employment provided under the Employment Guarantee Act, 2005? (2014, 16)
(i) 25 days
(ii) 50 days
(iii) 75 days
(iv) 100 days
(iv) 100 days

Question 4.
The maximum investment limit of a small scale industrial unit is:
(i) Rupees 1 crore
(ii) Rupees 5 crores
(iii) Rupees 3 crore
(iv) Rupess 7 crores
(ii) Rupees 5 crores

Question 5.
Out of the total production of Jute in the world India produces:
(i) 25 percent
(ii) 10 percent
(iii) 50 percent
(iv) 35 percent
(iii) 50 percent

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
The measures the population living below poverty line in India.
National Sample Survey Organization

Question 2.
The concept of poverty line was first given by the Indian economist
Shri Dandekar

Question 3.
Prime Minister Rojgar Yojna was started on
2 October, 1993

Question 4.
Today India ranks in the world in the production of sugar.
Second

Question 5.
The maximum capital investment of very small industries is upto
25 lakh rupees.

Match the Columns

 A B 1. Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (a) Bihar 2. Swarna Jayanti Shehri Rojgar Yojna (b) December, 1997 3. Annapurna Yojna (2015, 17) (c) April, 2000 4. The state having maximum population of poors in India (2016) (d) April, 1999

1. (d)
2. (b)
3. (c)
4. (a)

True/False

Question 1.
Capital formation is the foundation of economic progress of a nation. (2015)
True

Question 2.
Punjab is the poorest state of India. (2017)
False

Question 3.
The first cotton mill in India was setup in 1818 in Kolkata. (2014)
True

Question 4.
Rapid growth of population increases the poverty. (2016)
True

Question 1.
Name the unemployment that is generated during the depression period of trade cycle.
Cyclic Unemployment.

Question 2.
Which is the poorest district of India?
Dang.

Question 3.
When was the Grameen Rojgar Srajan programme launched?
April, 1995.

Question 4.
What is the rank of India in cement production in the world?
Fifth.

Question 5.
When did the district industrial centre establish?
May, 1978.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions with Answers

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions with Answers in both Hindi Medium and English Medium.

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions with Answers in English Medium

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions with Answers Unit Wise

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions with Answers Chapter Wise

MP Board 9th Social Science Geography Important Questions

MP Board 9th Social Science History Important Questions

MP Board 9th Social Science Civics Important Questions

MP Board 9th Social Science Economics Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 7 Ancient India

Question 1.
What is the importance of history of ancient India?
We could get the information about the Indian culture through the study of history of ancient India. Through this study we get to know that how man entered in the iron age from the stone age and achieve progress in politics, artistic and fields.

Question 2.
Describe the literary sources which throw light on the ancient Indian history.
Vedas, Aranyakas, Upanishads, Vedangs, Sutras, Epics, Smrities, Puranas, Buddhist literature, Jain literature, Mudrarakshas, Arthashastra, Mahabhashya, Ashtadhyayi, Rajtarangini and other literary sources throw an ample light on ancient Indian history.

Question 3.
Write eight points of Buddhism. (2015)
According to Mahatma Buddha the path that leads to liberation from sufferings and attainment of Nirvan is called the Eight fold path. This path includes – Right Faith (Samyak Drashti), Right Resolve (Samyak Sankalpa), Right Speech (Samyak Vak), Right Action (Samyak Karmanta), Right Living (Samyak Ajiva), Right Effort (Samyak Vyayama), Right Thought (Samyak Smriti) and Right Concentration (Samyak Samadhi).

Question 4.
What is called the Indus Valley Civilization?
The urban culture that developed in India and Pakistan’s north western part in the Indus river basin and its tributaries is generally called the Indus Valley Civilization.

Question 5.
Write the names and numbers of Vedas. (2014, 16)
There are four Vedas:

1. Rigveda
2. Yajurveda
3. Samveda
4. Atharvaveda.

Question 6.
Who was Chanakya (Kautilya)? Name the book written by him. (2017)
Chanakya (Kautilya) was the prime minister of Chandragupta Maurya. His real name was Vishnugupta. He wrote the ‘Arthshastra’.

Question 7.
Write the names of foreign travellers whose description throws light on the ancient Indian history.
Megasthenese, Fa-Hien and Hieun Tsang were the important foreign travellers whose accounts throw light on the ancient Indian history.

Question 8.
Write the names of four chief cities of the Indus civilization. (2016)

• Mohenjodaro
• Lothal
• Kalibanga
• Manda.

Question 9.
Who was Megasthenes? Name the book written by him.
Megasthenes came as an Ambassador to Chandra Gupta’s court. He wrote a book named ‘Indica’.

Question 10.
Write the names of the Chief Education Institutions of ancient India. (2014)

• Nalanda University
• Takshshila University
• Vallabhi University
• Vikramshila University.

Question 1.
Who discovered the cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa? (2015, 17)
Harappa: This city was situated in the Mountgumri district of Punjab at 100 miles distance from Lahore. It was discovered in 1921 by Dr. Dayaram Sahni. It was the largest city of Indus civilization.

Mohenjodaro: It was also a prominent city of Indus civilization. Mohenjodaro which literary means ‘The Mound of the Dead’ was discovered in 1922 by Rakhaldas Banerjee. It is situated in Larkuna district of Sindhu.

Question 2.
What do you know about the historical chronology of Ancient India?
India’s archaeological cultural and historical tradition has been extremely rich and glorious. History of ancient India includes Indus or Harappan civilization, Vedic civilization, Epic period, Jainism and Buddhism, Mauryan Empire, Gupta Empire and Harshavardhana. These civilizations and dynasties had their own distinct identities.

Indians had a strong historical aptitude since ancient times. There are enough sources to throw light on ancient Indian history like literary sources, Archaeological sources, accounts of foreign travellers etc.

Question 3.
What are the most important sources of information on ancient India?
Archaeological inscriptions like-rock edicts, writings on copper plates, birch bark, currency, statues and monuments are the most important sources to study the history of ancient India.

Question 4.
Write three reasons of downfall of Indus Valley Civilization.
The reasons of downfall of Indus Civilization or Harappan Civilization are as follows:

1. According to some historions attacks of outsider community destroy this civilization.
2. Famous geologist Sahni believed that Indus civilization destroyed by occurrence of floods.
3. Some scholars believed that downfall of Indus civilization caused due to occurrence of earthquake.

Question 5.
What do you know about Chandragupta I?
Ghatotkatcha’s son Chandragupta I, took over the reigns of the Gupta Empire after him. He is described as ‘Maharajadhiraj’ or king of kings. Chandragupta I was married to a Lichhavi Princess Kumar Devi. During the same period in 320 A.D. the ‘Gupta Era’ began. He ruled till 335 A.D. He laid the foundation of a powerful empire and expanded his empire.

Question 6.
‘Samudra Gupta was called the Indian Napoleon’. Why?
Samudra Gupta was a great military commander, efficient politician and an invincible warrior. He accomplished many victories and established a very well organised and extensive empire like Napoleon. Thus the famous historian Smith has called Samudra Gupta the ‘Indian Napoleon’

Question 7.
Where is Lothal and Kalibangan situated? Why are these famous in ancient history?
Lothal: It is located in Gujarat in the 48km east of Rangpur.
Kalibangan: It is situated in Ganganagar district of Rajasthan on the bank of river Saraswati.
Both these were the important cities of Indus civilization. The excavations found from these cities are the sources of various information about this civilization.

Question 8.
What was the extent of Indus civilization?
The area covered by the Indus civilization was much more than that covered by the contemporary civilizations in the whole world. The known western and eastern limits of the Indus civilization is over 1,550 km from north to south, it extends over 1.100 km. The expansion of this civilization was upto Pakistan, South Afghanistan and/India it was extended upto Rajashthan, Gujarat, Jammu-Kashmir, Punjab. Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Question 9.
What do you understand by Vedic period?
The entire Vedic period indicates an extensive time period in which Vedas with other contemporary literary works were composed. The entire vedic period was divided into two parts.

1. Rigvedic Period: Early Rigvedic period in which Rigveda was composed is believed to extend from 1500 B.C. to 1000 B.C.
2. Later Vedic Period: The rest three Vedas i.e. Yajurveda, Samveda and Atharvaveda along with Purans, Upnishads, Epics and Smritis were composed in the later vedic period. This period is believed to be between 1000 B.C.

Question 10.
Explain the causes responsible for the decline of the Gupta Empire. (2010, 17)

• Weak and Unable successors: There were no able rulers after Skanda Gupta. They failed to protect their empire from internal revolts and foreign attacks.
• Indefinite law of inheritance: The law of inheritance was not well defined. This resulted in increase in mutual conflicts which weakened their power.
• Internal revolts: In the Gupta empire much power was given the feudal lords. Their over ambitions resulted in the internal revolts due to which economic condition of the empire become weak.

Question 11.
Who was the founder of Jainism? Describe briefly the principles of Jainism.
First Tirthankar Rishabh Dev was the founder of Jainism. Vardhman Mahavir Swami was the 24th Tirthankar of the Jain religion. Mahavir was born to king Siddarth of Kundgrama. Vardhman (Mahavir) was thoughtful and sober since childhood. He renounced the world after the death of his father. He attained Kaivalya after 12 years of peace and meditation. He was called a Jina as he got victory over his senses and his followers were called Jains.

The main principle of Jainism is Ahimsa or non-violence. According to Jainism non-violence is not refraining from violence but violence in thought, speech and allowing violence by others. Mahavir started the importance of the five vows (Ahimsa, Satya, Acharya, Aparigrah, Brahmcharya).

Question 12.
Write the causes of downfall of the Mauryan Empire.
Causes of downfall of the Mauryan Empire

• The successors of Ashoka were incapable. They divided the Empire among themselves and could not keep the Empire of their ancestors intact.
• The oppression of provincial officers.
• Lack of nationalism in the subjects.

The last ruler of the Mauryan Empire Brihadrath was killed by his commander Pushyamitra Sunga and the Mauryan dynasty come to an end.

Question 13.
Write about the chief features of the administrative system during the Gupta period.
Like the Mauryan rulers, the Gupta rulers also made public welfare the basic foundation of their administration. The king was the highest official of the state. The final authority of the state was in his hands. There was a council of ministers and other officials to assist the king. The chief source of income was land revenue which was called ‘Bhoga’.

This was generally one sixth of the produce. The Gupta Empire was divided into three- parts—Central, Provincial and Local administration. The chief objective of the Gupta rulers was public welfare. For this they made hospitals, Dharamshalas or rest houses, schools, roads etc.

Question 14.
Who was Fahien? When did he come to India? What did he write about India?
Fahien was a Buddhist Chinese traveller. He came to India to study the buddhist religion in the reign of Chandra Gupta II Vikramaditya. He stayed in India for about six years. In his travelogues, he has described the contemporary political, social and economic condition in India.

According to Fahien, there was internal peace in India. There was prosperity and well being, where all around(there were vanquished and friendly-rulers. They always helped the poor by giving fahins. Laws were simple and punishments were not too severe.

The people were law-abiding and honest. Financially, the common masses were good: People were virtuous and possessed mutual co-operation. In short, the country was on the path of development.

Question 15.
Describe the political importance of marital relations established by Chandra Gupta II.
Chandra Gupta II consolidated and strengthened the Gupta Empire inherited from his father. Chandra Gupta II married Kubemaga of the Naga dynasty. This led to friendly relations between both the dynasties. He married his daughter Prabhavati to Rudrasena II the VakatakaKing. This relationship secured Chandra Gupta’s control over the Sakas.

These matrimonial alliances proved to be politically very important. The daughter of Kadama dynasty was also married in the Gupta dynasty. Due to this matrimonial alliance the glory of Chandra Gupta II spread to southern India as well.

Question 16.
The contribution of Dr. Vishnu Shreedhar Wakankar’s research on the river Saraswati is of vital importance. During the Vedic period, the Saraswati was a very big river. It has been constantly referred to in the Vedas. Efforts have been made in the last 20 years through arial and land surveys to mark the area drained by the Saraswati river. It is believed that the river Saraswati must have originated from the Shivalik ranges of the Himalayas and from there it flowed to Ambala, Thaneshar, Kurukshetra, Pahova, Sirsa, Hansi, Agroha, Hanumangari and via Kalibangan to Anupgarh to Suratgarh.

In due course of time due to ecological changes the Saraswati river slowly dried up and became extinct after sometime. There is a continuous research going on about the civilization that developed around the Saraswati river.

Question 17.
Who won the Kalinga war? what is the importance of the Kalinga war in Indian history? (2008)
Ashoka was the third and most famous Emperor of the Mauryan dynasty. He fought a war with Kalinga. There was a tough war between the armies of Ashoka and Kalinga. Ashoka emerged victorious in the war. According to the 13th rock edict of Ashoka 1,50,000 persons were carried away as captives, 1,00,000 persons were slain, and many times that number died. Ashoka was filled with profound sorrow and grief after the bloodshed in the war and also with remorse and self realisation.

The important result of this war was a change in Ashoka’s attitude and he began to follow a policy of peace rather than that of war. The era of military conquests or Digvijay was over and an era of spiritual conquest or Dhammavijay began. He also became a follower of Buddhism. The Kalinga war gave a new direction to Ashoka’s life.

Question 18.
Write about the expansion of Harsha’s empire. (2008)
Emperor Harshavardhana was the son of the ruler of Thaneshwar, Prabhakar Vardhana. After Prabhakar Vardhana his son Rajyavardhana ascended the throne. When Rajyavardhana learnt of war between the rulers of Kannauj, Grahavarman, husband of his sister Rajshree, fought against the king of Malwa Devgupta who killed Grahavarman. Rajyavardhana defeated Dev Gupta but the king of Bengal Shashank, treacherously killed Rajyavardhana. Under these circumstances Harsha became the ruler of Thaneshwar.

He ascended the throne in 606 A.D. at the age of 16. Since his sister Rajshree did not have any child the throne of Kannauj also came into his hands. In this way he became the ruler of both Kannauj and Thaneshwar. His empire spread from the Himalayas in the north to the river Narmada in the south from Bengal in the East to the Indus in the west. He had political relations with China and Persia.

Question 19.
Write about the contribution of the Indus civilization. (2008, 09, 17)
Contribution of the Indus Civilization:

• The Indus civilization was familiar with city culture. It had a well-organized city planning system.
• It had knowledge of an efficient water drainage system. There are evidences found about covered drains and manholes.
• The Indus people were familiar with sea trade.
• Religious beliefs and worship of nature was present. Some of the seals depict the God in a yogic posture. Shiva or Pashupati worshipped today, is probably a later adaptation of this male god.
• The Indus civilization made magnificent contribution in building construction, painting, statue making, utensils and art of ornament making.
• It also introduced the writings.
• It opened the option of sea trade.

Question 1.
Describe the Vedic Civilization. (2009, 14)
Or
Explain the religious life in Vedic Civilization. (2011)
[Hint: See the title of Religious life.]
The entire vedic period is divided into two parts. The Early Rigvedic period in which the Rigveda was composed. This period is believed to extend from 1500 B.C. to 1000 B.C. The rest of the three Vedas were composed in the later Vedic period between 600 B.C. to 1000 B.C. These Vedas are Yajurveda, Samveda and Atharvaveda. The life of the Vedic civilization is described as follows:

(1) Social Life: The Indian society during the Vedic period was formed of ‘Aryans’. Aryans had thousands of domesticated animals. They settled wherever food and fodder for animals was available. The chief basis of social organization of the Aryans was the family or the clan. The oldest male member was the head of the family. Vama-system was prevalent during the Vedic period. There were 4 Vamas Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras.

For regulation of the social system Aryans considered life expectancy to be-100 years and divided it into four Ashrams. These were Brahamcharya (for learning and education), Grahastha (family life), Vanaprastha (retirement from family life), Sanyas (renouncing the wordly affairs). Women enjoyed a high status in the society. They received higher education. Social evils like dowry, Purdah system and child marriages were not prevalent.

Women took a keen interest in dressing up. Rice, -barley, ghee (processed butter) and milk formed the main food of the Aryans. Chariot racing, horse riding, hunting, dancing, gambling and games of dice were the chief means of entertainment.

(2) Economic Life: The Vedic civilization was rural and primarily agrarian. Wheat, Jowar, Urad, Masoor and sesame were basically cultivated. Along with agriculture, animal husbandry was the chief occupation. Horses, cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats etc. were domesticated. Domestic system of production and artisanship were highly developed. Carpenters, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, cobblers had great importance. Both internal and external trade flourished. Barter system was prevalent. Initially the cow was the chief medium of exchange. After the cow, ‘Nishka’ as a medium of exchange was used.

(3) Religious Life: The chief features of their religious life were as follows:

• Vedic Aryans were nature worshippers. They worshipped various forms of nature. Sun, moon, wind, clouds, usha (Goddess of light) were their Chief Gods and Goddesses.
• There was a provision ‘Yagya’ for every Aryan. They believed that Yagyas please God and fulfil all wishes. Yagyas were the chief basis of rites and rituals.
• Though Aryans worshipped many God, they still believed in Monotheism.
• Maha Yagyas like Ashwamedha, Rajsuya and Vajpai were performed during this period.

(4) Political Life: Following were the chief characteristics of political life of Aryans:

• Vedic Aryans were organized into various ‘Janas’ or tribes. A tribe had members of the same clan or family.
• The basis of the political system was the clan. The father was head of the clan. Many clans together formed a ‘tribe or village’.
• Many villages together formed the ‘Vish’, the head of the Vish was called the Vishapati.
• Many ‘Vish’ together formed ‘Jana’ the head of which was “Gopa”.
• The position and powers of the king increased during the Later Vedic Period. The chief duties of the king were protection of the subjects, waging wars, maintaining peace and giving justice to the subjects.
• The Sabha and the Samiti were important and effective political organizations of the Vedic period.

Question 2.
State the chief features of Chandra Gupta Maurya’s administrative organization. (2008, 09, 12, 14, 15, 17)
Chandra Gupta Maurya is considered to be one of the greatest rulers of India. He was a great victor, great diplomat, able administrator, religious, benevolent ruler. The chief features of his administrative were as follows:

• The king was the highest official of the Empire. He was the head of the army and the administrator of justice. He was involved in the works concerning the welfare of his subjects.
• There was a council of ministers to assist the king.
• An Espionage system, a judicial system and military organization was strong.
• Land revenue was the main source of the state’s income; 1/6th of the produce was taken as the tax.
• The officer collecting taxes was called Samaharta.
• The Empire was divided into provinces. They were governed by Princess or members of the royal family.
• There were six committee for city administration. Each had 5 members.
• The militaiy system was very strong. It was looked after by six committees. These were Admiral committee, Infantry, Covalry, war chariots, elephant and army committee which managed military transport.
• Code of punisment was very strict.
• From Kautilya’s Arthashastra we come to know that there were two types of courts – civil (Diwani) and criminal (Faujdari).

Question 3.
Write about Ashoka’s Dhamma and write about its chief features. (2009, 13, 16)
Initially Ashoka was a disciple of Hinduism. After the Kalinga war, he embraced Buddhism. In his inscriptions he not only propagated the fundamental principles of Buddhism but also moral principles. The word dhamma was derived from the Sanskrit word dharma, meaning religious duty. Ashoka’s Dhamma was the summary of all religions. His Dhamma was extremely simple and practical. Its main principles were:

• Sovereignty was the chief feature of Ashoka’s Dhamma. People should live in peace and harmony.
• They should show respect and tolerance to all irrespective of caste, creed or religion.
• They should respect their elders.
• Masters should be kind to their servants.
• People should follow Ahimsa and not kill any living being.
• Ashoka’s Dhamma aims for the welfare of all, and aims at mental moral and spiritual upliftment of all living beings.

Ashoka practised Dhamma in his own life and in ruling his kingdom. He discontinued warfare and undertook many welfare measures.

Question 4.
“Gupta period is known as the Golden age of Indian History.” Justify the statement. (2008, 11, 12, 13)
Or
Why was Gupta period called the Golden period of Indian History?
The Gupta period is known as the golden period in Indian history due to the following reasons:
(1) Era of great rulers: The great rulers of this period were Chandra Gupta I, Samudra Gupta, Chandra Gupta II and Skanda Gupta. Due to his victorious expeditions, Samudra Gupta is called as ‘Indian Napoleon’. Chandra Gupta II is also described as Vikramaditya.

(2) Era of economic progress: There were unprecedented progress in the economic field during this period. Due to inner peace, stability, transport facilities and good administration, the internal and external trade was encouraged. The rulers promoted trade as it fetched them revenue India had trade contacts with China, Burma, Java and Rome
in this period.

(3) Religious equality: Gupta rulers were the followers of Vaishnav religion but they respected Buddhism and Jainism too. During Gupta period, people were free to choose their religion.

(4) People welfare state: The Gupta rulers paid great attention towards the welfare of their subjects. They spent a big part of their treasure on the welfare of the people.

(5) Era scientific progress: There was a significant development in Astrology, mathematics, chemistry and physics in this period. The period produced great mathematician arid astronomers like Varahmihira, Aryabhatta and Bhramagupta. The invention of zero and decimal system was also introduced during this period.

(6) Era of Literary progress: Literature was also reached at its Zenith Kalidas, Vishakhadutta and Harisena were the prominent writers of this period.

(7) Era of Artistic progress: The Gupta period is known as Golden period for its art. Sculpture, architecture and painting were at their peaks during this period. Most of the paintings in the Ajanta caves were drawn in this period.

Question 5.
Write about the administrative organization of Harshavardhana. (2008, 09, 12, 16, 17)
Description of the administrative organization of Harshavardhana is as follows:
(1) Central administration: The pattern of the Harsha’s administration was monarchial. The Emperor had the most prominent place in the central administration. He was the chief of the army and the highest court of appeal. There were many ministers and secretaries to assist the Emperor. The king was not bound by the decisions of the council of ministers.

(2) Provincial administration: For administrative convenience the vast empire was divided into provinces. Provinces were called Bhukti or Desh. The administrator of Bhukti was called Uparik. Only the princess of the royal dynasty or members of the royal family were appointed to these positions.

(3) District administration: Each province was divided into various Vishayas (districts). The administrators of these Vishyas were called Vishayapati. He supervised the various activities of the district.

(4) Village administration: Each Vishaya or district was further divided into various villages of Grams. The village was the smallest unit of administration which was supervised by ‘Mahettur’.

(5) Code of punishment: The code of punishment during Harsha’s period was very strict. There was capital punishment for some crimes. Due to strict code of punishment the rate of crime was low.

(6) Income of state: The chief source of the state’s income was land revenue. Generally land revenue was one/sixth of the produce. Taxes could be paid in the form of grain. Besides markets, river banks, tax or traders and fines were the chief sources of state income.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Who was the foreign traveller who came to India during Chandra Gupta Maurya’s period? (2010,16)
(i) Fahien
(ii) HieunTsang
(iii) Arian
(iv) Megasthenes
(i) Fahien

Question 2.
Which one of the following cities is not related to the Indus civilization? (2009)
(i) Mohenjodaro
(ii) Kalibangan
(iii) Lothal
(iv) Pataliputra
(iv) Pataliputra

Question 3.
Which one of the following rulers is known as “Indian Napoleon”? (2008, 17)
(i) Skanda Gupta
(ii) Samudra Gupta
(iii) Shree Gupta
(iv) Chandra Gupta
(ii) Samudra Gupta

Question 4.
What is the proof of progress in metal science during Gupta period?
(i) Iron pillar of Mehrauli
(ii) Jama Masjid of Delhi
(iii) Qutubminar of Delhi
(iv) None of these
(i) Iron pillar of Mehrauli

Question 5.
When was Buddhist architecture started?
(i) From the reign of Ashoka
(ii) From the reign of Bindusar
(iii) From the reign of Mahavira
(iv) From the reign of Samudragupta
(i) From the reign of Ashoka

Question 6.
Which of the following was used as a medium of exchange after the cow?
(i) Nishka
(ii) Kanishka
(iii) Majith
(iv) Pai
(i) Nishka

Question 7.
Who discovered the city of Mohenjodaro in 1922?
(i) Makhanlal Banerjee
(ii) Mohandas Banerjee
(iii) Rakhaldas Banerjee
(iv) None of these
(iii) Rakhaldas Banerjee

Question 8.
Number of Vedas is: (2011)
(i) 4
(ii) 6
(iii) 5
(iv) 8
(i) 4

Question 9.
In which period were the Samaveda, Rigveda and Atharvaveda composed?
(i) Rigvedic period
(ii) Vedic period
(iii) Northern period
(iv) Indus civilization
(ii) Vedic period

Question 10.
Which of the following is the most ancient epic?
(i) Rigveda
(ii) Samveda
(iii) Atharvaveda
(iv) Yajurveda
(i) Rigveda

Question 11.
Which of the following was the main base of worship in the Vedic period?
(i) Dance
(ii) Cow
(iii) Yagya
(iv) Indra
(iii) Yagya

Question 12.
Which one of the following is written by Kautilya?
(i) Arthshastra
(ii) Samajshastra
(iii) Rajneetishastra
(iv) History
(i) Arthshastra

Question 13.
Which one of the following was called “Golden Bird”?
(i) India
(ii) Pakistan
(iii) China
(iv) America
(i) India

Question 14.
When did Alexander die?
(i) 232B.C.
(ii) 132 B.C.
(iii) 332B.C.
(iv) 432 B.C.
(iii) 332B.C.

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
Mohenjodaro was discovered by …………… (2012)
Rakhaldas Banerjee

Question 2.
In the excavations of Mohenjodaro a big …………… has been found. (2014)
Bath

Question 3.
The founder of Buddhism was …………… (2019, 16)
Gautam Buddha

Question 4.
Buddha was born at …………… (2011)
Lumbini

Question 5.
Harshavardhana became the ruler of Thaneshwar in …………… (2018)
606 A.D.

Question 6.
In …………… many Janpadas are mentioned. (2012)
The Mahabharata

Question 7.
Vikramaditya started a new era, which is known as ……………
Vikram Era

Question 8.
The founder of the Jain religion was …………… (2017)
Rishabh Dev

Question 9.
Indus valley was discovered in …………… (2015)
1921.

Match the Columns

 A B 1. Chandragupta Maurya (Gupta period) (2008, 09) (a) Kalinga 2. Megasthenes (2008, 09, 15) (b) Gautam Buddha 3. Samnudragupta (2008) (c) Fahien 4. Buddhism (2008) (d) Indica 5. Ashoka (2008) (e) Indian Napoleon

1. (c)
2. (d)
3. (e)
4. (b)
5. (a)

True/False

Question 1.
Chandra Gupta II is also described as ‘Vikramaditya’. (2011)
True

Question 2.
Chanakya is related to Economics. (2013)
True

Question 3.
Animal rearing was the chief occupation in the Indus Valley Civilization. (2008)
True

Question 4.
Chandra Gupta Maurya is considered to be one of the greatest rulers of India. (2012)
True

Question 5.
Samveda is the most ancient epic of the world. (2008)
False

Question 6.
Vikramaditya was a just ruler of Ujjain. (2010)
True

Question 7.
Mahatma Buddha was bom at a place named Lumbini. (2009)
True

Question 8.
The Rigvedic period is from 1500 B.C. to 1000 B.C. (2012)
True

Question 1.
Who started the Vikram era? (2008)

Question 2.
In which language were the manuscripts written in the ancient India?
Prakrit and Sanskrit language.

Question 3.
Name the war which gave a new direction of Ashoka’s life.
The Kalinga War.

Question 4.
Which Gupta ruler succeeded in protecting India from the Hun attacks?
Skanda Gupta.

Question 5.
In which period was the invention of zero and decimal system introduced?
The Gupta Period.

Question 6.
What is the literacy meaning of Mohenjodaro? (2009)

Question 7.
Name the epic written by Megasthenese.
‘Indica’.

Question 8.
A detailed poetry account related to the life of great characters. (2008)
Epic.

Question 9.
Who was the founder of the Mauryan Empire? (2008)
Chandragupta Maurya.

Question 10.
Who was the prime minister of Chandra Gupta Maurya?
Kautilya (Chanakya).

Question 11.
By which name is Chandragupta Maurya referred by Greek writers?
‘Sandro Kottis’.

Question 12.
The founder sage of Jain religion. (2009, 11)
Rishabh Dev.

Question 13.
24th Tirthankar of Jain religion. (2009)
Mahavir Swami.

Question 14.
Who was the foreign traveller who came to India during Chandra Gupta Maurya’s period? (2014)
Fa-Hien.

Question 15.
Refraining from acquiring material possessions. (2008)
Renunciation (Aparigraha).

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 8 Medieval India

Question 1.
How has medieval period divided from the point of view of study?
From the point of view of study, the medieval period has been divided into two parts. The period from 8th century A.D. to 12th century A.D. is knows as the early medieval period while the period from 13th century A.D. to 18th century A.D. is known as the later medieval period.

Question 2.
Who founded the famous Vikramshila University?
The famous Vikramshila University was founded by Dharmpala. It was an important center of learning of Buddhism.

Question 3.
Who started the religion Din-e-Ilahi?
Akbar started the religion Din-e-Ilahi. Din-e-Ilahi means a religion of worship of one God.

Question 4.
When and between whom the battle of Haldighati was fought?
The battle of Haldighati was fought in 1576 A.D. between Akbar and Maharana Pratap.

Question 5.
Who was Guru Gobind Singh? Which organization he established?
Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth last Guru of Sikh community. He started Khalsa Organization in 1699 A.D.

Question 1.
Describe the administrative organization of Vijaynagar Kingdom. (2009)
The characteristics of the administrative organization of Vijaynagar empire are as follows:
(1) The Emperor: The form of administrative of Vijaynagar Empire was despotic monarchy and the powers of the king were unlimited. The Emperor had the chief position in the state and also the head of the judiciary and military. He ruled on the advice of his ministers’ council.

(2) Ministers’ Council: There was a central secretariate for the administration of the state in which there were various departments, the chairman, secretaries and officers. The officials and workers of the state received land in lieu of salaries. This arrangement was called the Naykat arrangement.

(3) Provincial administration: The Empire was divided into provinces. Provinces were divided into Kottams or Valandus. Kottam was a district which was divided into Nadus. Nadus were further divided into cities. The responsibility of the province was in the hands of a member of the royal family or powerful feudal lord.

(4) Local administration: The smallest unit of administration was the village. There was representative body (Pratinidhi Sabha) for the administration of the village. The Pradhan of the Gram Panchayat was called Iyengar. The Pradhan was given some powers to give justice and punishment and had on authority to collect royal taxes.

Question 2.
Who were the Chalukyas? State the chief features of the Chalukya administration. (2008)
Or
What were the features of the Chalukyas’ administration? (2011)
The Chalukya dynasty ruled in southern India from the 6th century A.D. till the middle of the 8th century A.D. The Chalukya kings tried to unite southern India into one political power. The characteristics of Chalukya administration were as follows:

• The Chalukyas ruled for nearly 200 years.
• Monarchial form of government was prevalent. The Emperor was the pivot of administrative system.
• They gave the feudal lords the right to govern over their conquered territories.
• The village was the smallest unit of administration.

Question 3.
What are the characteristics of ‘Cholas’ administration? (2008, 09, 10)
The most powerful ancient dynasty in Southern India was that of the Cholas. The ancient Chola rulers have been described in the Sangam literature. The Chola dynasty is known in history for its administrative reforms.

• The king was the highest official of the state.
• The Empire was divided into provinces, Mandalams, Valanadus (districts).
• The smallest unit of administration was the Gram which was subdivided into 3 parts i. e., (assembly of the common people), Sabha (intellectuals, Brahmins) and Nagaram (traders, shopkeepers, sculptors).
• The chief source of the state’s income was land revenue and tax on trade.

Question 4.
Write the contribution of Prithviraj Chauhan in the Indian history. (2008, 09, 12, 13, 14, 16)
Prithviraj Chauhan was an able, brave, valiant and powerful Emperor of Delhi and Ajmer. He had a fine army and army commanders. ‘Chandravardai’ was the contemporary poet during his reign. He composed ‘Prithviraj Raso’ in which he described the valour and fame of Prithviraj. Prithviraj faced Ghori in 1191 A.D. on the plains of Tarain, this is known as the first Battle of Tarain.

In this battle, Mohammad Ghori was defeated and fled in a wounded state. Ghori could not forget his disgraceful defeat and again made preparations for the war and attacked in the plains of Tarain is 1192, which is known as the second battle of Tarain. Prithviraj fought valiantly and compelled the forces of Ghori to retreat but through diplomatic manovers Ghori imprisoned Prithviraj Chauhan and defeated him.

Question 5.
Who was Iltutmish? How did he overcome his difficulties? (2008, 09)
Iltutmish was the most efficient ruler in the slave dynasty. He was an Ilbari Turk. Qutub-ud-din Aibak freed him from slavery as a reward of his bravery against Khokars on the recommendation of Md. Ghori. Aibak appointed him as the governor of Gwalior and Badaun. He became the Sultan of Delhi in 1211 A.D. after removing Aram Shah, the son of Aibak. He ruled Delhi for 25 years.

He overcomed his difficulties through the following ways:

• Organization of Chalisa: To suppress his enemies, Iltutmish made a group of 40 Amirs called as ‘Chalisa’ and appointed all the members on important posts.
• Crushing Yaldoz: Yaldoz was a sultan of Ghazni. Iltutmish led a war against him and defeated him near Tarain in A.D. 1215.
• Crushing of Qubacha: Qubacha was the governor of Sind. He rose an open revolt against Iltutmish but subdued in A.D. 1228.

Question 6.
Write a short note on Alauddin Khilji. (2011)
Alauddin was very ambitious. His desire was to become the Emperor of the whole of India. In order to accomplish this aim, he attacked Sindh, Multan, Gujrat, Jalore, Jaisalmer, Ranthambor, Chittor, Ujjain and Chanderi and won them. In order to win over the four kingdoms of the south, Devgiri, Warangal, Dwar Samudra and Madurai, he sent his military commander Malik Kafur. He organized a big army and an espionage department. He crushed the power of the revolting Sardars and Amirs.

In order to make goods available to his army at a low prices, he implemented market control in Delhi. He imposed excessive taxes on farmers, traders and Hindus. With the death of Alauddin Khilji in 1316 A.D. the Khilji dynasty also declined.

Question 7.
What was the market policy of Alauddin? (2008, 13, 15)
Or
Describe the market policy of Alauddin Khilji. (2009)
The market policy of Alauddin was related to military improvements. He builts up a large army of 4,75,000 soldiers through direct recruitment and paid in cash. To satisfy his large army and the families of his soldiers, he implemented market control in Delhi through which all goods could be available to his army at low prices. This policy benefitted all the people of Delhi. He also implemented the rationing system. He made Government graneries. He fixed the rates of goods not on the basis of one’s wishes but in accordance to the cost of production.

Question 8.
How did the Tughlaq dynasty establish power over the Delhi Sultanate? Examine. (2009)
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty. He could not bear the chaos prevailing after the death of Alauddin Khilji. He removed the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty Nasir-ud-din Khusro and became the Sultan of Delhi in 1320 A.D. He led military campaigns to Warangal, Orissa and Bengal becoming the Sultan.

Question 9.
Write a short note on Raziya Sultan. (2009)
Raziya Sultan was the daughter of Iltutmish. The sons of Iltutmish were incapable of ruling. Therefore he appointed his able daughter Raziya as his successor. Raziya sat in the court and led the army. Crowning a daughter instead of a son was a noble step in medieval history. In the whole of the history of the medieval period, Raziya was the first and only Muslim women sultan of Delhi.

Question 10.
Write the contribution of Sher Shah’s administrative organization in Indian History. (2009, 10, 12, 16 )
Sher Shah’s brief period of rule has an important place in Indian history because he restored the lost Afghan pride and rekindled the old admistrative system with fundamental reforms which proved to be the foundation for the future. His important administrative works were as ahead:

• He made reforms in the currency system. The silver coin started by him was known as the ‘Rupaiya’.
• In the field of education he constructed Madarsas. Alms were provided to the teachers and poor students.
• For travellers he made arrangements for sarais (guest houses) and wells and got trees planted.
• Sher Shah reconstructed the old royal road from Kolkata to Peshawar the ‘Grand Trunk Road’. He also got new roads constructed from Agra to Burhanpur from Agra- Chittod-Jodhpur and Lahore to Multan.

Question 11.
Who founded Mughal Empire in India and under what circumstances? (2010)
Babur, who laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India was the son of the ruler of Fargana state in Central Asia and a descendant of Taimur. During the time of Babur’s there was political instability in north and south India. There was predominance of mutual fightings, struggle and conspiracies. Babur took full advantage of this political disorder.

Babur attacked the borders of India and he was successful. In 1526 tanks came to the plains of Panipat where Ibrahim Lodi the ruler of Delhi faced him. Ibrahim was killed in the battle of Panipat and success came to Babur. Babur got control over Delhi and Agra.

Question 12.
Describe why Maharana Pratap is famous in Indian history. (2008, 14, 15, 17)
After Udai Singh’s death in 1572 A.D. his son Rana Pratap became the ruler of Mewar. He gave a tough challenge to Akbar till he lived. Rana Pratap started organizing Mewar to give the Mughals a fight. For the first time he included the Bheels in his army and honoured them by giving high positions. Through public relations he created awareness against the Mughal power. These efforts brought unity and the entire Mewar rose against the Mughal power.

Rana Pratap had to lose a part of his Empire but he did not accept defeat. He carried on war against the Mughals and managed to win back many of the lost areas of his state. He fought with bravery and courage for his land till his death.

Question 1.
Briefly describe the chief kingdom of 8th century A.D. of North India.
Or
Write down the five chief kingdoms of 8th century A.D. of North India and explain any one kingdom. (2011)
The chief kingdoms of the 8th century A.D. of North India were as follows:
(1) The Gurjar Pratihar: The Gurjar Pratihar dynasty ruled from the 8th to the 11th century A.D. Nagabhatt I was the founder of this dynasty, Vatsraj, Nagabhatt II, Mihirbhoja, Mahendra Pala etc. were the prominent rulers of this dynasty. Mahipala was the last ruler of this dynasty. The rulers of this dynasty ruled over Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and some parts of Rajasthan for a long time.

(2) The Pala dynasty: The rulers of the Pala dynasty of Bengal established a big empire in the middle of the 8th century in north India. The founder of this dynasty was Gopala. The Palas had conflicts with the Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas for control over Kannauj. The prominent rulers of this dynasty were Dharmpala and Devpala.

(3) The Chalukya (Solanki) dynasty: The founder of the Solanki dynasty of Gujarat was Moolraj. Mahmood Gaznavi attacked Gujarat during the reign of Bhima I of this dynasty, in which Bhima I was defeated. The most able king of the Solanki dynasty is considered to be Jaysing Siddharaj. After Siddharaj, Kumarpal became the ruler. This dynasty was famous by two branches named the Chalukyas of Badami and the Chalukyas of Kalyani.

(4) The Parmar dynasty: The founder of the Parmar dynasty was Upendra Raj. The prominent rulers of this dynasty were Siyak II Munj, Sindhraj, Bhoja, Jai Singh and Udaiaditya. Siyak II defeated the Rashtrakutas and established an independent kingdom in Malwa. King Bhoja was the most valiant ruler of this dynasty.

He was a great warrior, writer, poet, patron of learning and an intellectual. Many intellectuals and poets found patronage in his court. During his reign the city of Dhara was an important metting pot of literature and culture. This dynasty ruled over Gujarat and Rajasthan along with Madhya Pradesh. This dynasty is chiefly known in history for its temple construction.

(5) The Chahman (Chauhan) dynasty: The rule of the Chahman (Chauhan) dynasty was spread from the central Sambhar region of Jodhpur and Jaipur. The first independent ruler of this dynasty was Vigrahraj II. Ajayraj of the same dynasty laid the foundation of the city of Ajaymeru (Ajmer). The last and most powerful ruler of this dynasty was Prithviraj Chauhan.

(6) The Chandel dynasty: The Chandela rulers had supremacy over the Bundelkhand region. The capital of this kingdom was Khajuraho. The prominent rulers of this dynasty were Nanuk, Yashovarman, Dhanga, Vidyadhar, Kirtivarman and Pramadridev. The reign of the Chandela rulers is famous for the progress made in the temple architecture.

Question 2.
What were the objectives of Mahmud Ghaznavi’s and Mohammed Ghori’s attack on India? (2008)
The objectives of Mahmud Ghaznavi’s attack on India were as follows:

• Mahmood was an ambitious ruler. He wanted to establish a big kingdom through his invasion.
• He wanted to carry away immense wealth of India to Ghazni.
• According to some historians, he invaded India by the order of Khalifa but others deny it.
• Another cause for Mahmood’s invasion was to propagate Islam.
• He wanted to destroy holy idols and its worshippers.

The objectives of Mohammed Ghori’s invasion:

• Mohammed wanted to bring India’s territory under his domination.
• The other objective of Ghori’s invasion of India was acquiring wealth.
• He wanted to destroy hinduism and propagate Islam in India.
• He also wanted destroy the Ghaznavi’s rule in Punjab.

Question 3.
Describe the administrative organization of King Krishna Dev Rai and its impact on the people. (2009, 16)
The most efficient ruler of the Yulva dynasty was Krishna Dev Rai. He was the cousin of Veer Narsihma. He was a brave soldier, successful military commander and able administrator. He established peace in his kingdom and paid attention towards economic progress. He waged successful wars against Bahmani states: Orissa, Golconda and Bijapur. He established friendly relations with Portuguese for political reasons and promotion of trade. He was an admirer of knowledge and art.

He got Mandaps and Gopurams with a hundred pillars constructed in various parts of his empire. He got Vijay Bhavan, Hazaram temple and Vithal temple constructed. He also founded a city called Naglapur.

He was the highest judge for the administration of justice. He himself appointed the judges. In his reign the state made efforts for the development of agriculture and irrigation.

The construction of canals and ponds was considered to be a noble deed. The land revenue was determined according to the fertility of the land. Grazing tax, marriage tax, property tax, tax on trade, garden tax, tax on handicrafts were imposed by the state. The subjects were happy inspite of heavy taxation.

Question 4.
Examine the Rajput and religious policy of Akbar. (2008, 09, 12, 15, 17)
Or
What were the results of Akbar’s religious policy? Explain. (2008)
[Hint: See the title Religious Policy of Akbar]
Or
Explain the religious policy of Akbar. (2010)
Or
Explain the Rajput policy of Akbar. (2013, 14)
Rajput policy of Akbar: Chief characteristics of the Rajput policy of Akbar were as follows:

• Akbar befriended the Rajputs and took fine and royal and brave Rajputs in his service, which prolonged the duration of Mughal empire.
• Akbar gave high mansabs to the Rajput kings.
• Akbar also established friendly and matrimonial alliances with the Rajputs. He married the princess of Amer (Jaipur), Bikaner and Jaisalmer.
• He waged wars against the Rajput kingdoms who did not accept his sovereignty.

Religious Policy of Akbar: Akbar was deeply devoted to the maxim of Sulh-i-kul or peace with all. He held discussions with the orthodox muslim divines in the Ibadatkhana constructed in Fatehpur Sikri. He established a universal religion, Din-e-Illahi.

Results of the religious policy of Akbar:

• The long lasting bitterness between Hindus and Muslims ended and hence they came closer.
• There was co-ordination between Hindu and Muslim policies in the fields of art, literature and tradition.
• Due to Akbar’s religious policy, Rajputs co-operated Mughal empire and assisted in its extension.
• Majority of citizens in the empire were Hindus which due to this policy became supporters of Mughal empire.

Question 5.
Who were the Indian Kings and rulers who resisted the Mughal power in India and what role did they play? Describe.
Or
Write short notes (Any two):
(1) Rani Durgawati, (2008)
(2) Chhatrapati Shivaji (2009)
Or
(1) Maharana Pratap (2008, 09, 11)
(2) Guru Gobind Singh (2009).
Or
Why Chhatrapati Shivaji is famous in Indian history? Write it. (2017)
The ruler of Mewar Rana Sanga, Maharana Pratap, queen of Gondwana Rani Durgawati, Maratha ruler Shivaji and Sikh Guru Gobind Singh were the prominent Indian kings who resisted the Mughal power in India. These Indian rulers neither befriended nor surrendered but gave a tough challenge to the Mughals with bravery.

Rana Sanga: Rana Sanga gave stiff resistance to Babur in the plains of Khanva. Unfortunately, Rana Sanga was defeated but till he was alive he did not accept defeat. After the death of Rana Sanga in 1528 A.D. Mughal power was resisted by his son Udai Singh.

Maharana Pratap: After Udai Singh’s death in 1572 A.D. his son Rana Pratap became the ruler of Mewar. Maharana Pratap gave a tough challenge to Akbar till he lived. Rana Pratap started organizing Mewar to give the Mughals a fight. He organized feudal lords and Bheels. Through public relations he created awareness against the Mughal power. These efforts brought unity and the entire Mewar rose against the Mughal power.

Rana Pratap refused to accept the sovereignty, friendship or offer of entering into a matrimonial alliance with Akbar. Akbar made several attempts to convince Rana Pratap but was not successful. Rana Pratap had to lose a part of his Empire but he did not accept defeat. He carried on war against the mughals and managed to win back many of the lost areas of his state. He fought with bravery and courage till his death.

Rani Durgawati: Rani Durgawati ofMahoba was one of the most valient warrior’s of medieval Indian history. She faced the mughal emperor Akbar’s greed for expansion of the Empire with bravery, courage and patience. After the death of her husband

Dalpatshah, Durgawati had to shoulder the responsibility of the state as guardian to her minor son Veernarayan. When Akbar heard about the economic prosperity of Garha state, he sent his commander Asaf Khan with a big army to attack Garha state for extending his empire.

Rani Durgawati decided to fight rather than surrender. She fought bravely against the mughal forces but in the end she was wounded seriously. In the wounded state brave Durgawati was unable to continue the war but she did not want Akbar’s soldiers to imprison and humiliate her. Therefore she killed herself with a sword and her son Veernarayan died while fighting.

Chhatrapati Shivaji: The strongest opposition to the mughal empire was given by the marathas under the leadership of Shivaji. In the rise of Shivaji and the Maratha, the mughals lust for increasing their empire, anti hindu policy and religious orthodox policy were the important factors.

Shivaji crowned himself in 1674 and became Chhatrapati. He played an important role in routing out mughal power from Southern India. He never bowed his head against the Mughal King Aurangzeb. He was an orthodox Hindu but still, he also respected the Muslims.

Guru Gobind Singh: To check the rising power of Sikhs, Mughal administration in 1675 A.D. ordered Guru Tegbahadur to be hanged which made the Sikh community very angry with Aurangzeb. Guru Gobind Singh the tenth Guru organized the Sikhs into a military organization to fight against the Mughal armies.

Guru Gobind Singh established an organization called Khalsa in 1699 A.D. Khalsa was a casteless organization in which there was a provision to include everyone without caste discrimination. He started the practise of prefixing the word ‘Singh’ among Sikhs. The Sikh community put many challenges before the Mughal empire.

Question 6.
Write down the causes responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire. (Any five) (2008, 09, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17)
Or
Mention any five causes of the decline of Mughal Empire and describe any one in detail. (2011)
Or
What were the causes of decline of Mughal Empire? (2015)
The chief causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire were as follows:
(1) Aurangzeb’s Empire his policy and war: Aurangzeb’s policies can mainly be held responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire. His orthodox religious policy and anti Hindu policy was one of the chief causes. Due to his policy of oppression he made the Jats, the Rajputs, the Marathas, the Sikhs etc. his enemies. To bring the kingdoms of the south under his sub-ordination Aurangzeb fought for 25 years with different states of South India, in which he had to face severe loss of man and money. These wars shook the foundation of the empire.

(2) Excessive Taxes: The Mughal rulers imposed heavy taxes on the people for the pleasure and wars, paying which became impossible for the people. There were voice of revolt among the common people.

(3) Vastness of the Empire: The vastness of the Mughal Empire in and outside India also became a cause of decline of the Mughal Empire. A vast empire could have only been regulated through a centralized authority. Due to weak central authority the Mughal empire also started breaking up.

(4) War of Succession: The war of succession for power also harmed the Mughal Empire. There was no certain rule of succession in Muslim royal power. There were many claimants to the throne due to which the successor was decided on the point of a bayonet.

(5) Rise of Hindu Power: The rise of new Hindu powers also played a role in the decline of the Mughal Empire. The Marathas, the Jats, the Sikhs, the Rajputs etc. reorganized themselves and rose against the Mughal Empire.

(6) Religious Policy: The religions policy of Mughals was based on Islam. Most rulers were staunch followers of Islam. They supported the spread and growth of Islam, harmed other religions and their followers, due to which Mughal Empire could not get their support. Continuous wars and autocratic rule, decline of military power, moral decline of Amirs (nobles), groupism and other reasons also aided the decline of the Mughal Empire.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Mahmood Ghaznavi was the ruler of:
(i) Multan
(ii) Ghazni
(iii) Bahmani
(iv) Iraq
(ii) Ghazni

Question 2.
Who was the founder of the slave dynasty? (2008, 09)
(i) Iltutmish
(iii) Qutub-ud-din Aibak
(iv) Balban
(iii) Qutub-ud-din Aibak

Question 3.
Who sat on the throne in 1266 A.D.?
(i) Iltutmish
(ii) Raziya
(iii) Qutub-ud-din Aibak
(iv) Balban
(iv) Balban

Question 4.
Who injured Ghori in the 1st battle of Tarian? (2009)
(i) Prithviraj
(ii) Krishnarayan
(iii) Govindraj
(iv) Deepakraj
(i) Prithviraj

Question 5.
Which empire did Harihar and Bukka found? (2015)
(i) Bahmani Empire
(ii) Vijaynagar Empire
(iii) Delhi Sultanate
(ii) Vijaynagar Empire

Question 6.
Who killed Afzal Khan? (2008, 13)
(i) Shivaji
(ii) Raja Ram
(iii) Sahu
(iv) Tarabai
(i) Shivaji

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
Historians have called the …………. century A.D. as the beginning of the medieval period.
8th

Question 2.
The most powerful ancient dynasty in Southern India was that of the ………….
Cholas

Question 3.
During the time of Mohammad Ghori’s invasion, the ruler of Kannauj was ………….
Jaichand

Question 4.
The ruler of Mewar was …………. (2012)
Maharana Pratap

Question 5.
Shivaji’s mother’s name was …………. (2016)
Jijabai

Question 6.
During Mughal period …………. made the correct land measure. (2008)
Shershah Suri.

Match the Columns

 A B 1.First Mudim women sultan (2014) (a) Akbar 2. Battle of Haldighati (2008) (b) Shivaji 3. Foundation of the Khalsa (2008) (c) Raziya Sultan 4. Din-e-Ilahi (2008, 09) (d) 1576 5. Maratha (2009) (e) 1699

1. (c)
2. (d)
3. (e)
4. (a)
5. (b)

True/False

Question 1.
The most valiant ruler of the Chola dynasty was Karikal.
False

Question 2.
The famous temples of Khajuraho were constructed by the rulers of the Chandel dynasty.
True

Question 3.
The founder of the slave dynasty was Qutub-ud-din-Aibak. (2010)
True

Question 4.
The Qutubminar is in Agra. (2009)
False

Question 5.
Jaziya tax was levied on Hindus. (2011)
True

Question 1.
How many times did Mahmood Ghaznavi attack on India?
17 times.

Question 2.
Who laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India?
Babur.

Question 3.
Who founded the Vijaynagar Empire?
Harihar and Bukka.

Question 4.
Who was the founder of the Bahmani Empire?
Hasan Zafar Khan ‘Bahman Shah’.

Question 5.
Who built the temples of Khajuraho?
The rulers of Chandel dynasty.

Question 6.
Who killed Afzal Khan?
Shivaji.

Question 7.
Who was Guru Gobind Singh?
The last and tenth guru of the Sikhs.

Question 8.
Who established the Khalsa organization and when?
Guru Gobind Singh in 1699 A.D.

Question 9.
What name was given by Shivaji to his minister’s committee?

Question 10.
The religious policy ran by Akbar.
Din-e-Ilahi.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 6 Map: Reading and Marking

Question 1.
What is a projection?
Map projection is a systematic drawing of parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitude on a plane paper or cloth for the whole earth or a parts of it on a certain scale.

Question 2.
What is a map?
A map is a representative of selected features of the whole, earth or a part of it on a plane surface, with conventional signs, drawn to a scale and projection so that each and every point corresponds to the actual terrestrial position.

Question 3.
What are conventional signs?
There are certain standard signs and symbols to represent the topographical features on the map known as conventional signs.

Question 4.
What are the necessary elements of maps?
There are certain points which are necessary in a geographical map called elements of a map. Without these elements a map is incomplete. Elements of a map are as follows:
(1) Direction, (2) Title and Sub-title, (3) Conventional signs.

Question 1.
What is the importance of scale in a map?

• A map cannot be drawn without a scale. It is not possible to draw a map of the whole earth’s surface on a paper without using a scale.
• By using a scale, topographical features are drawn on a plane paper in a map.
• A map is just an ordinary picture without a scale. In the absence of a scale, the distance between two places, on a map have no relevance since it is not actual.

Question 2.
Differentiate between a sketch map and a map. (2016)
Maps present pictures of different parts of the earth. Oceans of the world can be represented through maps only whereas sketch maps are used to show the shape of a specific landmass only.

Question 3.
What are contour lines?
Imaginary lines joining all the points of equal elevation or altitude above the mean sea level are called the contour lines. These lines are based on a detailed survey of heights of several places in an area. These lines are drawn at definite intervals such as 20, 50 or 100 metres above the sea level. It should always be in numbers ending with zero.

Question 4.
Show the following by conventional signs:
Temple (2009, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16), Mosque (2009, 11, 13, 15), Church (2009), State boundary (2011, 14), Metalled road (2011, 12, 14, 16), Non Metalled road (2015, 17), International boundary (2011, 15), Railway line (Broad gauge) (2011, 13, 15), Stream (2009), Well (2009, 12, 14, 17), River (2009, 13, 15, 17), Light house, Railway line (narrow or meter gauge) (2009, 12, 16), Idgah (2009), Pagdandi (2010), Pond (2010, 12, 14), District boundary (2010, 17), Garden (2010, 16), Tree (2013, 17), Settlement (2016).

Question 5.
Write five importance of maps. (2017)
Importance of Maps:

1. Map is an art of providing a lot of information through signs in a short period of time.
2. Study of places can be done sitting at home through maps, even of those places which are difficult to traverse (difficult terrains).
3. Maps are the main tool of a geographer. Maps are very helpful for proper knowledge of geography. We get proper knowledge of the situation of a place, relief, climate, vegetation and human life of a place through maps.
4. Map is a technique of representing a fact in an interesting manner in brief and at its proper place.
5. Map is an authentic document to solve the boundary dispute between two adjacent countries.

Question 1.
How many types of maps are there on the basis of utility? (2014)
Maps drawn on the basis of utility may be classified into four parts:

• Physical Maps: On these maps relief features like mountains, plateau, plains, valleys etc. are shown by different colours such as brown, yellow and green according to contour lines.
• Political Maps: These maps show different countries their administrative units,
capitals, cities, transportation routes etc. Physical and cultural features are also sometimes seen in the background.
• Distribution Maps: These maps display the distribution of elements found on the earth, continent, country or on any part of the country. Distribution of rainfall, temperature, pressure, crop production, minerals, flora, fauna, industries, trade, means of transport, population and tourist places etc. are shown on these maps.
• Special Maps: These maps are drawn for some special purpose and are used for giving specific information. These include many types of maps as: Relief maps, Geological maps, City planning maps, Weather maps, Ocean routes and Air route maps, Military maps etc.

Question 2.
Show the following on an outline map of India:
(1) Areas of Winter Rainfall
(2) Kaziranga National Park, (2009)
(3) Bhakra-Nangal Dam
(4) Rann of Kachchh
(5) Tropic of Cancer, (2008, 09, 15)
(6) Arabian Sea, (2008, 09)
(7) Sardar Sarovar Dam. (2008, 09)

Question 3.
Show the following on an outline map of India:
(1) Karakoram Range (2010), Satpura (2008, 09), Aravallis (2008, 13), The Himalayas (2012)
(2) Shiwalik Ranges (2010), Vindhya Ranges (2010), Satpura Ranges (2009, 10)
(3) Highest Peak of Himalayas (Mt. Everest) (2009)
(4) Chhota Nagpur Plateau, Malwa Plateau (2013)
(5) Ganga (2008,09,15), Tapti, Brahmaputra, Kaveri (2013), Narmada (2008, 09), Nilgiri Mountains (2012, 15)
(6) Thar Desert (2008, 09)

Question 4.
Show the following on the given outline map of India:
(1) Delhi (2008, 09), Vishakhapatnam, Bhilai, Bhopal (2008, 09, 12, 15), Chennai (2009), Kochi, Indore, Lucknow, Kolkata and Mumbai (2008, 09, 13),
(2) Rice producing areas,
(3) Area of highest rainfall (Mawsynram/Cherrapunji),
(4) Bay of Bengal (2008, 09).

Question 5.
Show the following on the given outline map of India:
(1) Tropical Evergreen Forest and Mangrove Forest (2009),
(2) Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary and Silent Valley,
(3) Kanha Kisli (2015) and Corbett National Park (2008, 09, 15),
(4) Nanda Devi (2008), Nilgiri (2009), Sunderban, Biosphere Reserve, Nathula Pass (2012).

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 18 Food Security in India

Question 1.
What are the elements included in food security? (MP 2009)
The following elements are included in food security:

• Availability of food to whole population of the country.
• Availability of enough money (purchasing power) to purchase the available food.
• Food should be available to all that affordable prices.
• The quality of the available food should be good.
• The food should be available to all every time.

Question 2.
What do you mean by buffer stock? Explain. (MP 2011)
Buffer Stock: If the production of food grains is less than to face such crisis of shortage and to distributed them through public distribution system, the stock of food grains kept by government is known as buffer stock. Buffer stock is the stock of food grains, namely wheat and rice procured by government through Food Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from farmers in states where there is surplus production.

Question 3.
Explain revamped public distribution system.
In January 1992, the Public Distribution System was amended and a revised Public Distribution System was introduced to supply essential goods to consumers of remote are, schedule tribes, backward classes, drought affected and mountainous areas of the country. Its characteristic are as follows:

• Preference has been given to the people of drought affected areas, desert areas, mountainous area and slums in urban areas.
• It is aimed at providing more quantity of food at comparatively low prices. Other than six chief essential commodities goods like tea, soap, pulse, iodised salt are included in it.
• Rojgar Aswasan Plan has been started in the development blocks included under this plan, in which 100 days employment can be provided to 18 – 60 year old unskilled labour so that they are able to earn and purchase food grains through revamped public distribution system.

Question 4.
Explain the targeted distribution system.
In 1997 targeted Public Distribution System was introduced to ensure the availability of minimum quantity of food grams to families living below the poverty line. In this system food grains are provided to the poor on special low prices by issuing specific ration cards. This is the largest food security plan of the world.

In this system 35 kg of food grains per month per family is being provided from 1st April 2006. In the same way under the “Antyodya Anna Yojana” 25 kg. of wheat at Rs. 2 per kg. and rice at Rs. 3 per kg. is being provided to very poor families through public distribution system.

Question 5.
What is the role of cooperatives in food security? Explain.
In India the role of cooperative is very important in providing food security. This work is done by the consumer cooperative societies through the ration shops fo: the sale of food grains for the poor. In India there are different system of consumer cooperatives at national, state, district and village levels. Out of these National Consumer’s cooperative (Federation) Ltd. is an organisation at National levels. State cooperative consumers organisation is affiliated to this (Federation).

There are 794 consumer cooperative stores at central level (Wholesale) and 24,076, stores at primary level. In rural areas nearly 44,418 village level primary agricultural credit society are distributing essential goods along with their ordinary business. To fulfil the needs of consumers, consumer cooperative societies are running nearly 37,226 retail selling centres in urban and semi-urban areas.

Question 6.
What is Rojgar Ashwasan Yojana?
Rojgar Ashwasan Plan has been started in the development blocks included under this plan, in which 100 days employment can be provided to 18 – 60 years old. Unskilled labour so that they are able to earn and purchase food grains through revamped public distribution system.

Question 7.
What do you mean by ration cards?
Under public distribution system different goods are sold to consumers by providing a card to identify a family which is known as ration card. It is issued by the government, ration cards are of three types:

• BPL cards for people below poverty line.
• APL cards for people above poverty line.
• Antyodaya cards for the poorest of the poor.

Question 8.
What do you mean by Chakbandi?
Chakbandi or consolidation of land is the measure adopted by the government of India after the independence. The agricultural holdings were small and scattered at different places. It was not possible to have scientific agriculture on this small land so to solve this problem off fragmentation the government has adopted consolidation of holdings. It means allocation of compact plot of land in exchange for the several small plots.

Question 9.
What are the advantages of cooperative stores?
The following are the advantages of cooperative stores:

• Consumer gets cheaper goods.
• Availability of good quality goods.
• Stability of price.
• Running of samittee by less expenditure.
• Cash sale.
• Profit to the share holders.

Question 10.
Which cereals are known as coarse cereals? Where are these produced? (MP 2011)
Sorghum (Jowar), Bajra (Pearl millet) and Maize are included in coarse grains.
1. Sorghum (Maize): In India Jowar has been grown from ancient times. It is used as fodder for cattle and food for human beings. In India it is food of the poor. In foreign countries it is used to prepare starch and glucose. In northern India it is a kharif crop but in sourthen India, it is both kharif and Ravi crop. About 87% of the Jowar in the country is produced in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

2. Bajra: It is a kharif crop of northen India, in southern India, it is both a kharif and Rabi crop. It is used as a fodder for cattle. India is the largest producer of bajra in the world. In India the main bajra producing states are Gujrat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab.

3. Maize: Is the crop of the plains and mountainous regions. It is used as fodder for cattle and as food to eat. Man uses its differents varieties for food products. In foreign countries starch and glucose are prepared from this. In India it is grown in nearly all states but mainly it is grown in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Karnataka.

Question 1.
What do you mean by food security? Why is its needed?
“Food security is the availability of adequate food at all time for active and healthy life for all.”
In the present Indian situation food security has become, very important. It can be divided into two parts internal causes and external causes.

1. Internal causes: Internal causes include those which are related to the internal conditions of the country. Following factors are included in these:
(i) Basis of life : India is country of large population and the birth rate is also very high. Therefore food security is necessary.

(ii) Dependence on monsoon: Majority of crops in India are dependent on monsoon for irrigation, but the monsoon is always uncertain and irregular. The distribution of rains is uneven too, consequently droughts and famines are common features of our economy. Therefore food security is necessary.

(iii) Low productivity: In India the productivity of food-grains regarding per hectare and per labour is low. From this point of view also food security is necessary.

(iv) Natural calamities: Other than the problem of monsoon, flood, insects and pests, cold waves, soil erosion etc. also destroy the food crops in some or the other part of the country. So the problem of shortage of food crops arises. The famine in Orissa of 1835 in Punjab and Madhya Pradesh in 1877 and in West Bengal in 1493, lacks of people died of hunger. So food security is necessary to face these natural calamities.

(v) Continuously rising prices: The prices of food grains are increasing continuously which results in starvation. So food security is necessary to overcome this problem.

(vi) Progress of the countries: No country can progress without self sufficiency of food and for this food security is necessary.

2. External causes: External causes include those causes which are related to the relation of other countries with our country. Following are the external causes:
(i) Dependence on foreign countries: Food is the basic need of human beings. So when this requirement is not fulfilled it becomes the primary duty of the government to fulfil these needs of the people. If there is a shortage of food we have to depend on foreign countries. Whenever there is inadequate supply of food grains in our country we have to import even if good grains are costly or cheap the quality is good or bad. Thus dependence on foreign countries increases.

(ii) Decrease in foreign exchange: Whenever we import things like food grains we have to spend our foreign exchange unnecessarily. We can meet our demand for food ourselves but we cannot. This results in shortage of foreign exchange to purchase very important commodities.

(iii) Foreign pressure: Country which supply food grains to other countries become influential and then they pursue them to follow their policies. These countries dominate those countries which import food-grains from them, as a result they lose their freedom to decide their foreign policies. During these frequent emergencies of food grains India experienced that food security is very essential to save people from starvation, to protect self respect that honour and sovereignty and for the development of the country.

Question 2.
How does government provide security to the poor? (MP 2013)
By following way Govt, helps poor:
1. Public distribution system: By Public Distribution System is meant that system in which different consumer goods are sold in sufficient quantity at fixed prices to the consumers specially to the poor section of society. In this system different goods (wheat, rice, sugar, imported edible oil, coal, kerosene oil etc.) are sold through ration shops or cooperative consumer stores.

The profit rate for these sellers are fixed and they have to sell the goods to the ration card holders on fixed price and in fixed quantities. There are three kinds of ration cards: B.P.L cards, A.P.L. cards and Antyodya cards.

2. Revamped public distribution system: In January 1992, the Public Distribution System was amended and a revised Public Distribution System was introduced to supply essential goods to consumers of remote area, schedule tribes, backward classes, drought affected and mountains areas of the country. Its characteristics are as follows:

• Preference has been given to the people of drought affected areas, desert areas, mountainous area and slums in urban areas.
• It is aimed at providing more quantity of food at comparatively low prices. Other than six chief essential commodities goods like tea, soap, pulse, iodised salt are included in it.
• Rojgar Aswasan Plan has been started in the development blocks included under this plan, in which 100 days employment can be provided to 18 – 60 year old unskilled labor so that they are able to earn and purchase food grains through revamped public distribution system.

3. Targeted public distribution system: In 1997 targeted Public Distribution System was introduced to ensure the availability of minimum quantity of food grams to families living below the poverty line. In this system food grains are provided to the poor on special low prices by issuing specific ration cards. This is the largest food security plan of the world.

In this system 35 kg of food grains per month per family is being provided from 1st April 2006. In the same way under the “Antyodya Anna Yojana” 25 kg. of wheat at Rs. 2 per kg. and rice at Rs. 3 per kg is being provided to very poor families through public distribution system.

Under this system a differential price system was adopted including people below the poverty line (BPL) and also for people above the poverty line (APL) in which different issue prices of rice and wheat are fixed.

Question 3.
In how many parts, the food crops of chain may be distributed? (MP 2010)
Or
Which cereals are known as coarse cereals? Where are these produce?
Or
Which are the chief food crops of India? Explain.
Food Crops of India: In India, different crops are grown in different seasons. So, according to season these crops are divided into following categories:

1. Kharif crops: These crops are sown in the month of July and harvested in the month of October. It includes paddy (rice), millets, maize etc.
2. Rabi crops: These crops are swon in the month of October and harvested either in the end of March or in April. It includes wheat, oat, gram etc.

(i) Rice: Rice is the staple food of India. It is grown in about 25 per cent of the total cultivated area. Of the total world’s production of rice, India is the second largest producer of rice in the world. India accounted for 11.4 per cent of the world production.

Important rice growing states in India are west Bengal, Uttar Pradesh Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajsthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh and Assam. The production of rice is increasing continuously. In the field of the production of the rice. The use of high yielding variety of seeds and chemical fertilizer has shown a huge rice in its production At present India has become not only self sufficient in production of nee but has also started to expon it.

(ii) Wheat: In the production of cereals in India the rank of wheat is second after rice. As regards production of wheat India’s rank is third after China and United States of America and as regards area of production India’s rank is fifth in the world. In India two kinds of wheat is grown:

(a) Walgair wheat: It is shining hefty (well- sapped) soft and white in colour. Generally it is called wheat of bread.

(b) Milkrani wheat: It is red in colour, small in size and hard type of wheat. The major wheat growing states of the country are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujrat. India is self dependent in the production of wheat. Thought in the current year India is importing wheat lack of accumulated stock, 5 lack tonnes of wheat due to has been imported.

(iii) Sorghum (Jowar): In India Jowar has been growth from ancient period. It is used as fodder for cattle and as a food for human beings. In India it is food of the poor. In foreign countries it is used to prepare starch and glucose. In Northern India it is a kharif crop but in southern India it is a crop of Kharif and Rabi both. About 87 per cent of the total production of Jowar (sorghum) in the country is produced in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka.

(iv) Bajra: It is a kharif crop of northen India, in southern India, it is both a kharif and Rabi crop. It is used as a fodder for cattle. India is the largest producer of bajra in the world. In India the main bajra producing states are Gujrat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab.

(v) Maize: Is the crop of the plains and mountainous regions. It is used as fodder for cattle and as food to eat. Man uses its differents varieties for food products. In foreign countries starch and glucose are prepared from this. In India it is grown in nearly all states but mainly it is grown in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Karnataka.

I. Choose the correct alternatives:

Question 1.
Kharif crop is:
(a) Wheat
(b) Gram
(d) Oat

Question 2.
The part of public distribution system is:
(a) Shoe shop
(b) Gold and silver shop
(c) Ration shop
(d) Grocery shop
(c) Ration shop

Question 3.
Targeted public distribution is related to:
(a) Women
(b) Gents
(c) People living below the poverty line
(d) None of these
(c) People living below the poverty line

Question 4.
How much cereal is given under Antyodya Anna Yojana:
(a) 5 Kg
(b) 10 kg
(c) 15 kg
(d) 35 kg
(d) 35 kg

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
India stands first in the world in the production of ……………
Bajra

Question 2.
Most of the crops in India depend on …………… rains.
Monsoon

Question 3.
The main occupation of India is ……………
Agriculture

Question 4.
Public distribution system comes under the control of …………… and …………… government.
State and central

Question 5.
Drought took place in …………… in Bengal and Lakhs of people died of hunger.
1943.

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Kharif crop (a) Mekrani wheat 2. Food Corporation of India (b) Food security 3. Cards for People who are above poverty line (MP 2012) (c) Rice 4. World Development Report (d) A.P.L. 5. Red Colour Small Grain (e) F.C.I.

1. (c)
2. (e)
3. (d)
4. (b)
5. (a)

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

Question 1.
India stands second in the production of wheat after rice.
True

Question 2.
Food should be available all the time under food security.
True

Question 3.
At present importance of food security is not much.
False

Question 4.
Declaration of supported price of agricultural crops means to give the guarantee of minimum price to farmers for their crops.
True

Question 5.
Cooperative stores places important role in food security.
True

Question 6.
Kharif crop is wheat. (MP 2010)
False

V. Give answer in one word:

Question 1.
Propagator of green revolution.
Norman E. Boat log

Question 2.
Jowar, Bajra, Macca is included in food.
Coarse crop

Question 3.
It is the main food of South India.
Jowar

Question 4.
The card given to the people below poverty line is.
B.P.L.

Question 5.
The crop which is swon in March and harvested in April.
Rabi crop.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 7 India: Population

Question 1.
Write short note on sex ratio or sex composition of population. (MP 2013)
The numerical proportion between male and female is known as sex ratio. It is expressed as a number of females per 1000 males.

Sex composition of population or sex ratio of population means the number of females per thousand of men. If the sex ratio is equal, it is good for the society. The social-economical and biological factors determine this sex ratio. In our country, the number of females is decreasing per thousand.

For example in census of 2001 sex ratio was 1000 : 933. Means per thousand males the number of females were 933. In old age women are more in number than males.

Reasons for less number of females:

• The social status of females in our society is less than men.
• Less attention is paid towards girl education than boy education.
• The birth of a boy is preferred than girl.
• Girls get less attention of their parents for their nourishing.
• More deaths of female occur during their delivery period.

Only Kerala, in India, has sex ratio of 1058. It is because of method being the head of the family. Sex ratio is low in Chandigarh (773), Andaman and Nicobar Island (846) Arunachal Pradesh (901), Sikkim (875) and Uttar Pradesh (898).

Question 2.
Why is density of population high in Northern plains?
The density of population is high in Northern plains because of the following reasons:

• Soil brought by the rivers Ganga and her tributaries make the plain fertile.
• In this plain the rainfall is sufficient for crops.
• There is a good network of transportation in Northern plain.
• These are rich in industry, so density of population is more.

Question 3.
What are the causes of migration in India?
Or
What are the causes of urbanization of India?
The following are the causes of migration:
1. Impact on agriculture: In agriculture many people are required. But where there is much pressure on agriculture people shift from one place to other. In villages agriculture is the only means of livelihood for Indian people. Thus, much pressure is there on agriculture land. Population is increasing and burden on agriculture is increasing so people are migrating from villages to cities in search of other work.

2. Overpopulation: Because of over population people migrate from one place to another. Due to pressure of population people cannot fulfil their basic needs and so for better life they prefer to change the place occupation, job, etc. In India from U.P. and Bihar people are migrating to other Indian states.

3. Less interest of educated people in agricultural field: Young educated people do not show any interest in settling down in village and do agriculture. These people like the white collar job and so in search of new work people migrate from villages to cities.

4. Attraction of cities: People living in villages have attraction of big cities. Big industries and occupation attract people to come to cities and work there. Thus, people migrate from villages to big cities.

5. Higher studies: Some times people temporarily migrate from one place to another for higher qualification and knowledge. Many engineers go western countries to have more technical knowledge. Some times people go out for better prospects.

Question 4.
Write any three/four problems of population growth. (MP 2009, 10)
The problems due to population growth are:

• Increase in unemployment
• Increase in population
• Shortage of resources
• Less savings, per capita income and economic development.

Question 5.
What do you mean by census? (MP 2011)
Official enumeration of population after a fixed time interval. In our country it is conducted after every ten years.

Question 6.
Gave your suggestions, on how to increase women literacy?
Measures to Increase Women literacy: In India, women literacy rate is very low as compared to the male literacy rate. Looking at the present figures, it becomes clear that women are less literate than men even today. In the year 2010 – 11, 82.14% of males and 65.46% of females were literate. The situation is even worse in the rural areas.

Population growth can be checked by increasing women literacy. Educated girls marry at a proper age. They avoid getting pregnant for sometime after marriage. Educated women do not lag behind in finding employment. Along with this they believe in less children and small family. Educated women are broad-minded. They understand the value and importance of family planning. They keep the number of their children very limited and also keep adequate gap between the birth of two children.

Educated women also do not differentiate between male and female child and give birth to only one or two kids. Therefore, girls should themselves come forward to get education; as educated girls can check population growth to a considerable extent. The Government should provide free eduction to girls in the rural areas. They should also be provided scholarship so that their parents come forward to get them educated.

Question 7.
What is population density? How is it calculated?
The ratio of population of a country or state and its per unit area (sq. km) is called its density. The following formula is used to calculate density of population of a country or state.
Population density = $$\frac{\text { Population of a country or state }}{\text { Area of a country or state }}$$

Question 8.
What do you understand by population explosion?
The term ‘population explosion’ is quite frequently used these days. This term refers to a situation in which there is a rapid and continuous increases in the population. The word ‘explosion’ is used to know that this type of increase in the population has a serious and harmful effects as that of a nuclear explosion.

With the development of a country, its medical and health facilities also improve. This results in rapid increase in the death rate as compared to the birth rate. Every infant saved from death today will grow up and reproduce thereby creating a situation of population explosion.

Question 9.
“Distribution of population is unequal in India” explain.
Distribution of population is unequal in India. Population is more in the plains than in the hilly areas, forest regions and desert areas. Similarly population is more in the fertile plains and coastal areas.

On the whole there are about 10 states each of which has a population of more than 6 crores. Some states have low population inspite of a large area, such as Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. More than half of the country’s population lives only in the five states of U.P., Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.

Question 1.
What is the national policy of population in India? Mention major points. (MP 2009, 13, 15)
India’s national population policy is to control growth rate of population by educating people about the disadvantages of big population. For this purpose, the following steps have been taken:

• Educational facilities are being provided to all levels.
• Primary education has been made compulsory.
• Marriage of a girl below 18 years and of a boy below 21 years has been made illegal and punishable.
• Programmes of family planning are taken place everywhere in the country.
• Number of children have been fixed We two ours two.
• Social security has been provided by the government by sanctioning and giving pension to old agers, unemployment allowance etc.
• Each and everyone is being made acquainted with population problem by electronic and print media.

Question 2.
What are the causes of high population in India?
The following are the causes of high population in India:
1. High birth rate: Any country which is having high rate of population has high population. Before 1921 in India birth rate was very high but at the same time death rate was also high. But after 1921 the birth rate remained high while death rate was reduced due to better health facilities. So the population increased rapidly.

2. Death rate: Death of person per thousand in a year is known as death rate. If death rate is high, the growth rate of population will be low. In India the death rate in 1921 was 47.2%. It is reduced by 32.4 per thousand in 1989. Therefore, growth rate of population increased.

3. Public health services: Public health services were extended more and more. Particularly after independence, new medicines like penicillin and antibiotics reduced the death rate and even fatal diseases like T.B. could be treated effectively.

4. Better living: After independence stress was laid on better living conditions both in rural and urban areas safe drinking water supply in cities and towns also controlled many water borne diseases.

5. Epidemic like plageaue were controlled. The national government extended these services to remote villages also.

Question 3.
Explain the development of literacy in India.
India is also a backward country in terms of literacy. The rate of literacy in India is very low compare to other countries. After independence the literacy rate in India is increased. In 1951 it was 18.33% but in 2001 it was 65.38%. In Kerala literacy rate is 90.92%. It is the highest in India. The literacy of both male and female are 94.20% and 87.86%. It is also highest in India. The lowest literacy rate is in Bihar. In Bihar female literacy is 33.57% where male literacy is 60.32%.

Literacy level is increased by 1991 – 2001. Number of illiterate people decreased by 328 million in 2001. Even the literacy rate in female also increased. It also increased in Rajasthan and Dadara and Nagar Haveli.

Question 4.
What do you mean by migration of population? Explain.
When population in large number goes out of the place or come in from out side it is called migration of population. This occurs in two ways:

1. Immigration: A large number of population goes out of the place resides then it is known as immigration.
2. Emigration: A large number of population goes out of the place to the other region and resides there, then it is known as Emigration.

There are two types of migration in general:
1. Internal migration: This type of migration occurs from one place to another or one region to another region or one state to another state in the internal parts of a country. In India, we have the right to go and reside in any parts of the country except in Kashmir.

2. External migration: Many people go outside of the country, some for employment, some for education and many for other purposes. Many people went to middle east particularly from Kerala to get good job. Many go to USA and other European Countries. In the same way people from all parts of the world come to India for different purposes. Both types of migration is known as International migration.

Question 5.
What are the measures to be taken to control the population growth?
Day-by-day the population is increasing. This is a challenge for our country. The following measures are taken to control population:

• Spread of education: 80% of people are living in villages and they are uneducated. Education should be spread in villages so that they can understand the importance of small family.
• Family planning programme: Family planning programme, should be introduced on large scale. It should be implemented in villages because population in villages are very high.
• Marriage age: In some places specially in village today also the age for marriage is very less. Because of early marriage the number of children is also more. So marriage age should be strictly implemented and followed.
• Number of children should be fixed: Number of children should be fixed. It should not be more than 1 or 2. For this special motivation should be given. In China same policy has been followed.

I. Choose the correct alternatives:

Question 1.
In which of the following period growth of population increased steadily :
(a) 1901 – 21
(b) 1921 – 51
(c) 1951 – 81
(d) 1981 – 2001
(b) 1921 – 51

Question 2.
According to 2001 census which is the densely populated state:
(b) Bihar
(c) Kerala
(d) W. Bengal
(d) W. Bengal

Question 3.
Which state has the highest percentage of literacy:
(b) Kerala
(c) Goa
(d) Delhi
(b) Kerala

Question 4.
Which is the densely populated Union Territory:
(a) Chandigarh
(b) Pondicherry
(c) Delhi
(c) Delhi

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
The first census took place in India in …………..
1872

Question 2.
World population day is celebrated on …………..
11 July

Question 3.
Total density of population in India is …………..
324

Question 4.
National population policy was established in …………..
2000

Question 5.
In India women literacy is ………….. (MP 2015)
54.16

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Low pressure area (a) 196 2. Go from one place to another and stay (b) 65.38% 3. Male literacy in M.P. (c) Migration 4. Total literacy in India (d) 76.80% 5. Density of population in M.P. (e) Mizoram

1. (e)
2. (c)
3. (d)
4. (b)
5. (a)

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

Question 1.
There is an increase girl baby murder.
True

Question 2.
Free education is up to the age of 20.
False

Question 3.
Family planning programme is not under central government.
False

Question 4.
By controlling the population standard of living can be raised.
True

Question 5.
Education gives rise to superstition.
True

V. Give answer in one word:

Question 1.
Average years of persons.
life expectancy

Question 2.
The number of deaths per thousand population in a year.
Death rate

Question 3.
Number of women per thousand of men population.
Sex ratio

Question 4.
Seventh largest country according to area.
India

Question 5.
Highest female literacy rate.