MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 10 Medieval India
Short Answer Type Questions
What were the features of Chalukya’s administration? (MP 2011)
The chief features of Chalukya’s administration were:
- They ruled for nearly 200 years.
- Monarchial form of government was prevalent. Emperor was the pivot of administrative system.
- They gave the federal lords the right to govern over the conquered territories.
- Villages was the smallest unit of administration.
Write a short note on AUauddin Khilji. (MP 2011)
Allauddin Khilji (1296 A.D. to 1316 A.D.) was very ambitious. His desire was to become the emperor of entire India. In order to accomplish this aim he attacked Sindh, Multan, Gujrat, Jalore, Jaisalmer, Ranthambor, Chittor, Ujjain, and Chanderi and won them. In order to win over four kingdoms of south Devagiri, Warangal, Dwar Samudra and Madhurai, he sent his military commander malik Kafur. He organized a big army and an espionage department. He crushed the power of revolting Sardars and Arms.
In order to make goods available to his army on less prices he implemented “market control policy” in Delhi. With his death in 1316 A.D. the Khilji dynasty also declined.
Who was Iltutmish?
The most efficient ruler among the slave dynasty rulers was Iltutmish. He crushed the power of the rebel Subedars and Sardars and formed a union of the Turks. Due to this far sightedness and diplomacy he saved Delhi from the attacks of the Mongol leader Chengiz Khan. Iltutmish attacked Ranthambor, Mandor, Nagod, Sambhar, Nayana, Jalore and Gwalior to contain the rising Rajput power. He won the Gwalior fort in 1232 A.D. The Sultan attacked Bhelsa and Ujjain parts of Malwa empire in 1234 A.D. and won them. He died in 1236 A.D.
What was the market policy of Allauddin? (MP 2013, 15)
Allauddin was very ambitious: In order to make goods available to his army on less prices he implemented market control in Delhi, which benefited the people of Delhi. He also implemented the rationing system. He made government granaries keeping in view the sudden change in the weather.
He fixed the rates of goods not on the basis of one’s wishes but in accordance to the cost of production, Bami in his book Tarikh-i-Firozshai has given a descriptive account of market control and a list of prices of goods. Excessive taxes were imposed on farmers, traders and Hindus. Taxes were collected strictly and without respite.
Write the contribution of Sher Shah’s administrative organization in Indian history. (MP 2010, 12)
Sher Shah’s brief period of rule has an important place in Indian history because he restored the lost Afghan pride and rekindled the old administrative system with fundamental reforms which proved to be foundation stones for future. Sher Shah gave utmost importance to the welfare of the people and laid the foundation of a strong administration, the advantage of which went to the Mughals.
He started many works in the field of military administration, judicial system, and land revenue system which was later adopted by Akbar. Sher Shah divided his Empire into Sarkars’ and Sarkars into Parganas. He made reforms in the currency system. The silver coin started by him was known as ‘Rupaiya’.
In the field of education he constructed Madarsas. For travellers he made arrangements for Sarais (Guest houses) and wells for travellers and got trees planted. Sher Shah got the entire land measured. He got reconstructed the old royal road from Kolkata to Peshawar ‘Grand Trunk road’ (Present G T. road) from Agra to Rajasthan and Gujarat and in south to Burhan got new roads constructed. He had a strong espionage system.
Write the contribution of Prithvi Raj Chouhan.
Prithvi Raj Chouhan was an able, brave, valiant and powerful Emperor. He had a fine army and army commanders. Prithvi Raj faced Ghori in 1191 A.D. on the plains of Tarain, this is known as the first Battle of Tarain. Ghori’s army could not with stand the massive attack launched by Prithvi Raj Chauhan’s army and were forced to flee. Ghori also fled in a wounded state. Prithvi Raj did not chase the fleeing army as it was against the Rajput honour and tradition to chase a fleeing army.
Consequently Ghori managed to escape. Ghori could not forget his disgraceful defeat and again made preparations for the war and attacked India the very next year. There was another battle fought in the plains of Tarain in 1192, which is known as the second battle of Tarain. Prithvi Raj fought valiantly and compelled the forces of Ghori to retreat but through diplomatic manovers Ghori imprisoned Prithvi Raj Chouhan.
Describe why Maharana Pratap is famous in Indian History? (MP 2015)
After udai Singh’s death in 1572 AD. his son Rana Pratap became the ruler of Mewar. He had to face many problems at home and outside after becoming the king. He spent a tough time with his father in jungles valleys and mountains. Maharana Pratap gave a tough challenge to Akbar till he lived. Rana Pratap, started organizing Me war to give Mughals a fight. He organized vassals (Samants) and Bheels.
For the first time Rana Pratap included the Bheels in his army and honoured them by giving them high positions. He shifted his residence from Kumbhalgarh to Gogunde so that Akbar could not attack it easily. Through public relations he created awareness against the Mughal power. These efforts brought unity and the entire Mewar rose against the Mughal power.
Write short notes on the following:
(1) Rani Durgawati (2) Chhatrapati Shivajee.
(1) Rani Durgawati: Rani Durgawati was a valiant warrior of medieval Indian history. She faced Mughal emperor Akbars greed for extension of the Empire with bravery courage and patience. Rani Duragwati was the Chandel princess of Mahoba. She was trained in horseriding armaments and kisher (iron claw) right from the childhood. She was married to the king of Garha Dalpat Shah. Nearly eight years after his marriage Dalpat Shah died.
Durgawati had to shoulder the responsibility of the state as guardian to her minor son Veemarayan. Rani managed the affairs of the state with courage and bravery. She cleverly made Baj Bahadur’s (rule of Malwa’s) attack unsuccessful.
Akbar sent Asaf Khan with a big army to attack on Garha state for extending his empire. Rani Durgawati decided to fight than surrendering. Asaf Khan attacked Garha in 1564 A.D.
Rani Durgawati bravely fought against the forces of Asaf Khan but in the end was wounded seriously. In the wounded state brave Durgawati was unable to continue the war but she did not want Akbar’s soldiers to imprison and humiliate her. Therefore, she killed herself with a sword while her son Veemarayan died while fighting.
(2) Chhatrapati Shivajee: Maharaja Shivaji was born on 20 April, 1627 A.D. in the hilly fort of Shivner in Maharashtra. His mother’s name was Jeejabai and father’s name was Shahji Bhonsle. During his childhood he also received military education. He learnt the lessons of honesty, uprightness, bravery and religiousness from his mother.
Shivaji did not like his father’s serving under the Sultan of Bijapur. Therefore, he decided to fight against the Sultan and organized an army. He won the first Torana in 1646 A.D. from Bijapur. He got fort Raigarh constructed five miles east of Torana. Hereafter he won one fort after the other. He won over Chakan. Kondana, Purandar, Javali, Konkan, etc.
Shivaji coronated himself in 1674 and became Chhatrapati. He made Raigarh his capital. After coronation Shivaji organized the entire state and states administrative system. Shivaji’s administration was based on public welfare. In his administration Ashtapradhan was important. By Ashtapradhan is meant the eight ministers who were responsible towards Shivaji. He died in 1680 A.D.
In management and administration Shivaji attained the highest success. He built powerful state. Shivaji had played an important role in routing out Mughal power from southern India. After Shivaji his successors Shahji, Raja Ram Sahu, Tarabai, etc. continued.
Describe Akbar’s religious policy. (MP 2010)
Akbar’s religious policy: After hearing discussion of various religions, Akbar felt that there was something good in every religion but due to the narrow mindedness of religious officials the religion was disrupted from its path and misunderstood. Therefore to end this he established a universal religion ‘Din-E-Illahi’.
Consequences of religious policy: There were the following consequences of religious policy propounded by Akbar:
- The long lasting bitterness between Hindus and Muslims ended and hence they came near.
- There was coordination between Hindu and Muslim policies in the fields of art, literature and tradition.
- Due to Akbar’s religious policy, Rajputs cooperated Mughal empire and assisted in its extension.
- Majority of citizens in the empire were Hindus which due to Akbar’s religious policy became supporters of Mughal empire.
- Due to the religious policy Akbar got non-muslim able administrators and brave warriors which strengthened Mughal empire.
What was the contribution of Prithvi Raj Chauhan in Indian History? (MP 2008, 09, 10, 12, 13)
Prithvi Raj Chauhan: Prithvi Raj Chauhan was an able, brave, valiant and powerful emperor of Delhi and Ajmer. He had a fine army and army commanders. Chandravardai was the contemporary poet during Prithvi Raj’s reign. He composed Prithvi Raj Raso in which he has described about Prithvi Raj’s valour and fame. Prithvi Raj faced Ghori in 1191 A.D. on the plains of Tarain, this is known as the first Battle of Tarain.
In this battle Mohammad Ghori was defeated by Prithvi Raj. Ghori could not forget his disgraceful defeat and again made preparations for the war and attacked India the very next year. There was another battle fought in the plains of Tarain in 1192 which is known as the second battle of Tarain. In the battle, Prithvi Raj was defeated by Mohammad Ghori.
Why is Maharanit Pratap famous in Indian history? Explain. (MP 2008, 10)
Write a short note on Maharana Pratap. (MP 2009)
Maharana Pratap was a brave and courageous Rajput ruler. He was the son of Rana Udai Singh and successorofRana Sanga. He made Kumbhanerhis capital. Akbar tried to befriend him but was unsuccessful and hence on 18 June, 1576 sent his army for attack in Haldi Ghati under the leadership of Man Single There was a war between the two armies.
Man Singh became victorious. Maharana Pratap fled away after being defeated. But he did not accept defeat. He carried on war against the Mughals and managed to win back many of the lost areas. He died in 1597 A.D. Akbar remained unsuccessful in suppressing Maharana Pratap till the end.
Who founded the mughal empire in India and under what circumstances? (MP 2010)
Babar who laid the foundation of the mughal empire in India was the son of the ruler of Fargana state in central Asia and a descendant of Taimur. During the time of Babar’s attack there was a political instability in north and south India. These was a predominance of national fighting, struggle and conspiracies.
Babar took full advantage of this political disorders. In 1526, the First Battle of Panipat’, was fought between Babar and Ibrahim lodhi, the ruler of Delhi. Ibrahim was killed in the battle and success gave him control of Delhi and Agra.
He wanted to crush the Rajput power to rule over India. On the other hand Rajput ruler were determined to crush the Mughals from India under the leadership of Rana Sanga. fierce battle between the arms of Babar and Rana Sanga.
Write the chief characteristics of Chola empire. (MP 2008, 09)
The most powerful ancient dynasty in southern India was the Cholas. The ancient Chola rulers have been described in the Sangam literature. Chola dynasty is known in history for its administrative reforms.
Characteristics of Chola Administration :
- King was the highest official of the state.
- Administration was done with the help of Council of Ministers.
- Empire was divided into Provinces, Mandalams, valanadus (districts).
- The smallest unit or administration was the Gram and this important unit Grama was divided into 3 parts (assembly of the common people), Sabha (intellectuals, Brahmins), Nagaram (trades, shopkeepers, sculptors). There were several committees for the administrative organization of the Grama.
- Agriculture and trade was well developed.
- The chief source of state’s income was land revenue and tax on trade
- Trade as means of communication were developed and there was foreign trade too.
How did Tughlaq dynasty make a control over Delhi Sultanate? Analyse (MP 2009)
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq laid the foundation of Tughlaq dynasty. He could not bear the chaos prevailing after the death of Alauddin Khilji. In 1320 A.D. he removed the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty Nasir-ud-din Khusro and became the Sultan of Delhi. He led military campaigns to Warangal, Orissa and Bengal after becoming the Sultan.
What do you know about later medieval period?
The period from 13th century A.D. to 18th century A.D. is known as the later medieval period. During this period the foreign invaders carried on their destructive activities one after the other on India which Indian stiffly resisted from time to time. After stiff struggle the invaders were able to establish their rule on India.
Who was Ghiyas-ud-din Balban? Give brief description.
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban: Balban bought by sultan Ututmish. He impressed his master with his ability and services and was soon made a member of group of 40 Amirs ‘Chalisa’ Balban served Ututmish and his successors with full loyalty. He sat on the throne in 1206 A.D. After the death of Nasruddin Mahmood, Balban followed the policy of ‘blood and Iron’ for regulating his administration. He organised a despotic monarchical administrative organisation. He reorganised the army for the security of his kingdom and established a powerful espionage system.
Long Answer Type Questions
Write down the live kingdoms of 8th century A.D. of North India and explain any one kingdom. (MP 2010)
The chief five kingdoms of north were during the 8th century A.D.:
- Rashtrakutas/Gurjar Prathihar
- Pala dynasty
- Chalukya dynasty (solanki)
- Parmar dynasty
- Chandel dynasty
Gurjar Pratihar: Nagabhatt I was the founder of Pratihar dynasty. He took whole Maiwa and East Rajasthan under his control. After Nagabhatt there were two other rulers but there is no description about their region. The fourth important ruler was Vatsraj who tried to expand the empire. After Vatsraj Nagabhatt-II, Ramchandra, Mihir Bhoj, Mahendra Pal, Bhoj-II and Mahipal were the prominent rulers. After Mahipal, Pratihar dynasty saw its downfall. Guijar Pratihar dynasty ruled from 8th to 11th century A.D.
What were the objectives of Mahmud Gaznavi’s and Mohammad Gori’s attack on India? Write the causes of their success.
Mohammad Gori’s invasion: After 150 years of Mahmood Gaznavi’s invasion, Mohammed Gori ruler of a small principality Gor in Afghanistan in the north west India. Taking advantage of the mutual conflicts of the Indian rulers Gori first invaded India in nearly 1175 A.D. and brought Multan and Sindh under his domination.
The objective of Mohammad Gori’s invasion on India was acquiring wealth and propagating Islam. During this time, Hindu states in northern India induded-Chouhan state of Delhi and Ajmer Solanki Kingdom in Kannauj, Sena Kingdom in Bengal-Bihar and Chandel kingdom in Bundelkhand. In southern India Devgiri and Warangal and Hoysal were prominent states.
Invasions of Mahmood Gaznavi: Mahmood was an ambitious ruler of a small principality of Western Asia. He needed money for his army. He had heard many legends about Indian wealth. In order to plunder India’s wealth, he invaded many parts of northern India from about 1000 to 1027 A.D. Mahmood made 17 (seventeen) successful attacks on India. Punjab, Multan, Bhatinda, Nagarkot, Narainpur, Kashmir, Thanesar. Mathura, Kalinjar and Somnath were prominent centres of invasion. Places on the given map.
Gaznavi destroyed many religious places and looted and carried immense wealth to Gaznavi. The famous writer Alberuni who came to India with Mahmood Gaznavi has written about the carnage of Mahmoods destruction. His attacks led to great economic and cultural loss to the country. The contemporary Hindu rulers faced Mahmood Gaznavi but were unsuccessful due to lack of political unity.
Describe the administrative organization of king Krishna Dev Raja and its impact on the people.
The form of administration of Vijaynagar Empire was despotic monarchy. The powers of the king were uncontrolled and unlimited. The basis of the state was Hindu religion. The administration of Vijaynagar was divided into Central, provincial and local administration.
In the Central administration of Vijaynagar the Emperor, minister Council, Kings assembly, Prince played an important role.
The Emperor had the chief position in the State and was called the Raja. All powers of the state were concentrated in his hands. He himself administered the state. Declaration of war and treaty, appointment of officers and workers organization of law and justice, etc. were in his hands. There was a central secretariat for the administration of the state in which there were various departments, Chairman, secretaries and officers.
Vijaynagar administration can be divided into two.
(1) Provincial administration: The Empire was divided into provinces, Provinces were divided into Kottams or Valanadus. Kottam was a district which was divided into Nadus. Nadus were divided into cities. Village was the smallest unit of the state. The responsibility of the province was in the hands of a member of the royal family or powerful feudal lord.
(2) Local administration: The smallest unit of administration was the village. There was a representative body (Pratinidhi Sabha) for the administration of the village which had the representatives of the village. The Pradhan (chief) of the Gram Panchayat was called Iyengar. He was also given some powers of justice and punishment. He also collected royal taxes. Gram Sabha could donate or sell the land under it. Gram Sabha was given the power to decide some diwani (revenue) and Fauijdari (criminal) cases.
Examine the Rajput and religious policy of Akbar. (MP 2013)
Akbar followed a policy of diplomacy and friendship to win over entire India. Akbar won Malwa, Jaunpur, Chinnaur, Meerut, Gondwana, Ranthambhor, Kalinjar, Marwar, Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal, Kabul, Kashmir, Sindh, Orissa and many parts of South India. After along struggle in 1567-1588 A.D. he conquered Chittor. Rajputs gave a tough challenge to Akbar under the leadership of Jaimal and Fatta.
Akbar was clever ruler. He understood that Rajputs were loyal and served their masters even at the cost of their lives, it was therefore necessary to work in association with the Rajputs. He did not have the courage to fight with all the Rajput states therefore he followed a separate policy towards the Rajputs. Akbar befriended the Rajputs and took fine and loyal and brave Rajputs in his service, which prolonged the life of Mughal empire.
Akbar gave high mansabs to some Rajput kings like Bhagwandas, Raja Mansingh, Birbal and Todarmal. Akbar also established friendly and matrimonial alliances with the Rajputs. Akbar married the princess of Amer (Jaipur) Bikaner and Jaisalmer. In this manner Rajputs had an important contribution in realization of Akbar’s dream of a powerful and extensive empire.
He waged wars against the Rajput kingdoms who did not accept his sovereignty. Akbar established a universal religion Din-I-Illahi. He got Ibadatkhana constructed in Fatehpur Sikri where he held religious discussions with the followers of all religions.
What were the causes of decline of Mugal Empire? (MP 2010)
Following were the causes of decline of Mugal empire:
(1) Excessive Taxes: Mughal rulers imposed heavy taxes on the people for their pleasures and wars, paying which became impossible for the people. Their were voices of revolt among the common man.
(2) Vastness of Empire: The vastness of Mughal Empire in and outside India also became a cause of decline of Mughal Empire. A vast empire could have only been regulated through a centralized authority. Due to weak central authority the Mughal Empire also started breaking up. Akbar had saved the empire by his diplomacy but his successors were not successful in this.
(3) Revolts of Chieftains and Prince: Revolts of Loyal Chieftains and Princes also helped in the decline of Mughal Empire. The revolts of royal leaders like Saleem, Khusro, Shah Jahan and Amangzeb also gave a blow to the unity of the Empire.
(4) War of Succession: The war of Succession for power also gave a deep wound to the Mughal Empire. There was no certain rule of succession in Muslim royal power. There were many claimants to the throne due to which the successor was decided on the bayonet point. The war of succession between the sons of Jehangir and among the sons of Shahjahan for power aided the decline of Mughal Empire.
(5) Moral decline of Mughal rulers: Early Mughal rulers were loyal and virtuous towards their state. But the Mughal rulers from Jehangir were pleasure seeking and complacements.
(6) Religious Policy: The religious policy of the Mughals was bias. Most of the rulers were staunch followers of Islam. They supported the spread and growth of Islam, whereas harmed other religions and other religion followers, due to which Mughal Empire could not get their support.
(7) Rise of Hindu Powers: The rise of new Hindu powers also played a role in the decline of Mughal Empire. Marathas, Jats, Sikhs, Rajputs, etc. reorganized themselves and rose against the Mughal empire which had struck Hindu culture.
Continuous wars, autocratic rule decline of military power, moral decline of Amirs (nobles), groupism and other reasons also aided the decline of mughal empire.
What is the contribution of Sher Shah’s administrative system in Indian hisrofy: (MP 2012)
Sher Shah Suri: Sher Shah Sun holds and important place among the Medieval period’s of Indian rulers. He ruled only for five years but in this brief period, he extended the empire and laid a strong administrative system. He gave utmost important to the welfare of the people and laid the foundation of a strong administration, the advantage of which went to the Mughals. His important works were as follows:
- He started many works in the field of military administration, judicial system, and land revenue system which was later adopted by Akbar.
- Sher Shah divided his empire into Sarkars, and Sarkars into Parganas.
- He got reconstructed the old royal road from Kolkata to Peshawar, Grand Trunk Road (Present G.T. Road), from Agra to Rajasthan and Gujarat and in south to Burhan got new roads constructed.
- For travellers he made arrangements for Sarais (Guest houses) and wells and got trees planted on both sides of roads.
- In the field of education, he constructed Madarssas.
- He opened Langars (for free food) for orphans and poors.
I. Choose the correct alternative:
Mahmood Gaznavi was the ruler of:
The founder of the slave dynasty was: (MP 2009)
(b) Mohammad Ghori
(c) Qutub-ud-din Aibak
Who injured Ghori in the 1st battle of Tarain:
(b) Krishna Raya
Which empire did Harihar and Bukka found: (MP 2015)
(a) Bahamani empire
(b) Vijay Nagar empire
(c) Delhi Sultanat
(d) Mohammad Nagar
(b) Vijay Nagar empire
Who Killed Afzal Khan:
(b) Raja Ram
In 1266 Delhi sultanat was taken by:
(b) Razia Sultan
(c) Qutab-ud-din Aibak
II. Fill in the blanks:
Krishna Dev Rai was the ruler of …………..
The head of the Gram panchayat is called …………..
The elder son of Babar was …………..
The ruler of Mewar was …………..
After Jahangir became ………….. ruler.
III. Match the following:
|1. Gurjar Pratihar dynasty||(a) Dalpatishah|
|2. Pal dynasty main rule||(b) vijay Nagar|
|3. Harihar, Bukka||(c) Nagbhatta I|
|4. Iltutmish||(d) Dharma Pal|
|5. Durgavati||(e) Slave dynasty|
IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:
Akbar was clever emperor.
Guru Govind Singh established Khalsa organization in 1699.
The first battle of Panipat was fought in 1536.
The minister of Vijay Nagar Ramrai was diplomat.
The first ruler of Vijay Nagar was Harihar.
Jaziya tax was levied on Hindus.
V. Write answers in one word:
Who built Grand Trunk road?
Sher Shah Suri
Founder of Khalsa Panth.
Guru Govind Singh
Defeated Ibrahim Lodi and founded Mugal dynasty in Delhi.
Cousin of Krishna Dev Rai.
By whom was the land measurement policy made in Akbars’ reign correctly?
Todar Mai as Todar Mai Bandobust