MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by election? Write.
Answer:
Election is a process through which people of democratic countries elect their representatives for a fixed period of time.

Question 2.
Why is the election symbol alloted to the political parties in each election?
Answer:
In an election, different political parties and non-party candidates are participating. The election symbols are helpful for identification of the candidate or party and these symbols also make voting flexible and easier.

Question 3.
How many members are there in the election commission?
Answer:
In the election commission there are three commissioners. One chief and two other. All the three have equal powers.

Question 4.
What is a coalition (association) government?
Answer:
When a single party does not get a majority and few parties together to form a government, that government is called a coalition or an association government.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is known by National Political Parties? (2011)
Answer:
National political parties are those parties which are popular in the whole country. Although a party is a national party, it does not mean that it will have equal popularity in every state. The influence of national parties varies from state to state.

To be recognised as a national political party, any one of the following conditions should be fulfilled – (1) Any political party which obtains at least 6% votes in the election of parliament or state legislative assembly, or (2) if any political party obtains at least 2% of total seats of the parliament, and this position should be in minimum three states.

Question 2.
Write the characteristics of political parties. (2014)
Answer:
Characteristics of political parties:

  • To maintain a clear identity.
  • To opine clearly regarding policy matters.
  • Registration in election commission.
  • Be united by one regulation.
  • They have a main aim to win election for obtaining power.
  • To obtain public opinion in support of its policy continuously.

Question 3.
What is the difference between Mid-term election and Bye-election? (2010)
Or
What is a mid-term election? (2016)
Answer:
Mid-Term Election: If the Lok Sabha or state legislative assemblies are dissolved before their tenure then, the elections which take place are Mid-Term Elections.

Bye-Election: In any area, if any post is vacant due to the resignation or death of any candidate then such elections are called Bye-Elections.

Question 4.
Write five functions of a political party. (2008, 12)
Answer:
Functions of a political party: The main functions of political parties are as follows:

  • They work as a bridge between the government and the public.
  • They form public opinion about various issues of national interest.
  • They select candidates for elections.
  • They make efforts to control the arbitrariness of the ruling party.
  • The main function of politcal party is to get victory in elections and to form the government.

Question 5.
What is an electoral roll? Write its uses. (2009)
Answer:
This is the first and the most important stage of the elections. Before each and every election, electoral rolls are prepared. Any Indian citizen who has attained 18 years of age can get his/her name included and the names of persons who have left the city or have expired are deleted from the list. This electoral roll is also known as the voter’s list.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

Question 6.
Describe the role of opposition parties. (2008, 09 13)
Or
Write the role of opposition parties in the Indian politics. (2008)
Answer:
The opposition parties keep a check on the government. In a parliamentary democracy the public do not keep the work of government under direct control. This is done by the opposition party. The opposition parties in parliament and legislative assemblies also suggest new policies and functions.

The government performs its responsibilities with more alertness due to the presence of deliberation and discussion. The opposition cooperates to remove the defects of law. During the sessions of legislature and parliament the role of the opposition becomes more important. The opposition pressurises the government by asking questions in the house, calls attention to notices or adjournment motions.

Thus the opposition establishes its efficacy before the public and it places the mistakes and weaknesses of government before them. It compels the government to rectify its mistakes by criticising the policies and action of the government. The government gets influenced by the propaganda and tactics of the opposition.

Question 7.
Explain the types of political parties on the basis of the number of political parties. (2013)
Answer:
Type of Party System: On the basis of the number of political parties the party system is divided into three categories:
(1) Single Party System: In a country where there is only one political party, it is called a single party system. In the countries having single party system a single party is recognized and the existence and idealogies of other parties are restricted.

(2) Bi-party System: In a country if only two main parties exist and the ruling power shifts between these two parties only, then this system is called Bi-party system. For example in America the main two parties are the democratic and republican parties and in Britian labour and conservative parties. Thus the bi-party system is prevalent in the United States of America and Britain.

(3) Multi-party System: When in a country several political parties exist then it is called a multi-party system. We have multi-party system in our country’. In the elections many small and insignificant parties take part, but they are not necessary. When there is no majority of any single party then a coalition government is formed. Two or more parties are united in a coalition government.

Question 8.
What is the political party system? Explain its importance. (2009)
Answer:
Different political parties are essential for the parliamentary type of democracy. Political parties are organized groups of citizens having similar ideology. They are committed to their policies and programmes. They work in a form of power and they are always attempting to gain power and continue it.

Importance of Party System: The party system makes democratic rule possible. In the modem age the work of government is done with the help of political parties. They help government to make policies. With their help it also becomes easier to bring changes in the policies. Due to the party system, the government becomes welfare oriented and works in the interest of people. They stop arbitrariness of the government.

The desires and expectations of the public reach the government through them. They impart political education to people. Everybody gets an opportunity to become a part of the government through these parties. Political parties protect the independence of citizens. They establish the unify of the nation.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

Question 9.
What do you mean by Universal Adult Franchise? (2015)
Answer:
The right to elect representatives is called suffrage. The granting of right to vote to an adult male and female of country without any discrimination is called universal adult franchise. In this system after attaining a specific age, all citizens are granted the right of suffrage. It is an important political right.

Question 10.
Explain the meaning of General election and write its importance. (2015)
Answer:
Meaning of General Election: Elections which take place at fixed period of time are known as General Elections. In our country general elections are held to choose the representatives of Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha.

Importance: Elections are very important for a democratic country. Everybody gets an opportunity to become a part of the government through contesting elections. These elections are very necessary.

Question 11.
Write any four importances of political parties. (2017)
Answer:
Importance of political parties – Political parties are a result of modem democratic system. Their importance can be explained as follows

  • Formation of public opinion: Political parties make the public aware of the social problems and give information about good and bad. The public therefore forms opinion about social problems.
  • Helpful in creating public awareness: Public comes to know about economic, social and political problems of the country through political parties.
  • Important for parliamentary government: The formation of government in parliamentary system is on the basis of parties. The party with the majority forms the government.
  • Important for democracy: In democratic system political parties are important. Election would be difficult without them. Parties form the government and they only keep a check on it. They form a link between government and public.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write demerits of the election system of India. (2009, 17)
Or
Explain any two causes responsible for shortcomings of the Indian electoral system. (2011)
Or
Describe the main defects of the Indian electoral system.
Answer:
The following are the main defects of our electoral system:
(1) Lack of complete participation in voting: The aim of universal adult franchise is to make every citizen participate in the government indirectly. A large number of voters do not exercise their right to vote in the parliamentary and state legislative elections. Therefore the elected candidate getting the maximum votes does not represent the public in the real sense. Therefore participation of all citizen in exercising their franchise is desirable.

(2) Influence of muscle power in elections: Sometimes the candidates try to win the election by unfair means. For this they take help of criminals also. Often with the use of muscle power, booth capturing is resorted to and voters are made to vote in some one’s favour by threatening them or by voting illegally.

(3) Misuse of government machinery: Before the time of elections charming promises are made by the ruling party. During the elections, high officials are transferred and government, money and vehicle and other means are misused. They also try to influence the election officers. All these affect the impartiality of the elections.

(4) Impersonation (Fraud franchise): Sometimes some persons vote in place of other persons, include their names in more than one electoral rolls, cast votes without the inclusion of their names in the electoral roll etc. all are fraudulent franchise. This is also a big problem of our election system.

(5) Other defects: The name of the citizens should compulsory be included in the electoral roll to allow him to vote for a candidate in an election. We often see that several names of the voters are not included in the electoral roll while the names of persons who have left the constituency or have expired are not deleted from the electroal rolls.

A large number of voters on one voting booth is also a problem sometimes one candidate contests from more than one constituency. If he wins in both the constituencies than the candidate resigns from one constituency. In that condition bye-election takes place. The government money as well as the money of candidates is wasted.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

Question 2.
Describe the Indian election procedure. (2009)
Answer:
The whole procedure of election can be compiled in the following ways:
(1) Preparation of electoral rolls: Before each and every elections, electoral rolls are prepared by the District Election Officer. Voter’s identity cards are also prepared by the District Election Officer.

(2) Notification of election: Every election procedure begins with notification of election. After the deliberation with the Election Commission the notification is published in the government Gazette. After issuing the election notification the election commission announces the election programme.

(3) Nomination for election: The candidates who want to fight election file their nomination papers personally and deposit them in front of the election officer. After the scrutiny of the nomination papers the list of nominees is announced on a fixed date. The final list of nominees is issued after the time for withdrawal of names is over.

(4) Election symbols: The election symbol of the party is alloted to the concerned candidates. At the time of elections, the election symbol of the candidate is printed on the ballot papers or shown on the electronic voting machine against his name.

(5) Election campaign: The election campaign is an important aspect of the voting procedure. Each candidate presents his party’s programme on the election manifesto regarding the work which will be done by his party in the coming five years before the people and tries to get the favour of the voters. Newspapers, posters, banners, pamplets are used for canvassing. Now time is given to political parties on radio and television also. Canvassing is stopped forty eight hours before the polling begins.

(6) Polling: The polling centres are fixed for each voter, where he casts his vote on the day of polling. On the day of polling voters come and line up in a queue. Voting can be done in two ways – (1) by electronic voting machine, (2) Ballot system. Before casting of vote the voter’s identity is verified then the voter who has came to caste his/ her vote has to put his/her signature/thumb impression on the voter’s list. After the period of voting is over the electronic voting machine is closed and sealed.

(7) Counting: All ballot boxes and electronic voting machines are collected on a fixed date. Counting takes place in front of district election officer. The candidate who obtains maximum number of votes is declared elected. The elected candidate is the representative of his/her area.

On the day of election a public holiday is declared so that all citizens get an opportunity to cast their vote. On the day of election all liquor shops of that area are closed. Special security arrangements are made so that nobody scares the voters.

Question 3.
Explain the principles of franchise.
Answer:
Principles of Franchise
It is a serious question for all democratic systems that what should be the basis of franchise. Whether this right should be given to all citizens of the state or only to some selected citizens. In this reference the following are the principles of franchise:

(1) Principle of tribal franchise: According to this, franchise to each individual of the state should be granted, because it is not a specific right or facility but it is a natural and active part which influences the life of every citizen. This opinion was prevalent, within the old meetings of ancient Greece, Rome and other states where franchise was done by raising hands. Probably the compulsion of citizenship in the modern age is its prototype.

(2) Principle of nature: According to this principle the government is a man-made machinery. It is based on the consent of the people. Therefore, the right to choose the ruler is a natural right of the people. During the 17th and 18th centuries this principle was very popular.

(3) Principle of law: According to this principle franchise is not a natural right of the people but this is a political right. It is only the government which decides to whom the franchise should be granted. Every government decides it according to its conditions and social positions.

(4) Principle of morals: According to this principle for the development of personality, man should have the right to decide through franchise who will govern him. It gives birth to political sensitivity and makes him aware of the policies and programmes of government.

(5) Principle of universal adult franchise: This is the most prevalent principle among the democratic states. According to this every adult citizen of the state can exercise the right to vote without only discrimination. The demand for universal franchise and sovereignty of the people was raised during 17th and 18th centuries. The right of adulthood was included in it.

(6) Principle of pluralistic franchise: The principle of “One man one vote” is accepted everywhere in the modern democratic system, but the system of pluralistic franchise has also been prevalent in several states for the last few years. According to the basic concept of this principle of suffrage the number of votes of persons should be less or more on some basis.

(7) Principle of weighed franchise: According to this principle votes are not counted but weightage is given to them. Here weight means importance that is in electing the government the weight of the vote of a persons who is adorned with any specially such as education, wealth or property will be more than that of an ordinary person.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

Question 4.
Write the functions of the election commission. (2008, 09, 10, 12, 14, 16)
Answer:
The functions of the election commission are as follows:
(1) Delimitation of the constituencies: Before any election the area of each constituency is demarcated. This is done after every 10 years on the basis of census.

(2) Preparation of electoral roll: The election commission prepares a list of citizens who are eligible to vote in accordance with the concerned polling booth before every election.

(3) Allotment of election symbols: The election symbols of national and regional political parties are fixed and reserved by the election commission. The distribution of electoral symbols to the non-party candidates is also done by the election commission.

(4) Registration and recognition of political parties: Registration of political parties and the need, to give them recognition as national or regional parties on the basis of the votes obtained in the last elections of parliament or legislative assembly are the functions of the commission.

(5) Holding elections: The election programmes is announced by the election commission. It makes arrangements and all efforts for holding free and impartial elections.

(6) To give their opinion regarding disqualification of the members: To give their opinion regarding disqualification of the representatives is also the function of the commission.

(7) Miscellaneous work: The election commission is empowered to fix the limit of expenses of the candidates. It also provides means for the improvement of the election procedure and also for training of candidates.

Question 5.
What is meant by the political party? Write its four features. (2008)
Answer:
Political party:
National political parties are those parties which are popular in the whole country. Although a party is a national party, it does not mean that it will have equal popularity in every state. The influence of national parties varies from state to state.

To be recognised as a national political party, any one of the following conditions should be fulfilled – (1) Any political party which obtains at least 6% votes in the election of parliament or state legislative assembly, or (2) if any political party obtains at least 2% of total seats of the parliament, and this position should be in minimum three states.

Characteristics of political parties:

  • To maintain a clear identity.
  • To opine clearly regarding policy matters.
  • Registration in election commission.
  • Be united by one regulation.
  • They have a main aim to win election for obtaining power.
  • To obtain public opinion in support of its policy continuously.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Out of these, who can be granted adult franchise?
(i) Minor male and female
(ii) Only male
(iii) Adult male and female
(iv) Only female
Answer:
(iii) Adult male and female

Question 2.
Who does not have right to vote?
(i) Insane or mentally handicapped
(ii) Minor age group
(iii) Declared bankrupt by court
(iv) All of the above
Answer:
(iv) All of the above

Question 3.
“Without universal adult franchise, democracy is meaningless”. these words said in the constituent assembly?
(i) 20 January, 1949
(ii) 17 November, 1949
(iii) 25 November, 1950
(iv) 25 January, 1950
Answer:
(ii) 17 November, 1949

Question 4.
“Only those people who possess property can exercise the right of suffrage.” This opinion is prevalent according to which principle of franchise?
(i) Principle of tribal Franchise
(ii) Principle of feudal Franchise
(iii) Principle of Morals
(iv) Principle of Law
Answer:
(ii) Principle of feudal Franchise

Question 5.
In India, the election procedure is said to start after which of the following:
(i) After filling of nomination paper by candidate
(ii) After notification of election
(iii) After beginning of campaigning
(iv) With organising of public meetings
Answer:
(ii) After notification of election

Question 6.
How many hours before the polling is canvassing stopped?
(i) 24 hours
(ii) 36 hours
(iii) 48 hours
(iv) 72 hours
Answer:
(iii) 48 hours

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
The right of citizens to elect representative is called ………… (2009, 14, 15)
Answer:
suffrage

Question 2.
India has adopted ………… suffrage system.
Answer:
secret

Question 3.
Elections which take place at a fixed period of time are known as ………… election. (2010)
Answer:
general

Question 4.
When few parties together form a government, that is called as ………… government. (2017)
Answer:
coalition

Question 5.
………… is a process in which citizens of a country elect their representatives. (2011)
Answer:
Election.

Match the Columns

A B
1. Appointment of the Chier Election Commissioner (2008) (a) Universal Adult Franchise
2. Right to choose representatives (b) 18 years
3. Right of voting (2009, 12, 14) (c) President
4. Election (2017) (d) Prime Minister
5. Leader of the majority party (2012, 15) (e) Code of conduct

Answers:
1. (c)
2. (a)
3. (b)
4. (e)
5. (d)

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

True/False

Question 1.
In our country all males and females who have attained the age of 18 years have the right to vote. (2016)
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Who do not get majority are called parties of the opposition. (2013)
Answer:
True

Question 3.
Equal importance of vote of every citizen. (2014)
Answer:
True

Question 4.
The Prime Minister appoints the Chief Election Commissioner. (2009)
Answer:
False

Question 5.
The dates of general elections are fixed by the election commission. (2009)
Answer:
True

Question 6.
The office of the Indian election commission is in Mumbai. (2009)
Answer:
False

Answer in One Word/Sentence

Question 1.
What is a right to elect representatives of citizen called? (2009, 13)
Answer:
Suffrage.

Question 2.
What is the tenure of the election commissioners? (2009)
Answer:
6 years.

Question 3.
Political parties not getting majority. (2011)
Answer:
Opposition parties.

Question 4.
The people of democratic countries elect their representatives for a fixed period of time. (2016)
Answer:
Election.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 11 Election

Question 5.
Who appoints the chief election commissioner? (2008, 15, 17)
Answer:
The President.

Question 6.
Elections which take place at a fixed period of time. (2009)
Answer:
General Elections.

Question 7.
The terms and conditions of law and order and instructions to be followed by the parties and candidates during election. (2010)
Answer:
Code of Conduct.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

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