MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 9 History of Ancient India
Short Answer Type Questions
Write the Characteristics of Harappan civilization.
The following are the characteristics of Indus valley civilization:
1. Organized civilization: Indus valley civilization had an advanced urban culture. The idea of the nature of this civilization can be had from seals Potteries, toys, idols and jewellery.
2. Life of people (Occupation): Most of the Harappan people were farmers. They cultivated wheat, cotton and barley, etc. Cotton fabric was commonly used as well as ex-ported. The domesticated animals and also did fishing on mass scale. People kept elephants.
3. Toys, pots and seals: A large variety of clay toys have been found at various sites of Harappa. Models of carts with animals and carts with wheels, birds with stick like legs, etc. Seals are the most distinctive part of Harappan culture. They are square tables made of clay embossing on one side and engraving on others.
4. Planned cities: Harappa and Mohanjodaro were well-planned cities. The roads were made of bricks, they were broad and straight, cutting one another at right angles.
5. Metal age civilization: Indus valley civilization was a metal age civilization. Mainly Bronze was used in this period.
What were the cause of downfall of Mauryan Empire? (MP 2010)
The causes of the downfall of Mauryan empire are:
- The successor of Ashoka were incapable. They divided the empire among themselves and could not keep the empire.
- The oppression of provincial officers.
- Lack of nationalism in the subjects.
- Ashoka’s policy of non-violence made military administration weak.
- There was lethargy in the administer system.
What was the importance of Kalinga war in the Indian history?
Kalinga had a special importance in Indian History because there was a change in Ashoka’s attitude and he followed a policy of peace. Ashoka fought a fierce war with Kalinga. Kalinga was defeated at the end. In this war lacs of people died and many were imprisoned. Looking to this Ashoka was filled with profound sorrow and grief.
Ashoka’s attitude was changed after this war he decided to follow the path of peace rather than that of war. The era of Military conquests or Digvijay was over and era of spiritual conquest or Dharmavijay began. Ashoka became a follower of Buddhism. Thus, Kalinga war gave new direction to Ashoka’s life.
Write the characterisation of administrative system of Gupta period.
Like Mauryan rulers, the Gupta rulers also made public welfare as the basis of their administration. The king was the highest official of the state. The final authority of the state was in his hands. There was a council of ministers and other officials to assist the king.
The chief source of income was the land revenue, which was called ‘Bhaga’. This was generally 1\6 of the production. Gupta empire was divided into three parts – Central, provincial and local administration. The chief objective of the Gupta rulers was public welfare. For this they made hospitals, dharmashala, rest houses, schools, roads, etc.
Write the expansion of Marsha’s administration.
Emperor Harshavardhan was the son of ruler of Thaneshar, Prabhakar Vardhan. His sister Rajashree had no son so he got the Kingdom of Kannuj also. He ascended the thrones in 606 A.D. at the age of 16. Tims, he became the ruler of both Kannuj and Thaneshar. His empire spread from Himalayas in the north to river Narmada in the south. In the east from Bengal to Indus. He had political relations with China and Parsi.
“Civilization of Indus valley was known as planned city civilization”. Explain. (MP 2012, 15)
“Harappan civilization was known as planned city civilization”. Explain.
Cities of Mohanjodaro and Harappa (City Planning): Harappa and Mohanjodaro were well planned and thickly populated cities. The roads were made of bricks, these were broad and straight, cutting one another at a right angles. The main roads here were about 10 metres wide and 800 metres long. The houses here were on either side of the road and made out of burnt bricks. Some houses were double storeyed and each house had a bathroom, kitchen and a well. The drainage system was the best found in any civilization.
In Mohanjodaro, a great bath has been found, it had a flight of steps leading to water and all along the tank were small rooms. In Harappa, a citadel has been found. It stood on a raised platform and contained structure that shows it to be a public buildings. Most of the cities had big granaries to store grain. Lothal had a structure that looks like a dockyard showing that this city must have been a trading centre at one time. Because of these reasons Harappan civilization is known as city civilization.
Who was the first ruler of Vijay Nagar? Explain about him in short.
The first ruler of Vijaynagar was Harihar. He ruled with the help of his brother Bukka and expanded his empire. In a short span of time he extended his empire from Krishna river in the north to Kaveri river in the south and till the sea coast in the east and west. He established a firm administration.
Who was Megasthencs? Name his literary work.
Megasthenes visited Chandragupta’s court as a Messenger. He wrote ’Indica’.
Which battle gave a new way to Ashoka’s life?
The battle of Kalinga gave a new way to Ashoka’s life. He adopted Buddhism after the battle of Kalinga.
Which are the most important sources that help in the study of ancient history?
Rock edicts, writing on copperplates, birch bark, currency, statues and monuments are the important sources that help in the study of ancient history.
Write the number of Vedas and name them.
There are four Vedas. They are:
Where are Lothal and Kaiibanga situated? Why are these famous in ancient India?
Lothal: It is situated 48 km North from Rangpur in Gujarat.
Kaiibanga: It is situated in Ganganagar district of Rajasthan on the bank of river Ghaghar.
These are the important cities of Indus valley civilisation. The remains found at these places gives a lot of information.
Who discovered Mohanjodaro and Harappa?
Mohanjodaro was discovered by Rakladas Baneijee in 1927. Harappa was discovered by Dr. Dayaram Sahni in 1921.
Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the victory campaign of Samudragupta.
After Chandragupta-I his son Samudragupta inherited the throne.
- He extended the boundaries of the empire inherited by him and gone political unity to India.
- In his victory campaign he conquered nine powerful states of northern India and merged them into his kingdom.
- He also conquered the Atavika states of central India.
- His conquest of the south “Dakshinapath” he won over 12 states but returned them to the kings.
- These states gave annual taxes to the Gupta rulers.
- Due to his victory over Aryavrratta and Dakshinapath the frontier states and republics got scared and they accepted the sovereignty of Samudragupta.
References of his victory has been mentioned in Harisen’s Allahabad pillar insertion.
Write about Vedic life.
Write about the special features of social economic political and religious life in period.
Following are the special features of life of vedic period:
Social life: Under the social life we can study the following things:
(i) Family life: During this period joint family system was prevalent. Eldest person was considered as the head of the family. Every member had to follow his orders and instructions.
(ii) Varna system: Vama system was very common. People were divided into various groups on the basis of their occupation four groups: Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishyas and Shudras were formed. Vaishyas were the traders and Shudras were of very low caste people. Brahmins were worshippers and Kshatriyas were worriers.
(iii) Ashrams: The life of Aryans was divided into four ashrams. Each ashram was of 25 years. The four ashrams were:
1. Brahmacharya, 2. Grihastha, 3. Vanaprastha, 4. Sanyas.
(iv) Marriages and condition of women: Women were given high status in this period. Full freedom was there for women. Ladies used to select their own partners for marriages. Dowry was prevalent. Sati system was not there. Special arrangement for women education was done. Remarriages and widow marriages were allowed.
(v) Food: The main food of Aryans was wheat and jowar. Aryans were vegetarians as well as non-vegetarians. On special occasions somras (drinks) were used as a drink.
(vi) Clothings and ornaments and source of entertainment: Cotton and woollen clothes were used by people. Aryans used to wear stitched clothes. Both men and women were fond of ornaments. Golden and silver ornaments were very popular in those days. People kept long hair (both men and women). Animal fighting, wrestling, dance, music and hunting were the main sources of entertainment.
- Domestication of animals was common and was status symbol. Cows, goats, horses, camels and dogs were tamed.
- Weaving, dying, ornaments making, leather work and metal work was the main occupation of people.
- The main occupation of the Aryans was agriculture. Wheat, rice, mung, sugar cane and urad were mostly grown.
- People were divided into various groups according to occupation. For example barbers, carpenters, cobblers, weavers and merchants were the main groups.
- Aryans had full knowledge of use of various metals, like gold, silver, tin, glass and iron. They used these metals in making ornaments and weapons.
Religious life: (i) Nature God: In vedic period Aryans were worshipper of Gods and Goddesses. They worshipped the sun, the earth, air and fire. Gods were considered very kind. They also believed in one supernatural power which was above all natural powers. They never did idol worship and no temples were built. Rivers and forests were also worshipped. Religious books were Rigvedas, Yajurvedas, Samavedas and Atharvavedas. Aryans used Sanskrit language.
(ii) Belief in soul: In pre-vedic period Aryans believed in existence of soul. They believed in re-birth.
(iii) Moral teachings: Special importance was given to morality during Aryans time. They criticised cheating, lie and other bad qualities. Alms, hospitibility and donations were given more importance.
(iv) Rituals and Puja: Yugna was performed on large-scale to please the God and Goddess. In performance of Yugna role of priest was very important.
Political life in vedic civilization: In vedic period Aryans lived in small communities (Kabile). They used to select one leader for their own group. His selection was done on the basis of heredity. The kingdoms were formed during this period. The kings were known as emperor.
The king was the highest authority of the state. To protect the people, to give donations and fight against enemies were the main duties of the king. For the smooth functioning of the state the ministers were appointed which used to advice the king from time to time.
Sabha and Samites were there to keep control over the functioning of the king. Selected members were there in Sabha while Samite was formed by all the members of the community.
What was the contribution of Indus civilization? (MP 2009)
Explain the art and sculpture of Harappan civilization.
The following points are there in art and sculpture of Harappan civilization :
(i) Art of sculpture: Art of sculpture was also highly developed by Harappan people. Remarkable status and idols are seen. Art of music, dance also developed during this period.
Seals are the most distinctive example of Harappan art. Animals like the bull, rhino, tiger, elephant and crocodile are engraved on seals. Figures are full of life. A figure resembling Shiva is also engraved on seals.
(ii) Idols and Drawings: Harappan people were very experts in drawing and idol making. Figures of animals, birds and nature figures are the important ones. Earthen pots of Harappa give the evidence of high quality of achievement of art of this period. Dancer of Bronze of the period of Mohanjodaro is very attractive.
(iii) Use of metals: Harappan people were expert in making the idols of metal. They used gold, silver, copper and bronze for making ornaments. In making ornaments and other things of metal Harappan people were very expert.
(iv) Dance and music: In excavation of Mohanjodaro the idol in dancing pose is found. It is made of Bronze. This shows that art of dance was developed in those period. Many types of instruments are also found here. Some pictures are found on utensils which are similar to Tabla.
(v) Seals: In Indus valley civilization nearly 3000 seals are found which are made of mud and ivory. Figures and pictures on it are good example of seal making of this period. These seals give information about artistic skills of people.
(vi) Toys: Many types of toys are found in the excavations of Indus valley. Many types of birds are there. The legs of birds are long. Some figures of human beings are made in such a way that their arms can be moved very easily. Many types of carts are found. Carts are made of mud with wheels. This shows people of those period were expert in making toys.
Write the special feature of Chandra Gupta Maurya’s administration. (MP 2009, 15)
- Gupta rulers made public welfare as the basis of their administration.
- The king was the highest official of the state. The final authority of the state was in his hands.
- There was council of ministers and other officials to assist the king.
- The chief source of income was the land revenue, which was called Bhaga. This was generally 1/6 of the production.
- The officer to collect tax was called Samaharta.
- Provinces was divided into chakra.
- Six samitees were there to see the administration of cities. Each had 5-5 members.
- Military organization was strong. It was looked by 6 samitees.
- Punishment procedure was strong and strict.
Explain the Ashoka’s Dhamma. (Religion)
After the Kalinga war, Ashoka embraced Buddhism. In his inscriptions he propagated the fundamental and moral principles of Buddhism. Dhamma was the summary of all the religious.
Special features of Ashoka’s Dhamma:
- Dhamma was the summary of all religions.
- It aims for the welfare of all and aims at mental, moral and spiritual upliftment of all living beings.
- His Dhamma was extremely simple and practical.
- Mercy on all beings, speaking truth, wishing well-being of all, respect to parents and teachers were chief features of Ashoka’s Dhamma.
- Ashok got many rocks inscriptions and pillar inscriptions made.
- Importance was given to self-discipline and ettiquettes.
- It believes in Non-violence and Religious toleration.
- Prominence was given to moral values.
- Emphasis was given on practicing truth in life.
- Most of the inscriptions of Ashoka describe him as Devanama Priyadasi which means favourite of Gods.
Why was Gupta period called the golden period of Indian History? (MP 2009, 15)
Gupta period was known as the golden period of Indian History because:
- Period of great rulers: During this period there were great rulers like Chandra Gupta, Samudra Gupta I, Samudra Gupta and Chandra Gupta II, Vikramaditya.
- Era of peace: The rulers paid great attention towards the welfare of their subjects. ThSyrnaintained peace and good administration.
- Era of political unity: Each ruler made efforts to organize India into one political unitSamudra Gupta conquered nine states and merged them in his empire.
- Era of Economic prosperity: There was economic prosperity everywhere. The main reason of this prosperity was collection of land tax.
- Era of literature: Art and literature made a remarkable growth in this period.
- Era of Artistic progress: Much progress was made in the field of art and architecture during the Gupta period. Sculpture, drawing paintings also developed during this period.
- Era of scientific progress: It was a period of scientific progress. This period produced mathematician and astronomers. Aryabhatta explained the causes of lunar eclipse. He also declared that the earth revolves round its axis. He also wrote a book “Aryabhatta”. The invention of zero and decimal system also started during this period. The prominent mathematicians of Gupta period were also skilled in astrology.
Explain the administrative system of emperor Harsha Vardhan. (MP 2010)
Administrative organization: Besides being a conqueror, Harsha was also an able administrator. With a few changes he followed the Gupta organization.
The pattern of Harshas administration was monarchical. The Emperor had the most prominent place in the central administration. He was the chief of the army and the highest court of appeal. The main aim of the rule was the welfare of the subjects. There were many ministers and secretaries to assist the Emperor. The King was not bound to the decisions of the council of ministers. There were departmental heads like Mahasenapati (Commander-in-chief) and Maha Sandhivigrahdhikrt (secretary of war and power). For administrative convenience the vast empire was divided into provinces. Provinces were called Bhuki or Desh.
The administrator of Bhukti was called Uparik. Only the princes of the royal dynasty or members of the royal family were appointed to these positions. Each province was divided into various Vishayas (districts). The administrators of vishayas were called Vishayapati. He supervised the various activities of the district. The smallest unit of administration was the village. Harsha had a large army.
The code of punishment during Harsha’s period was very strict. There were capital punishments for some crimes. Due to the strict code of punishment the rate of crime was less. The sources of information on Harsha have been derived from Bana’s Harsha Charit and Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang’s travelogues.
Explain the religions and social life of the Indus civilization? (MP 2009)
(A) Social life: The Hindu of the archaeological sources of Harappan civilization gives information about the social life of the Indus valley people is explained in the following ways:
1. Society: The society of the Indus valley civilization was divided into four groups:
(i) Intelligent and educated class, (ii) Warriors or soldiers, (iii) Business class, (iv) Labourers. There was family system. The society gave importance to mother.
2. Food: According to the historian ‘childe,’ the chief food of the Indus valley people consisted of wheat, rice and milk. Fruits and vegetables were also consumed. Dates were prominent among fruits, meat was also eaten. Cow, sheep, fish and chicken meat was popular.
3. Dress: No dress of the contemporary period has been found from any area of the Indus valley civilization. The analysis of the statues found during excavations give information about the dressing sense of the people. The statues exhibits that the Indus valley people were two.
4. Ornaments: Both men and women of Indus valley civilization took interest in wearing ornaments. Ornaments were made from gold, silver, ivory etc. Poor people wore copper, bronze and shell ornaments. Gold ornaments were more popular. Both men and women wore necklace, annulets, rings, bracelets, anklets and earrings.
5. Cosmetics: From the excavations, it is revealed that women used kajal, sindoor, comb and mirror for enhancing their beauty. According to the historian Mackay, the women of Indus valley also used lipstick. They were also well versed in the art of hair styles.
6. Sources of entertainment: People of Indus valley civilization entertained themselves in various ways. Dice obtained from the excavations reveal that people played gambling. The other means of entertainment were hunting, dancing, singing and music.
7. Cremation ceremony: The excavations reveal that the dead bodies were cremated in three ways:
- Dead bodies were buried.
- Dead bodies were laid before animals as food.
- Remains of the bodies left after burning were buried in the ground.
8. State of women: Praying mother goddess reveals that Indus valley people gave special respect to women. Women had a high people in the family.
Developed religion: Harappan religion was developed religion. The religion of that period had an influence on the religion of the vedic period as well as on the resent Hindu religion. In other words, the religious cultures of that period are still the part of our religion worship of lord Shiva, Durga, Peepal, Snake and idiol worship are still the part of Hindu religion.
The great bath at Mohanjodaro was a place of religions bathing are rituals in the Indus valley civilization.
I. Choose the correct alternative:
Which of the following cities is not related to Indus civilization:
Who was the foreign traveller who came to India during Chandragupta Maurya’s period: (MP 2011, 15)
(c) Hieun Tsang
II. Fill in the blanks:
Indian valley civilization was discovered in ………….. (MP 2015)
In ………….. many janpads are mentioned. (MP 2012)
In the excavations of Mohanjodaro a big ………….. has been found.
Mohanjodaro was discovered by ………….. (MP 2012)
Rakhal Das Banerjee
The number of Vedas are …………..
III. Match the following:
|1. The statue of dancing girl||(a) Economics (Arthashastra)|
|2. Megasthenes||(b) Ashok (MP 2015)|
|3. Kautilya||(c) Gupta|
|4. The main ruler of Gupta dynasty||(d) Indica|
|5. Ruler of Maurya dynasty||(e) Harmappa|
|6. Fahian||(f) Gupta period (MP 2009)|
IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:
The vedic period is from 1500 B.C. to 600 B.C. (MP 2012)
In Ramayana city of Kurukshetra was mentioned.
In post vedic period Janpads were established.
Chandra Gupta Maurya was one of the greatest ruler of India. (MP 2012)
Nishka was the vedic period coins used for exchange.
The Ramayana was composed by Maharishi Valmiki. (MP 2009)
Vikramaditya, was a just ruler of Ujjain. (MP 2011)
Chandragupta II, is also described as ‘Vikramaditya.’
V. Give answers in one word:
Elaborate poetic composition related to a great Character.
The founder sage of Jainism. (MP 2011)
State with defined boundaries.
Founder of Buddha Dharma.
Ancient epic of the world.