# MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 7 India: Population

## MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 7 India: Population

Question 1.
Write short note on sex ratio or sex composition of population. (MP 2013)
The numerical proportion between male and female is known as sex ratio. It is expressed as a number of females per 1000 males.

Sex composition of population or sex ratio of population means the number of females per thousand of men. If the sex ratio is equal, it is good for the society. The social-economical and biological factors determine this sex ratio. In our country, the number of females is decreasing per thousand.

For example in census of 2001 sex ratio was 1000 : 933. Means per thousand males the number of females were 933. In old age women are more in number than males.

Reasons for less number of females:

• The social status of females in our society is less than men.
• Less attention is paid towards girl education than boy education.
• The birth of a boy is preferred than girl.
• Girls get less attention of their parents for their nourishing.
• More deaths of female occur during their delivery period.

Only Kerala, in India, has sex ratio of 1058. It is because of method being the head of the family. Sex ratio is low in Chandigarh (773), Andaman and Nicobar Island (846) Arunachal Pradesh (901), Sikkim (875) and Uttar Pradesh (898).

Question 2.
Why is density of population high in Northern plains?
The density of population is high in Northern plains because of the following reasons:

• Soil brought by the rivers Ganga and her tributaries make the plain fertile.
• In this plain the rainfall is sufficient for crops.
• There is a good network of transportation in Northern plain.
• These are rich in industry, so density of population is more.

Question 3.
What are the causes of migration in India?
Or
What are the causes of urbanization of India?
The following are the causes of migration:
1. Impact on agriculture: In agriculture many people are required. But where there is much pressure on agriculture people shift from one place to other. In villages agriculture is the only means of livelihood for Indian people. Thus, much pressure is there on agriculture land. Population is increasing and burden on agriculture is increasing so people are migrating from villages to cities in search of other work.

2. Overpopulation: Because of over population people migrate from one place to another. Due to pressure of population people cannot fulfil their basic needs and so for better life they prefer to change the place occupation, job, etc. In India from U.P. and Bihar people are migrating to other Indian states.

3. Less interest of educated people in agricultural field: Young educated people do not show any interest in settling down in village and do agriculture. These people like the white collar job and so in search of new work people migrate from villages to cities.

4. Attraction of cities: People living in villages have attraction of big cities. Big industries and occupation attract people to come to cities and work there. Thus, people migrate from villages to big cities.

5. Higher studies: Some times people temporarily migrate from one place to another for higher qualification and knowledge. Many engineers go western countries to have more technical knowledge. Some times people go out for better prospects.

Question 4.
Write any three/four problems of population growth. (MP 2009, 10)
The problems due to population growth are:

• Increase in unemployment
• Increase in population
• Shortage of resources
• Less savings, per capita income and economic development.

Question 5.
What do you mean by census? (MP 2011)
Official enumeration of population after a fixed time interval. In our country it is conducted after every ten years.

Question 6.
Gave your suggestions, on how to increase women literacy?
Measures to Increase Women literacy: In India, women literacy rate is very low as compared to the male literacy rate. Looking at the present figures, it becomes clear that women are less literate than men even today. In the year 2010 – 11, 82.14% of males and 65.46% of females were literate. The situation is even worse in the rural areas.

Population growth can be checked by increasing women literacy. Educated girls marry at a proper age. They avoid getting pregnant for sometime after marriage. Educated women do not lag behind in finding employment. Along with this they believe in less children and small family. Educated women are broad-minded. They understand the value and importance of family planning. They keep the number of their children very limited and also keep adequate gap between the birth of two children.

Educated women also do not differentiate between male and female child and give birth to only one or two kids. Therefore, girls should themselves come forward to get education; as educated girls can check population growth to a considerable extent. The Government should provide free eduction to girls in the rural areas. They should also be provided scholarship so that their parents come forward to get them educated.

Question 7.
What is population density? How is it calculated?
The ratio of population of a country or state and its per unit area (sq. km) is called its density. The following formula is used to calculate density of population of a country or state.
Population density = $$\frac{\text { Population of a country or state }}{\text { Area of a country or state }}$$

Question 8.
What do you understand by population explosion?
The term ‘population explosion’ is quite frequently used these days. This term refers to a situation in which there is a rapid and continuous increases in the population. The word ‘explosion’ is used to know that this type of increase in the population has a serious and harmful effects as that of a nuclear explosion.

With the development of a country, its medical and health facilities also improve. This results in rapid increase in the death rate as compared to the birth rate. Every infant saved from death today will grow up and reproduce thereby creating a situation of population explosion.

Question 9.
“Distribution of population is unequal in India” explain.
Distribution of population is unequal in India. Population is more in the plains than in the hilly areas, forest regions and desert areas. Similarly population is more in the fertile plains and coastal areas.

On the whole there are about 10 states each of which has a population of more than 6 crores. Some states have low population inspite of a large area, such as Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. More than half of the country’s population lives only in the five states of U.P., Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.

Question 1.
What is the national policy of population in India? Mention major points. (MP 2009, 13, 15)
India’s national population policy is to control growth rate of population by educating people about the disadvantages of big population. For this purpose, the following steps have been taken:

• Educational facilities are being provided to all levels.
• Primary education has been made compulsory.
• Marriage of a girl below 18 years and of a boy below 21 years has been made illegal and punishable.
• Programmes of family planning are taken place everywhere in the country.
• Number of children have been fixed We two ours two.
• Social security has been provided by the government by sanctioning and giving pension to old agers, unemployment allowance etc.
• Each and everyone is being made acquainted with population problem by electronic and print media.

Question 2.
What are the causes of high population in India?
The following are the causes of high population in India:
1. High birth rate: Any country which is having high rate of population has high population. Before 1921 in India birth rate was very high but at the same time death rate was also high. But after 1921 the birth rate remained high while death rate was reduced due to better health facilities. So the population increased rapidly.

2. Death rate: Death of person per thousand in a year is known as death rate. If death rate is high, the growth rate of population will be low. In India the death rate in 1921 was 47.2%. It is reduced by 32.4 per thousand in 1989. Therefore, growth rate of population increased.

3. Public health services: Public health services were extended more and more. Particularly after independence, new medicines like penicillin and antibiotics reduced the death rate and even fatal diseases like T.B. could be treated effectively.

4. Better living: After independence stress was laid on better living conditions both in rural and urban areas safe drinking water supply in cities and towns also controlled many water borne diseases.

5. Epidemic like plageaue were controlled. The national government extended these services to remote villages also.

Question 3.
Explain the development of literacy in India.
India is also a backward country in terms of literacy. The rate of literacy in India is very low compare to other countries. After independence the literacy rate in India is increased. In 1951 it was 18.33% but in 2001 it was 65.38%. In Kerala literacy rate is 90.92%. It is the highest in India. The literacy of both male and female are 94.20% and 87.86%. It is also highest in India. The lowest literacy rate is in Bihar. In Bihar female literacy is 33.57% where male literacy is 60.32%.

Literacy level is increased by 1991 – 2001. Number of illiterate people decreased by 328 million in 2001. Even the literacy rate in female also increased. It also increased in Rajasthan and Dadara and Nagar Haveli.

Question 4.
What do you mean by migration of population? Explain.
When population in large number goes out of the place or come in from out side it is called migration of population. This occurs in two ways:

1. Immigration: A large number of population goes out of the place resides then it is known as immigration.
2. Emigration: A large number of population goes out of the place to the other region and resides there, then it is known as Emigration.

There are two types of migration in general:
1. Internal migration: This type of migration occurs from one place to another or one region to another region or one state to another state in the internal parts of a country. In India, we have the right to go and reside in any parts of the country except in Kashmir.

2. External migration: Many people go outside of the country, some for employment, some for education and many for other purposes. Many people went to middle east particularly from Kerala to get good job. Many go to USA and other European Countries. In the same way people from all parts of the world come to India for different purposes. Both types of migration is known as International migration.

Question 5.
What are the measures to be taken to control the population growth?
Day-by-day the population is increasing. This is a challenge for our country. The following measures are taken to control population:

• Spread of education: 80% of people are living in villages and they are uneducated. Education should be spread in villages so that they can understand the importance of small family.
• Family planning programme: Family planning programme, should be introduced on large scale. It should be implemented in villages because population in villages are very high.
• Marriage age: In some places specially in village today also the age for marriage is very less. Because of early marriage the number of children is also more. So marriage age should be strictly implemented and followed.
• Number of children should be fixed: Number of children should be fixed. It should not be more than 1 or 2. For this special motivation should be given. In China same policy has been followed.

I. Choose the correct alternatives:

Question 1.
In which of the following period growth of population increased steadily :
(a) 1901 – 21
(b) 1921 – 51
(c) 1951 – 81
(d) 1981 – 2001
(b) 1921 – 51

Question 2.
According to 2001 census which is the densely populated state:
(b) Bihar
(c) Kerala
(d) W. Bengal
(d) W. Bengal

Question 3.
Which state has the highest percentage of literacy:
(b) Kerala
(c) Goa
(d) Delhi
(b) Kerala

Question 4.
Which is the densely populated Union Territory:
(a) Chandigarh
(b) Pondicherry
(c) Delhi
(c) Delhi

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
The first census took place in India in …………..
1872

Question 2.
World population day is celebrated on …………..
11 July

Question 3.
Total density of population in India is …………..
324

Question 4.
National population policy was established in …………..
2000

Question 5.
In India women literacy is ………….. (MP 2015)
54.16

III. Match the following:

 A B 1. Low pressure area (a) 196 2. Go from one place to another and stay (b) 65.38% 3. Male literacy in M.P. (c) Migration 4. Total literacy in India (d) 76.80% 5. Density of population in M.P. (e) Mizoram

1. (e)
2. (c)
3. (d)
4. (b)
5. (a)

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

Question 1.
There is an increase girl baby murder.
True

Question 2.
Free education is up to the age of 20.
False

Question 3.
Family planning programme is not under central government.
False

Question 4.
By controlling the population standard of living can be raised.
True

Question 5.
Education gives rise to superstition.
True

V. Give answer in one word:

Question 1.
Average years of persons.
life expectancy

Question 2.
The number of deaths per thousand population in a year.
Death rate

Question 3.
Number of women per thousand of men population.
Sex ratio

Question 4.
Seventh largest country according to area.
India

Question 5.
Highest female literacy rate.