MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 5 India: Climate
Short Answer Type Questions
How location of India affect the climate of India?
The location of India is favourable for the climate of India. The Himalayas works as a wall in the north-east part of India. They protect us from cold polar winds. They also stop the moisture laden monsoon winds to cross into China. Thus we get heavy rainfall through these winds. Thus Himalayas protects us from cold winds and make our climate not extreme cold.
Southern India is a peninsula. It is surrounded by water by three sides and so coastal areas have moderate type of climate. Costal areas receive rainfall by monsoon rain. In the northern India continental type of climate is found because of land while southern India has merritive climate because of sea coast.
Differentiate weather and climate. (MP 1998 Set C, 1997 Set C, 06 Set C)
Difference between weather and climate:
- Weather is the condition of the atmos¬phere for a short-period of time over a certain place.
- Weather may change day by day time to time.
- It indicates the actual condition.
- The spread of the weather is limited.
- Weather conditions may affect badly the human life even if the climate of region is normally suitable.
- Climate is due to average composite weather condition for a long-period of time over a larger area say about 25 to 30 years.
- Climate remains same for long-period of time.
- It gives the general condition of the atmosphere.
- The areas of climate is vast.
- Weather conditions may be favourable or suitable to human being, though the climate of the origin may not be suitable for it.
Write the characteristics of monsoon in India.
Monsoon in India is known for their uncertainties and vagaries. Explain this statement with four examples.
The climate of India is known as monsoon climate.
- The monsoon accounts 75% to 90% of the rainfall received by India. Almost every part of the country except the east coast of Tamil Nadu receives bulk of the annual rainfall from the summer monsoons.
- The rainfall is neither continuous nor regular even in the wettest areas.
- Over all rainfall is not the same each year. The monsoons may be strong or weak in a particular year depending on the intensity and frequency of depressions in the Bay of Bengal.
- The monsoons rains are not evenly distributed. In some areas it may rain heavily while other areas may face severe drought.
- A low pressure near the Himalayas may result in heavy rains in the hills causing floods in the plains or the plains may face prolonged dry spells.
- Sometimes the monsoon may break too early or too late. There may be too long and too many breaks in the monsoons, which may retreat too early or too late. All these factors upset the agricultural operations, making agriculture in India as mere gamble.
All these characteristics of the monsoon are rightly shows the uncertainties and vagaries of the monsoons.
In which places in India receive rainfall in winter?
Why do the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu get rainfall in winter?
In winter season the wind moves from land to sea. These winds do not cause rainfall because these winds are dry. Winds coming from Bengal and Assam are also dry but when they cross Bay of Bengal they get moisture. As these wind reach Tamil Nadu they stroke against the hills of Tamil Nadu and cause heavy rainfall there. Thus, when the whole part of India is dry only Tamil Nadu gets rainfall by north-east monsoon winds in winter
In India in north western part is affected by cyclone. These cyclonic winds arose in Mediterrian sea and with the help of westerlies they reach India. They cause rainfall in Kashmir, Punjab, Hariyana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Northern Rajasthan and Bihar. Though this rain is very less still they are good for Rabi crops.
Why is Indian agriculture is known as gamble of Monsoon? (MP 2015)
Indian agriculture is fully dependent on monsoon. If the monsoon is in proper time and if there is a good rainfal the crop will be good, but if the rainfall is not proper and in time, the agriculture will be affected badly.
If monsoon fails everything fails and the whole economy is adversely affected, Agriculture in India is basically depended on monsoon. On account of less availability of irrigation facilities. So far as monsoon is concerned it is uncertain and uneven. Because of this, there is uncertainty of agricultural production. Thus, Indian farmers remain poor. Therefore, it is said that Indian agriculture is a gamble of monsoon.
How do monsoon winds originates?
Monsoon winds are related to weather because they blow from land to sea for six months and from sea to land for six months. Several concepts have been put forward to explain the origin of monsoon but the thermal concept is important. According to this concept, the monsoon winds are intact, land, sea breezes on a large scale.
By differential heating of the land and the sea winds blow from sea to land in the daytime and from land to sea in the night, similarly in summer season winds blow from high pressure system on the sea to low pressure system on the lands. During winters a complete several takes place with high pressure on the land and a low pressure over the sea. At this time winds starts blowing from land to sea. This is called, “Monsoon wind”.
Long Answer Type Questions
Explain the factors which affect the climate of a place.
The climate of India is determined by the following factors:
1. Geographical location of India: The latitudinal extent of India is from 8°4′ N to 37°6′ N. The tropic of cancer runs through the middle of the country and divides India into two parts, north India and south India. Southern most parts of India are nearer to the equator than the northern India, hence southern parts of India are warmer than the north India as per the division of tropic of cancer, north India experiences subtropical or temperate climate while the south India experiences tropical climate.
2. Physiographic relief and structure (especially direction of mountains): Himalayan ranges protect India from cold winds of the central Asia in winter season. The Himalayan ranges also create barriers before the south-west monsoon winds and force them to shed moisture over the northern and central India during rainy season. Thus, the northern and central India get rainfall from the south-west monsoon.
3. Distribution of land and water: North India is a broad land mass but south India is a triangular in shape, Arabian sea is in the west, Indian ocean in the south and bay of Bengal is in the east. Thus south India is a peninsular and has a large coast line. Therefore, peninsular situation has helped south India to enjoy maritime climate. Effect of maritime climate goes on decreasing towards north. Hence north India experiences continental climate.
4. Jet stream: The strong wind currents blow horizontally in the lower layer of the troposphere at 3 to 5 km height. These strong wind currents are called jet streams. Jet stream affects climate of our country to a great extent. Western jet stream carries western disturbances to the north-west India and they cause winter rains in north-western part of the country.
Eastern jet stream is responsible for the entry of south-west monsoon in India during summer.
5. Height from the sea level and distance from the coast line: The atmospheric temperature decreases as the height increases up to the upper limit of troposphere by 1 °C per 165 metres height. So the places of high altitudes have low temperature than the places of low altitudes as the plains. For example:
As the distance of a place from the coast line increases the fluctuations in temperature also increases. The interior parts of the country experience extreme climate. North and north-western part of India have extreme climate while the coastal regions experience equation climate. The reason is the land mass experiences hot and coolness earlier than water. In the water of the sea controls the temperature.
6. Monsoon winds: India is under the influence of the trade winds but monsoon winds are more strong than trade winds. They spread over all the Indian sub-continent in summer. South-west monsoon winds blow in summer and in winter north-east monsoon winds blow.
Explain the distribution of rainfall in India.
Rainfall, snowfall and hailstorm together is known as precipitation. Rainfall shares maip part in India. India is divided into four regions based on the amount of precipitation received in a year. They are:
1. Very high rainfall regions (more than 200 cm): The areas come under this group where more than 200 cm annual rainfall occurs. Highest rainfall occurs along the west coast, on the western Ghats, sub Himalayan areas in the north-east and the hills of Meghalaya. In the Khasi and Jayantia hills rainfall exceeds 1000 cm. The average annual rainfall of Cherrapunji is 1080 cm.
2. High rainfall regions (100 – 200 cm): This region includes the areas where annual rainfall is between 100 to 200 cm. They are the north-east slopes of western Ghats, south-west parts of West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, south-east Uttar Pradesh and the narrow Terai belt of Himalayas.
3. Medium rainfall regions (50-100 cm): Here annual rainfall is between 50 cm to 100 cm. The areas are the most part of Deccan plateau, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, north and south Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, eastern Rajasthan, south Punjab, Haryana and south Uttar Pradesh.
4. Regions of scanty rainfall (below 50 cm): Rainfall occurs here below 50 cm annually. The areas are the most parts of Rajasthan, some parts of Haryana and Orissa, Royal seema region of Tamil Nadu.
The north-western part of Rajasthan receives below 15 cm rainfall.
How does the climate affect human life? Give three examples of it.
Climate of a region affects man directly and indirectly. India is covered by monsoon type of climate. Climate affects our food, clothing, shelter, crops, vegetation and mode of human life.
(i) Clothes: A man adapts himself by wearing clothes appropriate to the season. Woollen clothes worm in winter, protect us from cold and loose garments of cotton clothes in summer. Clothes also differ north to south India according to variation of temperature.
(ii) Houses: Man built houses also according to climatic condition. In regions of heavy rainfall and snowfall. Houses have steeply sloping roof to drain off rainwater and snowfall. Flat roofs are commonly found in deserts. In cooler region houses have glass hands for doors and windows to allow more sunlight and heat.
(iii) Crops: Agriculture and natural vegetation are also related to the climate. Each plant species need certain growing season having a range of temperature and moisture conditions. Due to climatic differences wheat is the crop of north, north-west cool region. While rice is the main product of hot-moist region of south.
Give an account of the general weather conditions during the cold weather (winter) season in India.
The winter monsoon: These winds blow from November to March and are called the North-east Monsoon. In winter the rays of the sun fall vertically overhead on the Indian ocean and obliquely over northern Indian plains. So there is extreme cold in the Northern plains.
It causes high-pressure areas over land and low-pressure area over Indian oceans. So the winds blow from the North plains to Indian ocean. These winds come from land and have no chance to cross any large water body. Hence they are unable to give rainfall over the whole of their path and thus India remains dry in winter.
Only a part of the winds cross Bay of Bengal and take some moisture. These winds when come across the south-east of India come in contact with land and give rainfall on Tamil Nadu coast. India also gets rain in the north-west due to Mediterranean cyclones in winter.
Give few examples of apparent climatic contrast in India to cover the following points:
(a) Range of temperature, (b) Direction of rain bearing winds, (c) Form of precipitation, (d) Amount of rainfall, (e) Rainfall regime i.e., seasonal distribution of rains.
India has diverse climatic conditions on account of the following facts:
(a) Range of temperature: Difference in temperature creates variation in the climate. In India, there are places like Rajasthan and south-west Punjab, where the temperature rises even up to 55°C. Whereas in Dras near Kargil, the temperature becomes as low as – 45°C.
(b) Direction of rain bearing winds: The summer monsoons arise from the Arabian sea, strike against the western ghats and cause heavy rainfall (about 250 cm). But these winds reach on the Eastern ghats last of all so there is less rainfall in Tamil Nadu and it is much lower as compared to the Malabar coast in Western Ghats.
(c) Form of precipitations: In winter North-west India gets some rains due to cyclonic depressions, known as western disturbances. As a result of these there is little rain in the plains of Punjab and Haryana but there is heavy snowfall in the Western Himalayas. In Jammu and Kashmir there is snowfall but Punjab and Haryana are comparatively less cold. It is due to the change in the form of precipitation.
(d) Amount of rainfall: Cherapunji gets the highest rainfall in the world (1,080 cm) but at the same time Rajasthan gets only 20 cm of annual rainfall. So there is contrast in rainfall and consequently in climate too.
(e) Seasonal distribution of rains: In India some places get rainfall in summer while others get rainfall in winter only. Some places get heavy rainfall while other places get no rainfall at all. For example, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh get rainfall in winter season only but in summer they are dry. In summer Kerala and Karnataka get heavy rainfall and experience a pleasant climate.
I. Choose the correct alternatives:
The time of south-west monsoon in India is: (MP 2010)
(a) October to November
(b) June to September
(c) March to May
(d) December to February
(b) June to September
Which state receives lowest rainfall due to south-west monsoon:
(c) Tamil Nadu
Coromandal coast in India receives maximum rainfall in:
(a) January – February
(b) June – September
(c) March – May
(d) October – November
(a) January – February
Maximum variation in the amount of rainfall is found in: (MP 2009)
(c) Andhra Pradesh
States having heavy rainfall: (MP 2011)
(a) Bihar, Orrisa
(b) Meghalaya, Assam
(c) Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat
(d) Rajasthan, Punjab
(b) Meghalaya, Assam
II. Fill in the blanks:
………….. is situated on the east of Indian peninsula.
Bay of Bengal
In January the temperature of Kerala becomes …………..
Summer season is from………….. to …………..
Bihar is a place of rainfall ………….. area.
The wind which blows in summer is called ………….. (MP2015)
III. Match the following:
|1. Areas of less rainfall||(a) Low pressure|
|2. Areas of scanty rainfall||(b) Plateau of Deccan|
|3. Highest temperature||(c) Coromandal coast|
|4. Chotta Nagpur plateau||(d) Gujarat, Rajasthan|
|5. Tamil Nadu||(e) Hariyana and Orissa|
IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:
Monsoon rains are suitable for agriculture.
Maximum rainfall occurs due to south-west monsoon.
Average annual rainfall is 102 cm.
Rainfall after summer give rise to many diseases.
Indian agriculture is called the gamble of monsoon.
V. Give answer in one word:
Mid-latitudinal cyclones are called.
In Kerala blossom showers.
Land winds in summer season.
Showers in Assam and Bengal with thunder and lightening.