MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 18 Food Security in India

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 18 Food Security in India

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the elements included in food security? (MP 2009)
Answer:
The following elements are included in food security:

  • Availability of food to whole population of the country.
  • Availability of enough money (purchasing power) to purchase the available food.
  • Food should be available to all that affordable prices.
  • The quality of the available food should be good.
  • The food should be available to all every time.

Question 2.
What do you mean by buffer stock? Explain. (MP 2011)
Answer:
Buffer Stock: If the production of food grains is less than to face such crisis of shortage and to distributed them through public distribution system, the stock of food grains kept by government is known as buffer stock. Buffer stock is the stock of food grains, namely wheat and rice procured by government through Food Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from farmers in states where there is surplus production.

Question 3.
Explain revamped public distribution system.
Answer:
In January 1992, the Public Distribution System was amended and a revised Public Distribution System was introduced to supply essential goods to consumers of remote are, schedule tribes, backward classes, drought affected and mountainous areas of the country. Its characteristic are as follows:

  • Preference has been given to the people of drought affected areas, desert areas, mountainous area and slums in urban areas.
  • It is aimed at providing more quantity of food at comparatively low prices. Other than six chief essential commodities goods like tea, soap, pulse, iodised salt are included in it.
  • Rojgar Aswasan Plan has been started in the development blocks included under this plan, in which 100 days employment can be provided to 18 – 60 year old unskilled labour so that they are able to earn and purchase food grains through revamped public distribution system.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 18 Food Security in India

Question 4.
Explain the targeted distribution system.
Answer:
In 1997 targeted Public Distribution System was introduced to ensure the availability of minimum quantity of food grams to families living below the poverty line. In this system food grains are provided to the poor on special low prices by issuing specific ration cards. This is the largest food security plan of the world.

In this system 35 kg of food grains per month per family is being provided from 1st April 2006. In the same way under the “Antyodya Anna Yojana” 25 kg. of wheat at Rs. 2 per kg. and rice at Rs. 3 per kg. is being provided to very poor families through public distribution system.

Question 5.
What is the role of cooperatives in food security? Explain.
Answer:
In India the role of cooperative is very important in providing food security. This work is done by the consumer cooperative societies through the ration shops fo: the sale of food grains for the poor. In India there are different system of consumer cooperatives at national, state, district and village levels. Out of these National Consumer’s cooperative (Federation) Ltd. is an organisation at National levels. State cooperative consumers organisation is affiliated to this (Federation).

There are 794 consumer cooperative stores at central level (Wholesale) and 24,076, stores at primary level. In rural areas nearly 44,418 village level primary agricultural credit society are distributing essential goods along with their ordinary business. To fulfil the needs of consumers, consumer cooperative societies are running nearly 37,226 retail selling centres in urban and semi-urban areas.

Question 6.
What is Rojgar Ashwasan Yojana?
Answer:
Rojgar Ashwasan Plan has been started in the development blocks included under this plan, in which 100 days employment can be provided to 18 – 60 years old. Unskilled labour so that they are able to earn and purchase food grains through revamped public distribution system.

Question 7.
What do you mean by ration cards?
Answer:
Under public distribution system different goods are sold to consumers by providing a card to identify a family which is known as ration card. It is issued by the government, ration cards are of three types:

  • BPL cards for people below poverty line.
  • APL cards for people above poverty line.
  • Antyodaya cards for the poorest of the poor.

Question 8.
What do you mean by Chakbandi?
Answer:
Chakbandi or consolidation of land is the measure adopted by the government of India after the independence. The agricultural holdings were small and scattered at different places. It was not possible to have scientific agriculture on this small land so to solve this problem off fragmentation the government has adopted consolidation of holdings. It means allocation of compact plot of land in exchange for the several small plots.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 18 Food Security in India

Question 9.
What are the advantages of cooperative stores?
Answer:
The following are the advantages of cooperative stores:

  • Consumer gets cheaper goods.
  • Availability of good quality goods.
  • Stability of price.
  • Running of samittee by less expenditure.
  • Cash sale.
  • Profit to the share holders.

Question 10.
Which cereals are known as coarse cereals? Where are these produced? (MP 2011)
Answer:
Sorghum (Jowar), Bajra (Pearl millet) and Maize are included in coarse grains.
1. Sorghum (Maize): In India Jowar has been grown from ancient times. It is used as fodder for cattle and food for human beings. In India it is food of the poor. In foreign countries it is used to prepare starch and glucose. In northern India it is a kharif crop but in sourthen India, it is both kharif and Ravi crop. About 87% of the Jowar in the country is produced in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

2. Bajra: It is a kharif crop of northen India, in southern India, it is both a kharif and Rabi crop. It is used as a fodder for cattle. India is the largest producer of bajra in the world. In India the main bajra producing states are Gujrat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab.

3. Maize: Is the crop of the plains and mountainous regions. It is used as fodder for cattle and as food to eat. Man uses its differents varieties for food products. In foreign countries starch and glucose are prepared from this. In India it is grown in nearly all states but mainly it is grown in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Karnataka.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by food security? Why is its needed?
Answer:
“Food security is the availability of adequate food at all time for active and healthy life for all.”
In the present Indian situation food security has become, very important. It can be divided into two parts internal causes and external causes.

1. Internal causes: Internal causes include those which are related to the internal conditions of the country. Following factors are included in these:
(i) Basis of life : India is country of large population and the birth rate is also very high. Therefore food security is necessary.

(ii) Dependence on monsoon: Majority of crops in India are dependent on monsoon for irrigation, but the monsoon is always uncertain and irregular. The distribution of rains is uneven too, consequently droughts and famines are common features of our economy. Therefore food security is necessary.

(iii) Low productivity: In India the productivity of food-grains regarding per hectare and per labour is low. From this point of view also food security is necessary.

(iv) Natural calamities: Other than the problem of monsoon, flood, insects and pests, cold waves, soil erosion etc. also destroy the food crops in some or the other part of the country. So the problem of shortage of food crops arises. The famine in Orissa of 1835 in Punjab and Madhya Pradesh in 1877 and in West Bengal in 1493, lacks of people died of hunger. So food security is necessary to face these natural calamities.

(v) Continuously rising prices: The prices of food grains are increasing continuously which results in starvation. So food security is necessary to overcome this problem.

(vi) Progress of the countries: No country can progress without self sufficiency of food and for this food security is necessary.

2. External causes: External causes include those causes which are related to the relation of other countries with our country. Following are the external causes:
(i) Dependence on foreign countries: Food is the basic need of human beings. So when this requirement is not fulfilled it becomes the primary duty of the government to fulfil these needs of the people. If there is a shortage of food we have to depend on foreign countries. Whenever there is inadequate supply of food grains in our country we have to import even if good grains are costly or cheap the quality is good or bad. Thus dependence on foreign countries increases.

(ii) Decrease in foreign exchange: Whenever we import things like food grains we have to spend our foreign exchange unnecessarily. We can meet our demand for food ourselves but we cannot. This results in shortage of foreign exchange to purchase very important commodities.

(iii) Foreign pressure: Country which supply food grains to other countries become influential and then they pursue them to follow their policies. These countries dominate those countries which import food-grains from them, as a result they lose their freedom to decide their foreign policies. During these frequent emergencies of food grains India experienced that food security is very essential to save people from starvation, to protect self respect that honour and sovereignty and for the development of the country.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 18 Food Security in India

Question 2.
How does government provide security to the poor? (MP 2013)
Answer:
By following way Govt, helps poor:
1. Public distribution system: By Public Distribution System is meant that system in which different consumer goods are sold in sufficient quantity at fixed prices to the consumers specially to the poor section of society. In this system different goods (wheat, rice, sugar, imported edible oil, coal, kerosene oil etc.) are sold through ration shops or cooperative consumer stores.

The profit rate for these sellers are fixed and they have to sell the goods to the ration card holders on fixed price and in fixed quantities. There are three kinds of ration cards: B.P.L cards, A.P.L. cards and Antyodya cards.

2. Revamped public distribution system: In January 1992, the Public Distribution System was amended and a revised Public Distribution System was introduced to supply essential goods to consumers of remote area, schedule tribes, backward classes, drought affected and mountains areas of the country. Its characteristics are as follows:

  • Preference has been given to the people of drought affected areas, desert areas, mountainous area and slums in urban areas.
  • It is aimed at providing more quantity of food at comparatively low prices. Other than six chief essential commodities goods like tea, soap, pulse, iodised salt are included in it.
  • Rojgar Aswasan Plan has been started in the development blocks included under this plan, in which 100 days employment can be provided to 18 – 60 year old unskilled labor so that they are able to earn and purchase food grains through revamped public distribution system.

3. Targeted public distribution system: In 1997 targeted Public Distribution System was introduced to ensure the availability of minimum quantity of food grams to families living below the poverty line. In this system food grains are provided to the poor on special low prices by issuing specific ration cards. This is the largest food security plan of the world.

In this system 35 kg of food grains per month per family is being provided from 1st April 2006. In the same way under the “Antyodya Anna Yojana” 25 kg. of wheat at Rs. 2 per kg. and rice at Rs. 3 per kg is being provided to very poor families through public distribution system.

Under this system a differential price system was adopted including people below the poverty line (BPL) and also for people above the poverty line (APL) in which different issue prices of rice and wheat are fixed.

Question 3.
In how many parts, the food crops of chain may be distributed? (MP 2010)
Or
Which cereals are known as coarse cereals? Where are these produce?
Or
Which are the chief food crops of India? Explain.
Answer:
Food Crops of India: In India, different crops are grown in different seasons. So, according to season these crops are divided into following categories:

  1. Kharif crops: These crops are sown in the month of July and harvested in the month of October. It includes paddy (rice), millets, maize etc.
  2. Rabi crops: These crops are swon in the month of October and harvested either in the end of March or in April. It includes wheat, oat, gram etc.

(i) Rice: Rice is the staple food of India. It is grown in about 25 per cent of the total cultivated area. Of the total world’s production of rice, India is the second largest producer of rice in the world. India accounted for 11.4 per cent of the world production.

Important rice growing states in India are west Bengal, Uttar Pradesh Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajsthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh and Assam. The production of rice is increasing continuously. In the field of the production of the rice. The use of high yielding variety of seeds and chemical fertilizer has shown a huge rice in its production At present India has become not only self sufficient in production of nee but has also started to expon it.

(ii) Wheat: In the production of cereals in India the rank of wheat is second after rice. As regards production of wheat India’s rank is third after China and United States of America and as regards area of production India’s rank is fifth in the world. In India two kinds of wheat is grown:

(a) Walgair wheat: It is shining hefty (well- sapped) soft and white in colour. Generally it is called wheat of bread.

(b) Milkrani wheat: It is red in colour, small in size and hard type of wheat. The major wheat growing states of the country are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujrat. India is self dependent in the production of wheat. Thought in the current year India is importing wheat lack of accumulated stock, 5 lack tonnes of wheat due to has been imported.

(iii) Sorghum (Jowar): In India Jowar has been growth from ancient period. It is used as fodder for cattle and as a food for human beings. In India it is food of the poor. In foreign countries it is used to prepare starch and glucose. In Northern India it is a kharif crop but in southern India it is a crop of Kharif and Rabi both. About 87 per cent of the total production of Jowar (sorghum) in the country is produced in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka.

(iv) Bajra: It is a kharif crop of northen India, in southern India, it is both a kharif and Rabi crop. It is used as a fodder for cattle. India is the largest producer of bajra in the world. In India the main bajra producing states are Gujrat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab.

(v) Maize: Is the crop of the plains and mountainous regions. It is used as fodder for cattle and as food to eat. Man uses its differents varieties for food products. In foreign countries starch and glucose are prepared from this. In India it is grown in nearly all states but mainly it is grown in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Karnataka.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 18 Food Security in India

I. Choose the correct alternatives:

Question 1.
Kharif crop is:
(a) Wheat
(b) Gram
(c) Paddy
(d) Oat
Answer:
(c) Paddy

Question 2.
The part of public distribution system is:
(a) Shoe shop
(b) Gold and silver shop
(c) Ration shop
(d) Grocery shop
Answer:
(c) Ration shop

Question 3.
Targeted public distribution is related to:
(a) Women
(b) Gents
(c) People living below the poverty line
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) People living below the poverty line

Question 4.
How much cereal is given under Antyodya Anna Yojana:
(a) 5 Kg
(b) 10 kg
(c) 15 kg
(d) 35 kg
Answer:
(d) 35 kg

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
India stands first in the world in the production of ……………
Answer:
Bajra

Question 2.
Most of the crops in India depend on …………… rains.
Answer:
Monsoon

Question 3.
The main occupation of India is ……………
Answer:
Agriculture

Question 4.
Public distribution system comes under the control of …………… and …………… government.
Answer:
State and central

Question 5.
Drought took place in …………… in Bengal and Lakhs of people died of hunger.
Answer:
1943.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 18 Food Security in India

III. Match the following:

A B
1. Kharif crop (a) Mekrani wheat
2. Food Corporation of India (b) Food security
3. Cards for People who are above poverty line (MP 2012) (c) Rice
4. World Development Report (d) A.P.L.
5. Red Colour Small Grain (e) F.C.I.

Answers:
1. (c)
2. (e)
3. (d)
4. (b)
5. (a)

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

Question 1.
India stands second in the production of wheat after rice.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Food should be available all the time under food security.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
At present importance of food security is not much.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Declaration of supported price of agricultural crops means to give the guarantee of minimum price to farmers for their crops.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Cooperative stores places important role in food security.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
Kharif crop is wheat. (MP 2010)
Answer:
False

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 18 Food Security in India

V. Give answer in one word:

Question 1.
Propagator of green revolution.
Answer:
Norman E. Boat log

Question 2.
Jowar, Bajra, Macca is included in food.
Answer:
Coarse crop

Question 3.
It is the main food of South India.
Answer:
Jowar

Question 4.
The card given to the people below poverty line is.
Answer:
B.P.L.

Question 5.
The crop which is swon in March and harvested in April.
Answer:
Rabi crop.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

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