MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the basic necessities of human life?
Answer:
The basic necessities of human life are food, clothing and housing.

Question 2.
What is meant by food security?
Answer:
According to the World Development Report, 1986 “Food security is the availability of adequate food at all times an active and healthy life for all.”

Question 3.
Why has food security become very important in the present Indian situation?
Answer:
On the one hand our economy is developing while on the other hand our population is also increasing rapidly. So to meet the increasing demand, food security has become necessary.

Question 4.
Mention the famines faced by Indian people.
Answer:
Indian people faced the following famines in which lakhs of people died of hunger:

  • The famine in Orissa of 1835.
  • The famine in Punjab and Madhya Pradesh of 1877.
  • The famine in West Bengal of 1943.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the elements included in food security? (2009)
Answer:
The elements included in food security are as follows:

  • Availability of food for the whole population of the country.
  • Availability of enough money of purchase the necessary food.
  • Food should be available to all the affordable price.
  • The quality of the available food should be good.
  • Availability of adequate quantity of food grains at all times.

Question 2.
What is the difference between the Kharif and Rabi crops? Explain. (2008, 09, 14)
Answer:
Kharif Crops:

  1. Kharif crops are sown in the month of July.
  2. These crops take less time to ripe.
  3. Per hectare production is less.
  4. These crops are harvested in the month of October.
  5. They include rice, millets, maize, cottons, groundnut etc.

Rabi Crops:

  1. Rabi crops are sown in the month of October.
  2. These crops take comparatively more time to ripe.
  3. Per hectare production is more.
  4. These crops are harvested in the end of the March or in April.
  5. They include wheat, oats, gram, mustard etc.

Question 3.
What is Buffer Stock? Explain. (2008, 09, 11)
Answer:
If the production of food grain is less, then to face such crisis of shortage and to distribute them through the public distribution system, the stock food grains kept by the government is known as Buffer Stocks. A Buffter stock is the stock of food grains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Corpration of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from fanners in states where there is surplus production.

The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for thier crops. This price is called a ‘Minimum Support Price’. The government declares these prices before the sowing season to provide incentives to farmers for raising production of these crops. These food grains are stored in large granaries. It helps in resolving the problem of shortage of food grain during emergencies.

Question 4.
How is the Public distribution system conducted? Explain. (2009)
Answer:
The public distribution system is regulated by the central and the state government together. The central government allots food grains and other commodities to states and also determines prices. The state has the right to add transportation charge etc. to the prices fixed by the central government. The transportation, collection, distribution and inspection of the goods received under this system is done by the state government. The state government can also include those goods which can purchase in public distribution system.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

Question 5.
What is revised public distribution system? Explain.
Or
Write characteristics of revised public distribution system. (2017)
Answer:
In January 1992 the public distribution system was amended and a revised public distribution system was introduced to supply essential goods to consumers of remote areas, schedule tribes, backward classes, drought affected and mountaineous areas of the country. Its characters are as follows:

(1) Preference is giving to the people of drought affected areas, desert areas, mountaineous area and slums in urban areas.

(2) It is aimed at providing more quantity of food at comparatively low prices. Six other chief essential commodities like tea, soap, pulse, iodized salt are also including in it.

(3) ‘Rojgar Aswasan Plan’ has been started in the development blocks included under this plan, in which 100 days employment can be provided to 18 – 60 years old unskilled labour, so that they are able to earn at purchase food grains through revamped for public distribution system.

Question 6.
What is the role of co-operatives in food security? Explain. (2008, 09)
Or
What is the relation between the food security and co-operative system? (2010)
Answer:
A co-operative is a form voluntary organisation of people which works for collective interest on the basis of quality, self help and domestic system. In India the role of co-operative is very important in providing food security. This work is done by the consumer co-operative societies through ration shops for the sale of food grain for the poor.

In India, there are different systems of consumer co-operatives at national, state, district and village levels. There are 794 consumer co-operative stores at the central level (wholesale) and 24,078 stores at the primary level.

In rural areas nearly 44,418 village level primary agriculture credit societies are distributing essential goods along with their ordinary business. To fulfil the needs of consumers, consumer co-operatives societies are running nearly 37,226 retail selling centres in urban and semi-urban areas.

The government started a scheme named ‘Sarvpriya’ in July 2000. Under this plan some selected distribution system at selling centres of state consumers co-operative federation distributes and procured cereals from Food Corporation of India (FCI) to the poor sections of the society through ration shops.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which are the chief food crops of India? Explain. (2008, 14, 15)
Or
Which cereals are known as coarse cereals? Where are these produced? (2011)
[Hint: See titles Jowar, Bajara and Maize for coarse cereals].
Or
In how many parts, the food crops of India may be distributed? (2010)
Answer:
Major food grains of India: In India different kinds of cereals are grown. India stands third after China and America in the production of food grains. The major food grains of India are described as follow:
(1) Rice: Rice is the staple food of India. It is grown in about 25 percent of the total cultivated area. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. India accounts for 11.4% of the world production.

Important rice growing states in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh and Assam. The production of rice is increasing continuously. In the field of production of rice, the use of high yielding variety of seeds and chemical fertilizers has shown a huge rise in its production. At present India has become not only self sufficient in the production of rice but has also started to export it.

(2) Wheat: In the production of cereals in India the rank of wheat is second after rice. As regards production of wheat, India’s rank is third after China and the United States of America and as regards areas of production India’s rank is fifth in the world. The major wheat producing states of the country are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

(3) Sorghum (Jowar): In India Jowar has been grown from ancient times. It is used as fodder for cattle and as food for human being. In India it is food of the poor. In foreign countries it is used to prepare starch and glucose. In northern India it is a Kharif crop but in southern India it is a crop of Kharif and Rabi both. About 87 percent of the total production of Jowar in the country is produced in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

(4) Bajara: It is a Kharif crop in northen India. In southern India it is a crop of Rabi and Kharif both. It is used as fodder for cattle. India is the largest producer of Bajara in the world. In India the main Bajara producing states are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab. Of the total production of Bajara in the country 96 per cent is grown here.

(5) Maize: Maize is the crop of the plains and mountainous regions. It is used as fodder for cattle and as a food to eat. Man uses its different varieties for food products. In foreign countries, starch and glucose are prepared from this. In India it is grown in nearby all states but mainly it is grown in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Karnataka.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

Question 2.
What is food security and why is it necessary? Explain. (2009)
Or
Describe the internal causes of food security. (2013)
[Nore: See title “Internal causes”]
Or
Why is food security necessary? Explain. (2017)
Answer:
Meaning of food security: Food security is related to the food related needs of man. In simple words food security means availability of nutritive food to all. Also people should have purchasing power (money) for the arrangement and availability of food at reasonable prices. According to the World Development Report, 1986.

“Food security is the availability of adequate food at all times for an active and healthy life for all”. According to the institute for food and agriculture, “Food security ensures availability of basic necessary food for all, physically as well as economically.”

Need of food security: The causes responsible for this can be divided into two parts:

  1. Internal causes
  2. External causes.

(i) Internal causes: Internal causes include those which are related to the internal conditions of the country. The following factors are included in these:

  • Basis of life: India is a country with a large population and the birth rate is also very high. Therefore food security is necessary.
  • Low productivity: In India the productivity of food grains per hectare is low. From this point of view also food security is necessary.
  • Natural calamities: Other then the problem of the monsoon, flood, insects and pests, cold waves, social erosion etc. also destroy the food crops in some or the other parts of the country.
  • Continuously rising price: The prices of food grains are increasing continuously which results in starvation so food security is necessary to overcome this problem.
  • Progress of the country: No country can progress without self sufficiency in food production and for this food security is necessary.

(ii) External causes: These include the cause which are related to the relation of other countries with our country. The following are the external causes:
(1) Dependence of foreign countries: If there is a shortage of food, we have to depend on foreign countries. Whenever there is inadequate supply of food grains in our country we have to import even if food grains are costly or cheap, the quality is good or bad. Thus, dependence on foreign countries increases.

(2) Foreign pressure: Countries which supply food grains to other countries become influential and then they force them to follow their policies. These countries dominate those countries which import food grains from them as a result they lose their freedom to decide thier foreign policies. During the frequent emergencies of food grains India experienced that food security is very essential to save people from starvation, to protect self respect, honour and sovereignty and for the development of the country.

(3) Decrease in foreign exchange: Whenever we import things like food grains we have to spend our foreign exchange unnecessarily. We can meet our demand for food ourselves but we cannot. This results in shortage of foreign exchange to purchase very important commodities.

Question 3.
How does government provide food security to the poor? Explain. (2009, 12, 13, 15)
Or
What is the Minimum Support Price? Explain. (2008)
Or
What steps has the government taken to increase food grains? (2008, 09, 12, 16)
Answer:
Efforts of the Government for Food Security:
Food security system has been developed in India to make food grains available at reasonable price to poor and other people during periods of food crisis arising due to some reason or other or due to natural calamities. The important components of this system are as follows:

(1) Effort to increase food grains: For food security it is important that the production of food grains should be enough in quantity. In this the contribution of the green revolution is quite important. Under the green revolution mechanization of agriculture, use of high yielding hybrid variety of seeds, fertilizers and insecticides and irrigation facilities were extended. Also due to promotion of consolidation of land holdings, abolishing of mediators, today the country has become self sufficient in the field of food grains.

(2) Minimum support price: The prices of agricultural products are very flexible, at the time of harvesting the supply increases due to which there is enough decrease in price. As prices at this time go down below the fixed limit the producer finds it difficult to get the costs of their products. Therefore the government declares a minimum support price for agricultural products, under which when market price of food grains becomes less than it support price, the government starts purchasing food grains on self declared support price. Due to this farmers get inspired to produce more and more and the government procures food grains for ‘Buffer stocks.”

(3) Buffer stocks: If the production of food grains is less, then to face such crisis of shortage and to distribute them through the public distribution system. The stock of food grains kept by the government is known as Buffer stock. This stock is distributed among consumers through ration shops. This helps in resolving the problem of shortage of food grains during emergencies.

(4) The public distribution system: By public distribution system is meant that system in which different consumer goods are sold in sufficient quantity at fixed prices to the consumers specially to the poor sections of society. Availability of necessary goods to the consumers and streamliving the distribution process is the main aim of this system.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

Question 4.
What is public distribution system and what are its main constituents? Describe. (2008, 16)
Answer:
Meaning of the public distribution system: By public distribution system is meant that system in which different goods (wheat, rice, sugar, imported edible oil, coal and kerosene oil etc.) are sold to the consumers specially to the poor sections of the society, through ration shops or co-operative consumer stores.

The profit rate for these sellers are fixed and they have to sell the goods to the ration card holders at a fixed price and in fixed quantities. There are three kinds of ration cards B.P.L. card, A.P.L. card and Antyodaya cards.

B.P.L cards are for people below poverty line, A.P.L cards are for people above poverty line and Antyodaya cards are for the poorest of the poor.

Constituents of the public distribution system:
(i) Ration shops or Fair price shops: The government distributes the procured cereals from Food Corporation of India to the poor sections of society through ration shops. Sugar, cereals, kerosene etc. are distributed to the ration card holders through ration shops which are also known as ‘Fair price shops.’

(ii) Co-operative consumer shop: It is also a part of public distribution system. Besides the necessary goods controlled item are also sold to the consumer through these shops. At these centres all the items are sold at a price lower than the market price.

(iii) Super market: Super markets are established in some big cities. The necessary consumer goods are sold here at fair prices.

Question 5.
Why is the food security necessary? What is the role of co-operatives in food security? (2008)
Answer:
Why is the food security necessary:
Meaning of food security: Food security is related to the food related needs of man. In simple words food security means availability of nutritive food to all. Also people should have purchasing power (money) for the arrangement and availability of food at reasonable prices. According to the World Development Report, 1986.

“Food security is the availability of adequate food at all times for an active and healthy life for all”. According to the institute for food and agriculture, “Food security ensures availability of basic necessary food for all, physically as well as economically.”

Need of food security: The causes responsible for this can be divided into two parts:

  1. Internal causes
  2. External causes.

(i) Internal causes: Internal causes include those which are related to the internal conditions of the country. The following factors are included in these:

  • Basis of life: India is a country with a large population and the birth rate is also very high. Therefore food security is necessary.
  • Low productivity: In India the productivity of food grains per hectare is low. From this point of view also food security is necessary.
  • Natural calamities: Other then the problem of the monsoon, flood, insects and pests, cold waves, social erosion etc. also destroy the food crops in some or the other parts of the country.
  • Continuously rising price: The prices of food grains are increasing continuously which results in starvation so food security is necessary to overcome this problem.
  • Progress of the country: No country can progress without self sufficiency in food production and for this food security is necessary.

(ii) External causes: These include the cause which are related to the relation of other countries with our country. The following are the external causes:
(1) Dependence of foreign countries: If there is a shortage of food, we have to depend on foreign countries. Whenever there is inadequate supply of food grains in our country we have to import even if food grains are costly or cheap, the quality is good or bad. Thus, dependence on foreign countries increases.

(2) Foreign pressure: Countries which supply food grains to other countries become influential and then they force them to follow their policies. These countries dominate those countries which import food grains from them as a result they lose their freedom to decide thier foreign policies. During the frequent emergencies of food grains India experienced that food security is very essential to save people from starvation, to protect self respect, honour and sovereignty and for the development of the country.

(3) Decrease in foreign exchange: Whenever we import things like food grains we have to spend our foreign exchange unnecessarily. We can meet our demand for food ourselves but we cannot. This results in shortage of foreign exchange to purchase very important commodities.

Role of co-operatives in food security: A co-operative is a form voluntary organisation of people which works for collective interest on the basis of quality, self help and domestic system. In India the role of co-operative is very important in providing food security. This work is done by the consumer co-operative societies through ration shops for the sale of food grain for the poor.

In India, there are different systems of consumer co-operatives at national, state, district and village levels. There are 794 consumer co-operative stores at the central level (whole sale) and 24,078 stores at the primary level.

In rural areas nearly 44,418 village level primary agriculture credit societies are distributing essential goods along with their ordinary business. To fulfil the needs of consumers, consumer co-operatives societies are running nearly 37,226 retail selling centres in urban and semi-urban areas.

The government started a scheme named ‘Sarvpriya’ in July 2000. Under this plan some selected distribution system at selling centres of state consumers co-operative federation distributes and procured cereals from Food Corporation of India (FCI) to the poor sections of the society through ration shops.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Kharif crop is: (2013)
(i) Wheat
(ii) Gram
(iii) Paddy
(iv) Oat
Answer:
(iii) Paddy

Question 2.
Which system has been developed in India to make food grains available at reasonable price to poor and other people during periods of food crisis?
(i) Food-Security System
(ii) Market-Interference System
(iii) Value Stabilising System
(iv) Agriculture Price Policy
Answer:
(i) Food-Security System

Question 3.
When was the minimum support price policy adopted by the government?
(i) 1960
(ii) 1963
(iii) 1962
(iv) 1965
Answer:
(iii) 1962

Question 4.
Which of the following is a part of public distribution system?
(i) Footwear shop
(ii) Jewellery shop
(iii) Ration shop
(iv) General store
Answer:
(iii) Ration shop

Question 5.
Targeted public distribution system is related to:
(i) Women
(ii) People living below the poverty line
(iii) Men
(iv) Children under 14
Answer:
(iii) Men

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

Question 6.
Which kind of Ration Card is arranged for the poorest of the poor?
(i) B. P. L. cards
(ii) Antyodaya cards
(iii) A. P. L. cards
(iv) None of these
Answer:
(ii) Antyodaya cards

Question 7.
How much cereal is given under Antyodaya Anna Yojna? (2014)
(i) 5 kg
(ii) 10 kg
(iii) 15 kg
(iv) 25 kg
Answer:
(iv) 25 kg

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
The majority of crops in India are dependent on the ………… for agriculture.
Answer:
monsoon

Question 2.
India is a developing country and its chief occupation is …………
Answer:
agriculture

Question 3.
India accounts for ………… percent of the world production of rice.
Answer:
11.4

Question 4.
According to seasons the cereal crops are divided into ………… and ………… (2008)
Answer:
Rabi and Kharif

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

Question 5.
The Food Corporation of India was established in …………
Answer:
1945

Question 6.
India ranks ………… in the world production of rice.
Answer:
second.

Match the Columns

A B
1. Card for people above the poverty line (2012) (a) August, 1995
2. Beginning of the Mid Day Meal (b) Ration Card
3. Food Corporation of India (2009) (c) A. P. L.
4. Public Distribution System (2017) (d) 1965
5. Kaam ke Badle Anaj Yojna (e) 13 October, 2004

Answers:
1. (c)
2. (a)
3. (d)
4. (b)
5. (e)

True/False

Question 1.
Of the total world’s production of rice. India produces less than 10%. (2008)
Answer:
False

Question 2.
Wheat is Kharif crop. (2010)
Answer:
False

Question 3.
The government started a scheme named ‘Sarvapriya’ in July 2003. (2011)
Answer:
False

Question 4.
India ranks third in the production of wheat in the world. (2008, 09)
Answer:
True

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 15 Food Security

Answer in One Word/Sentence

Question 1.
Under which category of cereal wheat, millets and maize come?
Answer:
Coarse grains.

Question 2.
It is a part of the public distribution system. (2008)
Answer:
Fair price shop.

Question 3.
Who is called the originator of the Green Revolution?
Answer:
Norman E. Borlog.

Question 4.
Which type of card is available for the poorest of the poor?
Answer:
Antyodaya Card.

Question 5.
The crop which is sown in March and harvested in April. (2015)
Answer:
Rabi crops.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

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