MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How does air or noise pollution affect health? Explain.
Answer:
Effect of air pollution: Disturbance of balance among various gases in the air or presence of unwanted gases is known as air pollution. Burning of coal and mineral oil also adds sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere which leads to burning sensation in eyes, burning is throat, respiratory and lung diseases. Air pollution also cause acid rains. The danger of increase in the hole of the ozone layer is also on rise because of air pollution.

Due to the hole in the ozone layer the ultraviolet rays on the earth surface is spreading. As a result the possibility of skin cancer is increasing. It also reduces the immunity of human body.

Effect of noise pollution on health: Any sound that disturbs the mental peace is known as noise pollution. Due to noise pollution man becomes psychic and tense. This increases irritability and headache and also has ill effects on the health of infants.

Question 2.
What do you mean by population explosion? (MP 2010)
Answer:
Population explosion means sudden increase in the birth rate and decrease in death rate, in any country when the population grows at a rapid rate it is called population explosion. Human lifestyle has improved due to progress in the field of medicine. The fertility and mortality rates have come down. Deaths due to war are decline. As a result mortality rate have unexpectedly gone down and population has gone up.

Question 3.
How does over grazing affects the quality of land?
Answer:
Excessive intake of vegetation by domestic animals is called over grazing. As a result the vegetation does not grow again very fast in these areas. The ill effect is that layer of vegetation from land is destroyed. Due to soil erosion the danger of desertification on arises. In such areas soil absorbs less water and plants do not get adequate water. Such situation has developed the highlands of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Western Madhya Pradesh.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

Question 4.
Show the relation of human being and environment.
Answer:
Man and environment are dependent on each other. Like man other living beings are also dependent on environment for food, water, air and shelter. Man is dependent on the factors of environment for his physical, cultural, industrial and economic progress. By using the elements of natural environment he has built farms, factories, towns, cities, road railways, dams and canals. Religion, beliefs and practices and culture have all developed on the same basis.

The quality of environment has declined due to human interference with the natural environment. As a result of population growth, urbanization, industrialization, farming, transportation and progress in technology the natural structure has changed. Previously man considered nature as means of life saving but in the modem industrial era he is exploiting his treasure in irrational ways. This has intoxicated the air, water and food.

At some places forests are being of destroyed whereas in other places vegetation is being destroyed. Thousand of pebple are suffering from droughts, floods and land sliding. The stores of natural resources are gradually exhausting. Deserts are increasing and agricultural land is decreasing. Food supply is inadequate to supply for growing population. All these conditions are created by man himself. Man creates imbalance in the environment.

Question 5.
Why is it necessary to protect our Preserve Resources?
Answer:
Man is completely dependent on natural resources. Man uses land, water, air, forest, minerals etc. in his life. Population is increasing so demand of these natural resources is increasing day by day. Natural resources available on the land are limited but the demand of these resources is very high. Gradually these resources are going to finish and pollution is increasing. That is why it is essential to conserve the resources so that they will be used by us for a longer time.

Question 6.
What will be the effect of carbon dioxide increase in the atmosphere?
Answer:
Increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will increase the temperature of the atmosphere. As a result the polar ice caps will melt and sea level would rise in near future. There is always danger of submerging the coastal regions.

Question 7.
Explain Radioactive pollution?
Answer:
Radioactive pollution: Radioactive pollution is a curse for modem age. The habitants of Earth are suffering from the hazardous results of atom and nuclear, test explosions, power plants, radioisotope use in medicine, industry and research, etc.

Nuclear tests and weapons of war using nuclear power are the greatest threat to the human race. During explosion, the radioactive substances like Strontium 90, Cesium 137 and Cobalt 60 are produced which are long lived. Strontium 90 can accumulate in bones and causes cancer. It replaces calcium due to which bones become weak. It causes leukemia, bone cancer and other diseases.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the relation between man and environment?
Answer:
Man and environment are dependent on each other. Like man other living beings are also dependent on environment for food, water, air and shelter. Man is dependent on the factors of environment for his physical, cultural, industrial and economic progress. By using the elements of natural environment he has built farms, factories, towns, cities, road railways, dams and canals. Religion, beliefs and practices and culture have all developed on the same basis.

The quality of environment has declined due to human interference with the natural environment. As a result of population growth, urbanization, industrialization, farming, transportation and progress in technology the natural structure has changed. Previously man considered nature as means of life saving but in the modem industrial era he is exploiting his treasure in irrational ways. This has intoxicated the air, water and food.

At some places forests are being of destroyed whereas in other places vegetation is being destroyed. Thousand of pebple are suffering from droughts, floods and land sliding. The stores of natural resources are gradually exhausting. Deserts are increasing and agricultural land is decreasing. Food supply is inadequate to supply for growing population. All these conditions are created by man himself. Man creates imbalance in the environment.

Question 2.
What is Environment? What are its main elements? (MP 2009,11)
Answer:
By Environment, it is a broad term. It includes all that surrounds us such as air water, flora and fauna.

It also means all those conditions which are necessary for a living being. The main elements of environment are:

  1. Natural Environment or Physical.
  2. Cultural and Social Environment.

(1) Natural or Physical Environment: Includes all natural elements given by nature. e.g., location, rocks, climate, vegetation, wildlife etc.

(2) Cultural or Social Environment: Develops due to the mutual relationship between man and natural environment. It includes the economic and social activities coated, developed and conducted by man such as farming, industry, rites and rituals, settlements, roads, railways, air services, means of services, government system etc.
Man keeps changing and modifying the environment.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

Question 3.
What do you mean by pollution? Explain its kinds. (MP 2013)
Answer:
Enviionnent pollution is unfavourable altcration of our sunrounding, wholly or largely as a by-product of man’s actions through direct or indirect effect of changes in energy patterns, radiation levels; chemicals and physical constitution and abundance of organism.

Thus, the environmental pollution is that process where the purity of environmental is destroyed.
1. Air pollution: When, some poisonous gases, such as, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, etc. enter into the pure and clear air, then its balance is disturb and the air gets polluted.

The problem of air pollution is worse in the cities and in the metropolitan cities, it has reached the extreme point. Due to poisonous smoke and gases the people have to suffer from many diseases, like – Asthma, skin diseases and eye sight problems. The air pollution has taken place because of increase in industries, chemical, metallurgical, oil refineries, etc. The industrial and domestic consumption of coal, oil and fuel are other sources of sulphur dioxide and harmful smoke. In an estimate, it is found that sixty per cent of air pollution is due to emission of vehicles moving on road network.

2. Soil pollution: With the increase in the world population, the quantity of waste material is also increasing day by day, on account of this the problem of soil pollution takes place.

Polluted air and water affect the pollution of soil because air polluting gases in dissolved form with rain water reach on earth and pollute the soil. Increased use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers has deteriorated the soil.

The soil pollution is of three types:

  • Physical soil pollution: Pollution, caused by man and other organism is called physical soil pollution.
  • Chemical soil pollution: Polluted air and water combined cause soil pollution because they dissolve in rain water and reach to the earth and pollute soil.

3. Noise or Sound pollution: Man can tolerate the noise around him up to a limit, because the ear also has a limit to capture sound. The sound, which is above that limit is harmful for man. If we define noise as an unwanted sound, then noise pollution is an unwanted sound, having adverse effect upon the people living around. It produces restlessness in man.

The problem of noise pollution is increasing due to industrialization and machines. Noise pollution should be checked otherwise it have disastrous result in future.

4. Radioactive pollution: Radioactive pollution is a curse for modern age. The habitants of Earth are suffering from the hazardous results of atom and nuclear, test explosions, power plants, radioisotope use in medicine, industry and research, etc.

Nuclear tests and weapons of war using nuclear power are the greatest threat to the human race. During explosion, the radioactive substances like Strontium 90, Cesium 137 and Cobalt 60 are produced which are long lived. Strontium 90 can accumulate in bones and causes cancer. It replaces calcium due to which bones become weak. It causes leukaemia, bone cancer and other diseases.

5. Industrial pollution: Industrial pollution means, pollution by mills and factories. Due to their residues (i) Soil pollution, (ii) Water pollution and (iii) Air pollution is increasing. We must devise measures to control the pollution by chimney wastes.

Question 4.
Explain the problem of ozone depletion. (MP 2010)
Answer:
Ozone Hole: It is about 20-35 km, above the sea level in the atmosphere. This layer absorbs the ultraviolet rays coming from the sun and saves living being on the earth.

Due to excessive use of Chloro Floro Carbon (CFC), in the appliances as refrigerator and use of air conditioner, there is a hole in ozone layer. It was first observed in Antarctica in 1985.

Due to the hole in the ozone layer, the ultraviolet rays on the earth surface is spreading. As a result the possibility of skin cancer is increasing. It also reduces the immunity of the body. Due to decreasing rate of photosynthesis growth of flora and fauna is hampered and forests are drying.

“Carbon dioxide and other heat resistant gases absorb some part of heat and reverse it back to the earth surface. As a result extra heat is stored in the lower atmosphere and its temperature increases called “Global warming.”

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

Question 5.
What do you mean by resources? Explain the types of resources.
Answer:
When any physical thing or matter is useful or valuable to man it is called a resource. Nature has given many gifts to man for fulfilment of his needs such as rocks, minerals, soil, rivers plants and animals etc. When these gifts of nature are useful to man they are called resources.

Types of Resources:
1. Natural resources: The resources which are given to us by nature and man’s role in its creation is negligible are called the Natural Resources.
Natural resources are of two types:

  • Renewable
  • Non-renewable.

(a) Renewable resources: Renewable resources which are recyclable after the use or can be used again e.g., forests, pastures and agricultural land.
(b) Non-renewable resources: Those resources which once exploited cannot be recycled or supplied in the near future such as petroleum, coal.

2. Human resources: Human resources means the resources which are qualities of man. Education and health increase man’s physical and mental capacity. Man himself is major resources who uses the natural elements as resources on the basis of his knowledge, labour and technical know-how.

3. Man made resources: Man made resources are those resources which are produced by man to utilize the physical matters of environment such as machines, buildings, tools etc.

4. Land resources: Land is an important natural resources. Land is used for housing, roads, railways, farming pasture etc.

5. Water resources: Water on the earth surface is obtained through rains, rivers, lakes ponds, glaciers etc. The water is used for irrigation, industry, domestic supply and water transport. For better use of water multipurpose river valley project in prepared.

6. Soil resources: Good soil is essential for the growth of vegetation, the living beings are dependent on plants for their food. The soil formation is a slow process. In the soil formation types of rocks, climate, land slope, type of vegetation have specific contribution. Fertility of soil depends on all these.

7. Forest resources: 30% of the total area of the world is covered by forests. Forest do not grow in dry and snowy areas. Forests have specific importance for us. The trees absorbs Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen, therefore forests are considered as the store house of life giving for all living beings. Forest conserve water and soil. They increase the underground water level.

Question 6.
What is excessive Grazing. What are its ill effects? (MP 2011)
Answer:
Excessive intake of vegetation by domestic animals is called over grazing. As a result the vegetation does not grow again very fast in these areas. The ill effect is that layer of vegetation from land is destroyed. Due to soil erosion the danger of desertification on arises. In such areas soil absorbs less water and plants do not get adequate water. Such situation has developed the highlands of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Western Madhya Pradesh.

Question 7.
How does the over population affect the human life? Explain.
Answer:
Population explosion is a major problem of our country. Because of this many problems are arising. They are as follows:
1. Hunger: Because of high population the problem of food is faced by people. Production capacity of our country is less in compare to increase in population. Many people in the world are not getting two meals also in a day. Some of them get meals but they are not nutritious.

2. Problem of housing: People are facing the problem of housing because of increase in population. Many people are living on footpath, railway platform and bus stands. Some people live under the open sheets and huts.

3. Shortage resources: Because of over population people are facing the shortage of resources. Water problem, soil resources are used on large scale because of heavy burden of population on it. Resources are limited which we cannot increase. So population have to be controlled by us.

4. Unemployment: There is a great problem of under employment and unemployment. Wealth is required by man. But because of unemployment problem people cannot earn wealth. Nowadays in every part of the world people are facing the problem of educated unemployment. Sometimes people get the job but not according to their interest.

5. Problem of pollution: Because of high population the problem of pollution is faced by every country of the world. There is a problem of noise pollution, water pollution and soil pollution because of over population. All the metro cities are facing the problem of pollution because of excess burden of people on the earth.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

Question 8.
How does the construction of huge dams harmful for environment? Explain with example.
Answer:
Under the multipurpose river valley project many dams are constructed on big rivers. By these dams various purposes are solved at a time. About 700 dams have been constructed after independence but apart from their advantages there are certain disadvantages also. The harmful effects can be studied under the following heads:

1. Clearing of green plants: Whenever a river valley project is started the construction of houses for the workers, construction of roads, railway and underground tunnels become essential. As a result the greenery of large areas disappears. The artificial pond made from the huge dams drawn forests and farm land. Damodar valley project, Hirakund project are the example of it, where greenery of large area is cleared.

2. Effect on agriculture: Wherever a river valley project in started the artificial pond made from the huge dam drowns the agricultural land also. The alkalinity of the land increases due to water drained from the canals of the dam and its fertility decreases. Due to the prevalence of continuous water in dam and canal area the nearby land become unsuitable for agriculture.

3. Salty water: Nearby dam area the amount of salty water increases. This salty water is not suitable for agriculture and other purposes.

4. Displacement of human settlement: Human settlements are displaced from the dam areas. Many families have to leave their places and settle at other places. Bhakara dam and Pong dam are the best examples of it. For the construction of Sardar Sarovar Dams of Narmada river many families were displaces.

5. High economic cost: The economic cost of dam is very high and their profits are not in proportion to the cost. So it is better to construct lower cost small dam instead of huge dam.

Question 9.
“Centralization of industries is dangerous for environment.” Explain with example. (MP 2009, 15)
Answer:
Construction of industries on one land is very useful but at the same time centralization of industries in dangerous also. The following problems are there:
1. Air pollution The factories release poisonous gases in the atmosphere. This disturb atmospheric balance and increases air pollution. It causes many diseases.

2. Increase in temperature: Because of smoke of factories the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increase. It increases the temperature of the atmosphere. If this temperature goes on increasing continuously the existence of life on the earth will be over.

3. Ozone layer: Air pollution causes acid rains. The danger of increase in the hole of the ozone layer is also rising because of air pollution. Due to the hole in the ozone layer the ultraviolet rays on the earth surface is spreading. As a result the possibility of skin cancer is increasing.

4. Clearing of forest: Because of industrialization forests are cut. Deforestation is causing less rainfall, increase in temperature. Environmental balance is also getting disturb due to reckless cutting of forest. Content of oxygen is increasing in the atmosphere.

5. Noise pollution: Because of industrialization. Noise pollution is also increasing. Sound of machines and syrans are very harsh and they create sound pollution.

6. Water pollution: Because of industrialization water is also polluted. The polluted water is drained in the rivers which directly influences human health and environment. Damodar and Hugli river have been poisoned by the effluents of surrounding factorises.

Question 10.
What do you mean by water pollution? Describe the increasing river polution in India.
Answer:
Some unwanted substances in the natural water that reduces its purity is known as water pollution.
Causes of water are many such as industrial effluents, domestic drainage and sewage fertilizers used in agriculture etc.

Main causes of water pollution in rivers are:

  • Paper and sugar mills and tanneries drain their wastes into rivers or into open land is a major cause of water pollution.
  • Water get polluted by the effluents of coastal cities and by dripping of oil.
  • Big industrial units and lot of small factories use the river water and deposit their harmful wastes back into the rivers causing water pollution.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

I. Choose the correct alternatives:

Question 1.
Unit of measuring noise is: (MP 2010)
(a) Centimetre
(b) Decibel
(c) Celsius
(d) Millibar
Answer:
(b) Decibel

Question 2.
Where was the ozone hole observed in 1985?
(a) Australia
(b) Antarctica
(c) Western Europe
(d) Alaska
Answer:
(b) Antarctica

Question 3.
City with the highest intensity of noise in the world: (MP 2012)
(a) Mumbai
(b) New York
(c) Rio-de-Janerio
(d) Tokyo
Answer:
(c) Rio-de-Janerio

Question 4.
Ozone layer is:
(a) 15 km above the earth surface
(b) 5 – 10 km above the earth surface
(c) 75 – 100 km above the earth surface
(d) 32 – 80 km above the earth surface
Answer:
(d) 32 – 80 km above the earth surface

Question 5.
Main cause of environmental degradation is:
(a) Increase in tourism
(b) Shifting cultivation
(c) Changing nature of land use
(d) All the above.
Answer:
(c) Changing nature of land use

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

Question 6.
Population explosion is:
(a) Migration
(b) Equal death rate and birth rate
(c) Crowding
(d) Continuous increase in number of humans
Answer:
(d) Continuous increase in number of humans

Question 7.
‘Cut and Burn’ is related: (MP 2011)
(a) Shifting cultivation
(b) Tourism and pilgrimage
(c) Mining
(d) Construction of dam
Answer:
(a) Shifting cultivation

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
God Buddha got the divya gyan under the ……………
Answer:
Banyan tree

Question 2.
…………… of total area of world is covered by forest.
Answer:
30%

Question 3.
…………… decibel of sound makes man mad.
Answer:
140

Question 4.
Unit of …………… is Decibel.
Answer:
noise

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

Question 5.
…………… rays on the earth causes skin cancer.
Answer:
Ultra violet

Question 6.
First of all ozone hole observed in 1985 in area of …………… (MP 2009)
Answer:
Antarctica.

III. Match the following:

A B
1. Renewable (a) Means of irrigation
2. Natural pollutant (b) Modifying
3. Protection (c) Pasture land
4.  Pollution (d) Insecticide
5. Social environment (e) Preserve
6. The Radio Active substance (f) Rio-De-Janerio.      (MP 2012)
7. The city having highest noise in the world. (g) Cancer       (MP 2011)

Answers:
1. (c)
2. (d)
3. (e)
4. (b)
5. (a)
6. (g)
7. (f)

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

Question 1.
Organic environment is physical environment.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Petroleum is renewable resource.
Answer:
False

Question 3.
Man and environment is depending on each other.
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Literary meaning of environment is all that surrounds us.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Machine is a man made resource.
Answer:
True

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 1 Man and Environment

V. Give answer in one word:

Question 1.
To keep more than one purposes.
Answer:
multipurpose

Question 2.
One who creates
Answer:
creater

Question 3.
Capacity to resist a disease.
Answer:
disease resistant

Question 4.
In take vegetation by domestic animal is called.
Answer:
excessive grazing

Question 5.
The process of extension of cities is called.
Answer:
excessive grazing urbanization.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

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