MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the main economic challenges before India? (2011, 14)
Answer:
The major economic challenges before India are poverty, rapidly increasing, population, unemployment, rapidly increasing prices i.e., problem of price rise, regional imbalance and increasing economic disparities, lack of basic facilities and food shortage etc.

Question 2.
What is meant by poverty line? (2016)
Answer:
According to the Indian Planning Commission, those people are considered below poverty line who are unable to obtain nutrition of 2400 calories per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per day in urban area.

Question 3.
What do you mean by under-employment? (2010, 15, 17)
Answer:
When a person does not get a job according to his efficiency and works below the level of his ability and efficiency then it is categorized as under-employment.

Question 4.
Mention the names of three states of India having the largest population of poorer. (2014)
Answer:
Bihar, Orissa and Sikkim.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Question 5.
Write about the social causes responsible for poverty. (2010, 13, 16)
Answer:
People of India spend a big amount of their income on various ceremonies like, birth, death and marriage etc. It decreases savings and increases indebtness. Apart from this, ignorance, fatalism, a conservative attitude are also the causes of poverty in India.

Question 6.
What is the capacity of production of the cement factories established in India?
Answer:
At present there are 190 big cement plants which have 324.9 million tonnes production capacity. Apart from these, there are 360 small scale cement factories having a production capacity of 111 lakh tonnes.

Question 7.
Mention the agro based industries in India. (2008, 13)
Answer:
Textile industry, sugar industry, paper industry, jute industry, vegetation industry are the agro based industry in India.

Question 8.
To which countries does India export glass manufactured goods?
Answer:
India exports glass manufactured goods to Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Afghanistan, Quwait, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Myanmar and Malaysia.

Question 9.
Which states in India are important for the production of silk?
Answer:

  • Kashmir Valley
  • East Karnataka and plateau and hilly regions of Tamil Nadu
  • Hugh region of West Bengal
  • Mountainous regions of Assam

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Question 10.
What do you mean by disguised employment? (2015)
Answer:
Disguised employment: The employment seen in the field of agriculture indicates to the zero marginal productivity of the labour. It means if these laboures are transferred elsewhere from agriculture yet it does not affect the productivity of agriculture adversely directly or indirectly.

Question 11.
Which countries are the major buyers of the lac products from India?
Answer:
The major buyers of the lack products from India are China, America, Russia and Britain. Apart from these Germany, Brazil, Italy, France and Japan are also important buyers.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How does the growth of population increase poverty? Explain. (2008, 09, 12, 13, 15)
Answer:
The rapid growth of population is a major cause for increasing poverty. Population growth adversely affects the consumption level of poor and their economic conditions becomes more worse. Increasing population leads to low per capita income and low standard of living.

Low per capita income results in low saving and less demand for consumer articles. As a result capital formation and speed of development decreases. Thus the problem of poverty becomes more complex.

Question 2.
“India is a rich nation but its citizens are poor.” Explain this statement. (2008, 09)
Answer:
Often it is said about India that India is a rich nation but its residents are poor. India is a wealthy nation but the second part of the statement infers that Indians are poor. Let us understand the irony of this situation.

India is a rich nation: From ancient times India has been considered a geographically and culturally rich nation. Here natural resources are in abundance for development. India’s geographical area is very vast, natural resources are good, climate is favourable, forest wealth is in adequate quantity, essential resources of energy are also available in adequate quantity and human power is also enough. Therefore it is true that India is a rich nation.

The citizens of India are poor. As compared to the developed countries the per capita income in India is very low. According to the recent data the population of poor people living below the poverty line in India is 19.3 percent. There are about 5 crore unemployed people in India. Due to low income and unemployment the standard of living of the Indian people is also very low.

Thus in spite of India being rich in the resources, Indians are poor.

Question 3.
What is Antyodaya Anna Yojna? Write. (2009, 12, 15, 17)
Answer:
Antyodaya Anna Yojna: It was launched on 25th December, 2001. The main objective of this scheme is to provided food grains to the people living below the poverty line, who are included under the targeted public distribution system. In this scheme 35 kilograms of cereal per month is distributed to 1-50 crore poor families on special concessional prices. The central issue prices of wheat and rice under this scheme are Rs. 2 and Rs. 3 per kilogram respectively.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Question 4.
Mention the main characteristics of the Employment Guarantee Programme, 2005. (2008, 09, 11, 12, 15)
Answer:
Characteristics of the Employment Guarantee Programme, 2005

  • This scheme was implemented in 200 most backward districts of the country.
  • Its main aim is to provide 100 days employment every year to at least one adult of each rural or urban poor and low income family.
  • Under this programme, it is necessary to provide employment to an applicant within 15 days.
  • If employment is not provided within due time than an unemployment allowance will be given to the concerned person.
  • The allowance would be at least one third of the minimum wages.

Question 5.
What is meant by bad cycling (dushchakra) of poverty? (2008, 11)
Answer:
Meaning of vicious cycle (bad cycling) of poverty: The vicious cycle of poverty is such a cyclic process which, both starts and ends at poverty.

According to Prof. Nurkse, “Vicious cycle of poverty means such powers moving on circular path like planets which act and react on each other in such a way that the country remains in the state of poverty.”

Characteristics of the vicious cycle of poverty:

  • The cause and result of poverty is poverty itself.
  • Poverty moves from its starting and end point acting and reacting on a circular path.
  • Its effcet is cumulative that is, poverty found on one level becomes more harmful at another level.
  • It is such a continuous process which shifts the related components down.

According to Prof. Nurkse, the point to be noted in this context is that the lowest level of the actual income is the cause and result of the lowest level of the demand and consumption of commodities. The effect of the decrease in actual income is on the demand of the commodities and the saving of the people.

Question 6.
What are the bases to measure poverty? (2008, 09, 16)
Or
Write the differences between absolute poverty and relative poverty. (2011, 12)
Answer:
Measurement of poverty: Two criteria are generally used to measure poverty. First absolute poverty and second relative poverty.

Absolute poverty: Absolute poverty is the inability to afford the basic amenities (food, clothing and health). All those people living below poverty line are included under it.

Relative poverty: It means disparity of income. It implies international economic inequalities and regional economic disparities. The National Sample Survey Organization measures the population living below poverty line in India from time to time (generally five years).

Question 7.
Describe the condition of main cottage industries of India. (2009, 14)
Answer:
Cottage Industries of India
(1) Silk industries: It is an agro-based industry. From the very beginning the silk industry has been one of the major industries of India. At present of the total production of silk in the world 17 percent is produced in India. This industry provides employment to 58 lakh people. For encouraging this industry. “The Central Silk Board” was established in the year 1949.

(2) Lac industry: India is a major producer of lac. Before 1950, India was the only country where lac was cleaned but today this work is also done in Thailand. It has affected the Indian lac industry. Earlier 85 percent of the total world production of lac was produced by India which at present has been reduced to 50 percent. In India the maximum lac is produced in the plateau of Chhota Nagpur.

Out of the total production of lac in the world 50 percent of lac is produced in India. Apart from this Chhatisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Orissa, Gujarat and Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh are major centres of production. This industry provides employment to about 10,000 people of the country.

(3) Glass industry: As a cottage industry it is located mainly at Firozabad and Belgaon. There are more than 225 small and big factories of glass in Firozabad, which manufactures bangles. In Etah, Shikohabad, Fatehabad and Hathras also it is run as cottage industry.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Question 8.
Information and technology industry is the faster growing industry of India. Explain. (2008, 09, 13, 14)
Answer:
The information technology industry is an industry based on technology with the help of computers and its applications, communication, technology and concerned software. The knowledge reaches through means of communication and equipment. It is a knowledge based industry.

In India, the development of information technology is recent, but it is growing rapidly. However, enormous efforts are required for making it competitive with developed countries. In India this industry developed after the International Treaty of 1994. In 2000-01, this industry earned Rs. 33,138 crore rupees which increased to 5,15,536 crore, in the year 2012-13. Its contribution in the gross domestic product is approximate 8 percent in the year 2013. It shows that this is the fastest growing industry of India.

Question 9.
What is the condition of state wise population of India below poverty line? Explain. (2016)
Answer:
Statewise poverty in India: The extent of poverty in various states of India is not uniform. According to the report issued by Planning Commission in September 2005, Dang (Gujarat) is the poorest district in India. Banswada district of Rajasthan is second and third is Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh.

The estimated situation of poverty in the year 2011-12 in different states is shown in the table.
Percentage of statewise population below poverty line in india

State/Union Territories 2011 – 12
Andhra Pradesh

Bihar

Gujarat

Haryana

Karnataka

Kerala

Madhya Pradesh (non-divided)

Maharashtra

Odisha

Punjab

Rajasthan

Tamil Nadu

Uttar Pradesh

West Bengal

9 – 20

33 – 7

16 – 6

11 – 2

20 – 9

7 – 1

31 – 7

17 – 4

32 – 6

8 – 3

14 – 7

11 – 3

29 – 4

20 – 0

Whole India 21 – 9

According to the above table the numbers of people living below the poverty line in India is maximum in Bihar, Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Question 10.
Write a note on the cotton textile industry. (2008, 09)
Answer:
Cotton textile industry: This is, oldest and main industry of India. The first cotton mill in India was setup in 1818 in Kolkata. This is the largest and most extensive industry of India. Its contribution to the total industrial production of the country is 14 percent, whereas its share in the gross export is 19 percent. Its share in imports is 3 percent.

The cotton textile industry is mainly localised in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat. The capital investment is this industry is about 5,000 crore rupees. This industry is providing employment directly or indirectly to 9 crore people. The Government has freed cotton industry from license through the cloth order of 1993.

Question 11.
Which articles are produced by the leather industry of India?
Answer:
This is a traditional industry. There are several things which are made of leather such as coats, jerseys, purses, playing material, toys, monkey caps, belts, hand gloves, shoes, footwear etc.

The majority of the leather goods in the country are produced in Tamil Nadu, Kolkata, Kanpur, Mumbai, Aurangabad, Kolhapur, Dewas, Jalandhar and Agra. Out of the total production of leather goods 75 percent is produced by small scale and cottage industries.

Question 12.
Write a note on the Indian Glass industry. (2009)
Answer:
Glass industry: The glass industry is a very old industry of India but modernised development of the glass industry started after the second world war only. At present in this industry, glass is being produced by modern and latest technology. At present out of 56 big factories of glass 15 are modem factories which manufacture high quality of glass goods, completely with the help of machines.

It is centralised as a modem industry in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Orissa. The maximum number of factories in the country are situated in West Bengal. India exports manufactured glass goods to Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Afghanistan, Quwait, Iran, Greece, Saudia Arabia, Burma and Malaysia etc.

Question 13.
Explain the condition of the paper industry in India. (2009)
Answer:
Paper Industry: In India the art of paper making by hand developed in the ancient times. The first modem mill was set up at Bali near Kolkata in 1870. At present there are several paper mills in India among which the chief are National News Print and Paper Mills Limited (Nepanagar, Madhya Pradesh) and Security Paper Mill (Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh). At Present there are 515 paper mills in the country.

The contribution of small and medium units is 50 percent of the total product. At present in India, around 15 lakh people are employed in this industry. India ranks twentieth in the world in the production of paper. The turnover of this industry is about Rs. 16,000 crores and it contribution in national revenue in Rs. 2,500 crore.

The chief paper producing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Odisha, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Kerala.

Question 14.
What is meant by poverty? (2010)
Answer:
Meaning of poverty: Scarcity of wealth is the reason of poverty. The poor economic condition of some people does not lead to poverty but when a majority of the people of a society are unable to fulfil the minimum requirements of life then this situation is known as poverty. If essential facilities of housing, clothing and food are not available to the majority of people of a society then it is called a situation of poverty.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the reasons responsible for poverty in India? (2008)
Or
Describe any two reasons of poverty in India. (2008)
Answer:
Causes of poverty in India: The following are the main causes of poverty in India:
(1) Rapid growth of population: The population in India is increasing rapidly. As regards population, India ranks 2nd in the world. Every year about 1.81 crores people are added to the existing population in India. According to the census of 2001 the annual growth of population in India during the decade 1991-2001 was 1.93. It leads to low per capita income and consumption and low standard of living. It promotes poverty.

(2) Unemployment: Unemployment in India is widespread. According to an estimate there are about 5 crore unemployed people in India. The number of unemployed persons is increasing continuously, which is an important factor for poverty. In rural areas disguised unemployment also exists along with unemployment and seasonal unemployment. The increasing number of unemployed people decrease the productivity of individuals and the standard of income.

(3) Low per capita income: In India poverty is expanding because of low per capita income. As compared to the developed countries of the world, the per capita income in India is very low. According to the report of the World Bank of the year 2004, the per capita income in India is only 480 dollars (about Rs. 24000/- p.a.). Low per capita income is the chief reason of poverty in India.

(4) Inflation and price rise: A huge amount of wealth is spend on the accomplishment of the development tasks. It generates inflationary pressure on the economy and the prices start increasing. As a result the problem of poverty becomes more severe.

(5) Use of natural resources: Minerals, forests wealth and human resources etc. in India are in abundance. But till now they have not been used in a proper way. The under utilization of natural resources is also a reason of poverty.

(6) Uncertainty in agriculture: Indian economy is based on agriculture, which depends on the monsoons. The Monsoon is always uncertain due to which there are fluctuations in the agricultural production. Natural calamities affect agricultural production adversely, which results in poverty.

Question 2.
What are main programmes for eradication of poverty in India? (Any four). (2009, 10, 17)
Or
Describe the Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana. (2009)
[Note: See title “Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna.”]
Or
Describe any two important programmes for the eradication of poverty in India. (2008)
Answer:
Main Programmes for eradication of poverty in India:
(1) Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (SGSY): It was started on 1st April 1999. The programme aims at bringing the poor families above poverty line with in a period of three years organizing them into self Help Group through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy. This programme also aims at generating additional income for the rural poor. This is being conducted through the District Village Development Agency (Zila Gramya Vikas Abhikaran).

(2) Prime Minister Rojgar Yojna: The scheme started on 2nd October, 1993. It aims to create self employment opportunities for the educated unemployed youth between the age 18 to 35 years in rural areas and small towns.

(3) Grameen Rojgar Srajan Karyakram: This scheme was launched in April, 1995 with aim to establishing projects and creating self employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns.

(4) Annapoorna Yojna: This scheme was started on 1st April, 2000. This scheme aims to provide food security to people of 65 years of age and above who were eligible to obtain pension under the National Old Age Pension scheme but are not getting it. Under this scheme per month per head 10 kg. of food grains are provided free of cost. In the year 2002-03 the National Social Help programme was merged with it.

(5) Janshri Yojna: This scheme was launched in August 2000, to provide social security to the poor section of society. Under this scheme Rs. 20,000 in case of natural death, Rs. 50,000 in case of death or permanent disability in an accident and Rs. 25,000 in case of partial disability is provided to the concerned person.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Question 3.
State the importance of small scale (2017) and cottage industries in the Indian Economy. (2008, 09)
Answer:
Importance of Small Scale & Cottage Industries in the Indian Economy:
Small scale and cottage industries play an important role in Indian economy. These industries can be established with less capital and required more human labours. In India due to a large population there is more human labour and also due to poverty there is less capital. For these reasons these are considered an important part of the Indian economy. This can be made clear by the following facts:

(1) Suitable for rural economy: Around 50.4 percent of the working population of India depends on agriculture, but farmer do not get work for the whole years. Therefore small scale industries are important for them and suitable for the Indian economy.

(2) Reduces unemployment: The small scale industries reduces unemployment as they have potential of employing a large number of workers with less capital investment for the same.

(3) Development of individual art: These industries are helpful in developing individual art.

(4) Fast producing industry: Produced goods can be obtained within a short time after the establishment of these industries. Therefore these are called fast producing industries. There is always a shortage of goods in India and these industries can contribute significantly in removing this shortage.

(5) Earning of foreign currency: The export of the goods manufactured by small scale industries is increasing day-by-day which helps the country in obtaining valuable foreign currency. At present out of the total export of the country the share of the goods produced by small scale industries is 35 percent.

(6) Less dependency on imports: We have to depend on imports from foreign countries to establish large scale industries either for technology or for machine or raw material. With small scale industries there is no such requirement, we do not have to import machines or techniques or raw materials. Thus it decreases dependence on imports.

(7) Supplementary to large scale industries: The small scale industries can works as supplementary industries to large scale industries. For example small scale industries can manufacture intermediate goods which can be used by large scale industries to produce final goods.

Question 4.
Mention the Agro based industries of India. (2013)
Answer:
The Agro based industries of India are as follows:
(1) Cotton textile industry: This is, oldest and main industry of India. The first cotton mill in India was setup in 1818 in Kolkata. This is the largest and most extensive industry of India. Its contribution to the total industrial production of the country is 14 percent, whereas its share in the gross export is 19 percent. Its share in imports is 3 percent.

The cotton textile industry is mainly localised in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat. The capital investment is this industry is about 5,000 crore rupees. This industry is providing employment directly or indirectly to 9 crore people. The Government has freed cotton industry from license through the cloth order of 1993.

(2) Paper industry: In India the art of paper making by hand developed in the ancient times. The first modem mill was set up at Bali near Kolkata in 1870. At present there are several paper mills in India among which the chief are National News Print and Paper Mills Limited (Nepanagar, Madhya Pradesh) and Security Paper Mill (Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh). At Present there are 515 paper mills in the country.

The contribution of small and medium units is 50 percent of the total product. At present in India, around 15 lakh people are employed in this industry. India ranks twentieth in the world in the production of paper. The turnover of this industry is about Rs. 16,000 crores and it contribution in national revenue in Rs. 2,500 crore.

The chief paper producing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Odisha, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Kerala.

(3) Jute industry: India stands first in the production of Jute and second in the export of the jute products in the world. Gunny bags, rugs, ropes, decorative items etc. are made of jute. The jute industry in India started in 1855. At present there are 73 jute mills running in India. The capital investment in this industry in about Rs. 300 crores, 85% of jute mills are located in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Odisha.

(4) Sugar industry : It is an ancient and major industry of India, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra play an important role in the production of sugar in the country. Now number of sugar mills in India are about 566. In the year 1998 it was declared free from license restriction.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The basis of the comparison of income level is:
(i) Absolute poverty
(ii) Relative proverty
(iii) Complete poverty
(iv) None of these
Answer:
(ii) Relative proverty

Question 2.
The state having maximum population of poor, in India:
(i) Meghalaya
(ii) Assam
(iii) Bihar
(iv) Madhya Pradesh
Answer:
(iii) Bihar

Question 3.
For how many days is employment provided under the Employment Guarantee Act, 2005? (2014, 16)
(i) 25 days
(ii) 50 days
(iii) 75 days
(iv) 100 days
Answer:
(iv) 100 days

Question 4.
The maximum investment limit of a small scale industrial unit is:
(i) Rupees 1 crore
(ii) Rupees 5 crores
(iii) Rupees 3 crore
(iv) Rupess 7 crores
Answer:
(ii) Rupees 5 crores

Question 5.
Out of the total production of Jute in the world India produces:
(i) 25 percent
(ii) 10 percent
(iii) 50 percent
(iv) 35 percent
Answer:
(iii) 50 percent

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
The measures the population living below poverty line in India.
Answer:
National Sample Survey Organization

Question 2.
The concept of poverty line was first given by the Indian economist
Answer:
Shri Dandekar

Question 3.
Prime Minister Rojgar Yojna was started on
Answer:
2 October, 1993

Question 4.
Today India ranks in the world in the production of sugar.
Answer:
Second

Question 5.
The maximum capital investment of very small industries is upto
Answer:
25 lakh rupees.

Match the Columns

A B
1. Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (a) Bihar
2. Swarna Jayanti Shehri Rojgar Yojna (b) December, 1997
3. Annapurna Yojna (2015, 17) (c) April, 2000
4. The state having maximum population of poors in India (2016) (d) April, 1999

Answers:
1. (d)
2. (b)
3. (c)
4. (a)

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

True/False

Question 1.
Capital formation is the foundation of economic progress of a nation. (2015)
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Punjab is the poorest state of India. (2017)
Answer:
False

Question 3.
The first cotton mill in India was setup in 1818 in Kolkata. (2014)
Answer:
True

Question 4.
Rapid growth of population increases the poverty. (2016)
Answer:
True

Answer in One Word/Sentence

Question 1.
Name the unemployment that is generated during the depression period of trade cycle.
Answer:
Cyclic Unemployment.

Question 2.
Which is the poorest district of India?
Answer:
Dang.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 14 Economic Challenges Facing India

Question 3.
When was the Grameen Rojgar Srajan programme launched?
Answer:
April, 1995.

Question 4.
What is the rank of India in cement production in the world?
Answer:
Fifth.

Question 5.
When did the district industrial centre establish?
Answer:
May, 1978.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

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