MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 13 Election
Short Answer Type Questions
What do you mean by political party?
Political party is that party which helps to express public opinions. This party works hard for the nation on the path of democracy. R.G. Gettel says – ‘A political party consists of a group of citizens, more or less organized, who act as a political unit and who, by the use of their voting power, aim to control the government and carry out their general policies.’
Thus, a political party is an organized group of people who stands for certain principles and policies and a clear political programme. A political party is an organized body of citizens who share the same political views and principles (or ideology) to promote public interests and try to control the government.
Explain the meaning of general election and write its importance.
Meaning: The elections to the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha held on the basis of Adult Franchise are called General Elections.
Importance: General elections are important because of the following reasons:
- General elections are important in democracy because it provides an opportunity to the voter to elect or reject the representatives.
- It makes the largest participation of people in choosing their representatives.
- On the basis of Adult Franchise a person can cast his vote and elect or reject the independent candidate.
- By voting the voters show his judgement regarding the candidate.
Describe the formation of Election Commission.
The election commission is an independent body. It is headed by the Chief Election Commissioner and other two Election commissioners. Their appointments are governed by the law passed by the parliament. The Chief Election Commissioner cannot be removed from office by the president unless his misbehavior is proved or incapacity is passed by each house of parliament by an absolute majority.
The election commission consists of the chief election commissioner, two other election commissioners and election commissioner for regional level.
What do you mean by Adult Franchise (MP 2015)
In India every citizen who is 18 years old has right to vote. It is called Adult Franchise. Thus right of voting above the age of 18 without any discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, language and religion is known as Adult Franchise.
Adult means to complete a particular age. This age is different in various countries. For example in England and U.S.A. the age of adult is 18 while in Holland Denmark and Japan it is 25 years, In Norway it is 23 years. Before 1988 in India this age was 21 years but after the amendment of 1989 it became 18 years. In other words the person who has completed 18 years has right to vote.
Who decides the inabilities of MPs and MLAs and what is the process applied?
Whether any member is qualified for parliament or assembly or not any such decision is taken by the President or Governor at the suggestion of the election commission.
Why election symbols are allotted to parties?
What is the role of election symbol in the elections?
Every political party is allotted a specific and easily identifiable election symbol. The Election Commission allots one election symbol to every political party. It helps the voter to locate the name of the candidate of his choice at the time of marking the ballot paper. This is of great help to the illiterate voters. A symbol of the party’s choice is accepted by the commission ensures that there is no resemblance or ground for confusion in any of the symbols thus allotted.
Write the characteristics of political parties. (MP 2012)
Characteristics of political parties:
- To maintain clear identity.
- To opine clearly regarding policy matters.
- To create public opinion is support of its policy.
- Registration in election commission.
- United and governed by one code.
- Main aim is to win election for obtaining power.
- To create public opinion against antipublic policies by keeping an eye on ruling party.
- An election symbol for identity.
In election procedure counting is the important step explain.
In election procedure counting is the most important step:
All ballot boxes and electronic voting machines are collected on a fixed date. Counting takes place in front of district election officer. The candidate who attains maximum number of votes is declared elected. The elected candidate is the representative of his area. After the result of election are declared the elected candidate gets a certificate of winning the election through the district election officer.
The aim of election commission is to conduct impartial and independent elections. On the day of election public holiday is declared so that all citizens got an opportunity to cast vote. On the day of election all liquor shops of that area are closed so that any candidate cannot allure the voters. Special security arrangements are made so that nobody scares or threaten the voters.
Explain the role of opposition parties in the Indian politics. (MP 2009)
The parties which are not in government are called parties of opposition. The work of the opposition is no less important than the ruling party.
In a democracy, the opposition parties also have a very important task. The party which fails to be the majority group in the house, sits in the Legislature as an opposition party. In democracy, it establishes control over finance also.
- (i) It can also hold discussions on budget and also have a right to criticize it
- It is the opposition’s duty to ensure that the government does not take authoritarian measures or disregard the rights of the citizens
- The opposition can also criticize the working and policies of the government
- It keeps the government under restraints
- Opposition members take the advantages of the question hour to criticize the government in general terms
- The opposition also contributes to democratic government plans and projects by the way of exposing defects.
Write the functions of Election Commission. (MP 2008, 09, 10, 12)
Functions of Election Commission – The important functions of Election Commission are the following:
(1) Delimitation of the constituencies: Demarcation of the area of each constituency is an important function of Election Commission. After every 10 years on the basis of population, demarcation of the area of constituency is done.
(2) Preparation of electoral rolls: The Election Commission prepares a list of citizens who are eligible to vote in accordance to the respective polling booth before every election. This is called electoral roll.
(3) Allotment of Election symbols: The election symbols of national and regional political parties are fixed and reserved by the Election Commission. The election symbols of independent candidates are also fixed by the Election Commission.
(4) Registration and recognition of political parties: Registration of political parties and to give recognition as national or regional parties to them on the basis of obtained votes in the last elections of Parliament or Legislative Assembly are the functions of the Commission. The Election Commission takes due care for strict compliance of the election rules.
(5) Holding impartial elections: The Election Commission makes arrangements and efforts for holding free and impartial elections. The instructions regarding time of election, date, Stamp, voting symbols, counting, result etc. are given by the Election Commission.
Differentiate between Mid-term and bi-election. (MP 2010)
Mid-term Election: If the Lok Sabha or State legislative assembly are dissolved before their tenure is over then the elections which take place are called mid-term election.
Bi-election: In any area, if any post is vacant due to the resignation or death or any candidate then such elections are bi-election.
What is the importance of counting election process? (MP 2010)
All ballet boxes and electronic voting machines are collected on a fixed date. Counting takes place in front of district election officers. The candidate who attains maximum, number of votes is declared elected. The elected candidate is the representative of his area. After the results of election are declared the elected candidate gets a certificate of winning the election through the district election officers.
What is an electoral roll? State its uses. (MP 2009)
Preparation of electoral rolls is an important function of the election commission the election commissions prepares a list of citizens who are eligible to vote in accordance to the respecting polling booth before every citizen. This is called “Electoral roll”. The names of the citizens who have attained the age of 18 years is included in the new list and some names of the persons are removed from the list who the electocal roll is also known as have either left the constituency or expired.
What is National Political Party? Write. (MP 2011)
National Political Party is one which has equal effect in whole country. The party symbol of such parties is identical in the whole country. Although a party is a national party but it does not mean that it will have equal popularity in every state. The influence of national parties varies from state to state. To be recognised as a national political party, any one of the following conditions should be fulfilled:
Any political party which obtains at least 6% seats in the election of Parliament or Legislative Assembly, or if any political party obtains at least 2% of total seats of the parliament and this place should be minimum in this states.
What do you mean by election? States its importance in our country.
What is the administration system in our country? State the importance of election in this system.
Meaning and need of Election – We have adopted the parliamentary type of the government in our country. In this type of government, the elected representatives from the government. The people participate in the government through election. Election is a process in which citizen of a country elect their representatives are elected for a fixed period.
The people of our country exercise their political power by participating in election. India is large and multilingual country. In our country, every citizen has equal right to participate in the election of representatives (without any discrimination). Thus system of franchise.
India has adopted secret suffrage system. In India, Election commission has been constituted for holding free and impartial election.
Long Answer Type Questions
Explain the election procedure in brief.
The election procedure in India runs through several stages as directed by law. The stages are as follows:
1. Preparation of election rolls: New electoral rolls are prepared by the election commission before every election. This is necessary because some names have to be removed from the list due to transfer, death etc.
2. Notification: The process of election begins with the notification of election. For election of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, such notification is issued by the President. After consultation with the Election Commission this notification is published in the gov¬ernment gazette.
3. Nomination papers: After the publication of the notification, the Election commission announces the dates for filling the nomination papers, scruting of these nominations and the withdrawal of the nominations. The last date for the withdrawal is fixed. If any candidate decides not to contest election, he can now withdraw his nomination.
4. Allotment of the election symbol: Political parties have election symbols re¬served for them. Every political party is allotted a specific symbol which helps the voter to locate the name of the candidate of his choice at the time of marking the ballot paper. This is a great help to illiterate voters.
5. Election campaign: Election campaign is the most important stage in the whole election process. This stage is the most decisive aspect of the entire election process. There are certain definite guidelines also for campaign. Election commission fixes dates for the formal beginning and conclusion of the election campaign. Through campaign, the political party issues its manifestos. The campaign closes 48 hours before the time fixed for closing the polling on the polling day.
6. Polling: The polling station has a staff of five to six persons. They include a presiding officer, three or four officers and messenger. Polling takes place between specific hours on a fixed date. On a due date, voters go to cast their votes.
7. Counting votes and declaration of results: After the voting is over, the ballot boxes are sealed and taken to the counting centres. Counting of votes takes place in the presence of the candidates concerned on a fixed date and time. The counting of vote is generally organized under the supervision of the district.
Describe the functions of the Election Commission.
There are many important functions which are carried away by the Election Commission. They are as follows:
1. Delimitation of the constituencies: The increase in population and consequent changes in the number of seats necessitates fresh delimitation of constituencies. This is done by a delimitation commission set up under the supervision of the Chief Election Commissioner.
2. Preparation of electoral rolls: New electoral rolls are prepared by the Election Commission before every election. This is necessary because some names have to be removed due to transfer, death, etc.
3. Allotment of the election symbol: Election commission allots one election symbol to every electoral party. It helps the voter to locate the name of the candidate of his choice at the time of marking the ballot-paper.
4. Recognition to political parties: The Election commission gives recognition of the political parties. It also lays down the criterion for recognition.
5. Holding of elections: The elections of parliament, the State Vidhan Sabha and the offices of the President and Vice-president are conducted under the supervision of the Election commission.
Explain the main defects of the Indian election system or electoral system. (MP 2010)
Following are the defects in Indian electoral system:
1. Lack of complete participation of voting: The aim of universal Adult Franchise is to make every citizen participate in the government indirectly. We have seen that a large number of voters do not exercise their right to vote in the parliamentary and state legislative elections. Therefore the elected candidate getting maximum votes does not represent the public. Therefore participation of all citizen in franchise is desirable.
2. Use of money in elections: The increasing expenses in elections is a big problem. For every election ceiling on election expenses is fixed but a money is spent by the candidates. Therefore sometimes due to lack of money honest and wise person are not able to contest the election. The use of money in elections is an immoral act on the part a person, which is a very serious problem from the point of view reformation in election system.
3. Influence of muscle power in election: Sometimes the candidates try to win the election by any type of means. For this they take help of criminals also. Often with the use of muscle power, booth capturing is restored to and voters are made to vote in one’s favour by threatening them or illegal voting is exercised.
4. Misuse of government machinery: Before the time of election charming promises being done by the ruling party. During the elections, high officials are transferred and government, money and vehicles and other means are misused. They also try influence the election officers. All these influence the unbiasedness of elections.
5. Number of independent candidates: Sometimes there are too many numbers of candidate in the elections. This creates problems to the election management. Thus too many independent candidates enter the election area and confuse the voters.
6. To influence the sentiments of the voters: At the time of election some candidates try to influence the sentiments of the voters on the basis of religion, caste, region and language. Political parties select their candidates on the basis of caste. The biggest defect of the Indian election system is to influence the election by provoking the sentiments of the public.
7. Fraud franchise: Some times some persons vote in place of other persons, to include ones name in more than one electrol roil casting of vote without the inclusion of his name in the electrol roll etc. all are hypothetical franchise. This is also a big problem of our election system.
8. Other defects: The name of the citizen should compulsorily be included in the electrol roll to vote for a candidate in an election. We often see that several names of the voters are not included in the electrol roil while the names of persons who have left that constituency or have expired are not deleted from the electrol rolls. The political parties do not create awareness among the people. Too many numbers of voters on one voting booth is also a cause of problem.
What is the role of political parties in democracy?
Write the main functions of political parties. (MP 2012)
These are the functions of political parties:
- Runing of the government: The political party that gets the majority votes forms the Government and takes responsibility of functioning of the government.
- Link between the government and the people: Political parties acts as a link between the government and the people. It explain the policies of the government to the people and keep the government in touch with the public opinion.
- Conduct of election: Election to the legislatures and to several high offices are held on party lives. Political parties select their candidates for elections.
- Mouding of public opinion: Political parties acts as the transmitters of ideas and opinion to social needs. Political parties provide political education to citizens and make them aware of social problems.
I. Choose the correct alternatives:
Out of these, whom adult Franchise can be granted:
(a) Minor male and female
(b) Only male
(c) Adult male and female
(d) Only female
(c) Adult male and female
Who does not have right to vote:
(a) Insave or mentally handicapped
(b) Minor age group
(c) Declared bankrupt
(d) Above all
(d) Above all
In India election procedure is said to have started after which the following:
(a) After filing of nomination paper by candidate.
(b) After notification of election
(c) After beginning of campaigning
(d) By organising public meeting.
(b) After notification of election
II. Fill in the blanks:
In our country …………. system is there.
In election commission …………. members are there. (MP 2015)
In India there are …………. types of political parties.
In election commission more than …………. parties and registered parties are there.
After the …………. of election commission declares election programme.
…………. is a process in which citizens of a country elect their representatives. (MP 2011)
The office of the Indian election commission is at …………. (MP 2010)
III. Match the following:
|1. Duration of election commissioners||(a) Opposition parties|
|2. Right of voting (MP 2012)||(b) Delhi|
|3. Party which does not get majority||(c) 6 years|
|4. Office of the election commission||(d) Prime Minister|
|5. Leader of the majority party (MP 2012)||(e) 18 years|
IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:
Mad person has right to vote.
In India multiple system of party is there.
President decides the dates of general election.
In India for voting secrete system of voting is adopted.
In election y part is reserved for women.
The Prime Minister appoints the chief election commissioners. (MP 2009)
V. Give answer in one word:
The person who use vote or caste vote.
Voters of a specific geographical area, who elects a representative for that area. (MP 2015)
List of citizens who are eligible to vote.
Elects the election commissioner in our country.
President of India
Election symbols are fixed by.
What is period of the election commissioners. (MP 2009)
Political parties not getting majority. (MP 2011)