MP Board Class 12th Special English Grammar Prepositions

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MP Board Class 12th Special English Grammar Prepositions

A preposition is a word used to show the position of one thing in relation to another. Preposition वह शब्द होता है जो एक वस्तु की स्थिति का दूसरी वस्तु के साथ संबंध स्थापित करता है।

There is a book on the table.

Here on tells us the position of the book in relation to the table. When we say, “There is a book under the table’, the position of the book has changed. Thus on and under are prepositions.

Preposition of Time and Date

(a) At is used for:
(i) exact time.
We got up at 6.30 a.m. and had breakfast at eight o’clock.
(ii) festivals which mark a point of time in the year.
My brother came home at Diwali.

(b) On is used :
(i) for day and date.
On Sunday/Monday/Christmas Day, etc.
On 15th August/26th January, etc.
(ii) For a specific part of a specific day.
On the night of Diwali; On the morning of 15th August “, 1947, etc.

(c) In is used :
(i) to show the total length of time for the completion of some activity or action : I can complete the work in two hours.
We shall reach Delhi in three hours.

(ii) to denote a period of time :
in summer; in 1962; in the evening, etc.

(d) By is used to denote the latest time by which something was to be done or will be done :
I can complete this work by 6 p.m.
He will reach home by evening.

(e) For is used for a period of time.
I have been teaching in this college for ten years.

(f) Since is used to denote the point of time from which an action has been continuing.
We have been waiting for you since two p.m.

(g) During is used to express an event that took place, or will take place, within a specified period of time :
The thieves broke into the house during the night.
The sale of milk products is banned during the summer.

(h) From is used for the starting point of action and is generally combined with to/till/until.
I lived in Calcutta from 1985 to 1990.

Preposition of Travel and Movement.

(a) From and To are used to express the starting point and the
last point of destinations, respectively :
He is coming from Delhi and going to Amritsar.
My cousin came from Agra.
We are going to Shimla next week.

(b) By is used to denote the mode of our travelling.
He will go there by bus/car/train/boat/sea/plane air.

(c) On is used for other forms of travel.
He traveled on horseback/foot/a bicycle/a camel.

(d) At is used to denote the reaching the destination or some other point: He arrived at a village in the evening.
Similarly at the hotel, at the theatre, at the station, at the bus stop, etc.

(e) Into is used to denote entering a vehicle :
He got into the bus at the bus stop.

(f) Out/Out of/ Off is used for alighting or dismounting a vehicle :
He got out of the train at New Delhi.
He got off the train and hired a taxi.

Preposition of Place
(a) At is used to denote :
(i) specific or particular places.
(ii) villages or smaller towns.
(iii) hotels.
(iv) addresses.
(v) particular houses.

I met Mohan at the cross-roads. A big fair is held at Pindara every month. During my visit to Mumbai, I stayed at the Taj Hotel. He lives at 280, Urban Estate, Hissar. The Prime Minister of England lives at 10 Downing Street, London.

(b) In is used to denote :
(i) Countries, cities, etc.
(ii) General mention of a house, village, etc.
(iii) Name of streets.
One of my cousins lives in America.
She lives in a big house.
Mohan does not like to live in America.
She lives in Hanuman Street.

(c) On is used to denote open spaces.
He works on a rubber plantation.
A coolie works on a platform.

Uses of Some Other Important Prepositions :

(a) Between is used for two things/persons.
Among is used for more than two things/persons.
He divided his property between his two sons.
Sweets were distributed among laborers on the completion of the house.

(b) In is used for position, whereas into is used with a verb, of motion to indicate entrance :
Mohan is in the room. Sita is going into the room.

(c) Beside and Besides :
Beside means ‘near’ or at the side of
Besides means ‘as well as’ or ‘in addition to’ :
The queen was sitting beside the king.
Besides having a big house, he has a lot of land also.

(d) On time is used when something happens at exact time :
The train left the station on time.
In time is used for an action which takes place when there is still time.
He reached the college in time, (before the college started).

(e) Above/Over means ‘higher than’ :
We saw a plane above/over us.
Below/under means ‘lower than:
Standing on the top of the hill we saw a beautiful valley below us.

Uses of Some Important Prepositions

1. Agree with (किसी व्यक्ति से सहमत होना) I agree with you.
2. Agree to (किसी बात, सुझाव आदि से सहमत होना) I agree to your proposal.
3. Act upon (या on) (अमल करना) I acted on my father’s advice.
4. Angry with ( किसी व्यक्ति से नाराज होना) He is angry with me.
5. Angry at (की बात पर नाराज होना). He is angry at your behaviour.
6. Aim at (i) (निशाना लगाना) Shyam aimed at the bird.
(ii) (लक्ष्य होना) He has aimed at becoming a doctor.
7. Accuse of (का इल्जाम लगाना) He was accused of cheating his friend.
8. Apply to (किसी को प्रार्थना-पत्र देना) He has applied to the officer for leave.
9. Apply for (किसी चीज के लिए प्रार्थना-पत्र देना) I have applied for the post of a clerk.
10. Attend to (ध्यान देना) Please attend to the lecture.
11. Abstain from (परहेज करना) You should abstain from smoking,
12. Abound in (प्रचुर मात्रा में होना) This pond abounds in fish.
13. Acquit of (बरी कर देना) The judge acquitted him of the crime.
14. Amazed at (हैरान होना) I was amazed at his. progress.
15. Ashamed of (शर्मसार होना) He was ashamed of his conduct and did not meet me.
16. Beg for (गिड़गिड़ाना, भीख माँगना) The criminal begged for mercy.
17. Benefit from (से फायदा उठाना) He has benefitted from the new scheme.
18. Believe in (में विस्वास करना) He does not believe in God.
19. Base on (पर आधारित करना या होना) This film is based on a famous novel.
20. Blind to (अनदेखा करना) You are blind to the faults of your brother.

21. Boast of (डाग मरना) He always boasts of his wealth.
22. Born in (जन्म होना) He was born in a rich family.
23. Blame for (दोष देना) He blamed me for his failure.
24. Backward in (किसी चीज से पिछड़े होना) This area is backward in education.
25. Belong to (से संबंध स्थापित रखना) This house belongs to Mohan.
26. Care for (परवाह करना) I do not care for Mohan.
27. Care about (देखभाल करना) You should take care about your health.
28. Charged with (दलजम लगाना) He was charged with murdering a man.
29. Cry for (किसी बात के लिए रोना या चिल्लाना) He is crying for his lost wealth.
30. Complain of (शिकायत करना) He complained of low pressure of water.
31. Compromise with (समझोता करना) He compromised with me and settled the matter.
32. Capable of (समर्थ होना) He is capable of doing great work.
33. Cure of (इलाज करना) The doctor cured me of cold.
34. Cure for (का इलाज) What is the cure for cold?
35. Careful of (जागरूक करना, सावधान करना) He is careful of his health.
36. Deal in (व्यापर करना) He deals in cloth.
37. Deal with (व्यवहार करना) You must deal with others politely.
38. Depend on (पर निर्भर होना) He depends on his father för all his needs.
39. Die of (किसी बीमारी से मरना) He died of cancer.
40. Die from (कुछ करने से मरना) He died from over eating.

41. Die for (किसी उदेश्य के लिए करना) He died for his country.
42. Different from (से भिना) This book is different from your book.
43. Exception to (अपवाद होना). There is exception to every rule.
44. Escape from (बच निकलना) He escaped from jail.
45. Enquire into (धनबिन करना) The police enquired into the matter.
46. Equal to (के बराबर) The weight of this packet is equal to the weight of that packet.
47. Faithful to (के प्रति वफादार होना) Ram is faithful to his master.
48. Full of (से भरा होना) I found a purse full of money.
49. Fond of (शैवकिन होना) I am fond of apples.
50. Fire at (किसी पर गोली चलना) The soldiers fired at the enemy.
51. Feed on (पर चलना) The cow feeds on grass.
52. Good at (किसी काम में निपुण होना) He is good at English.
53. Good for (उपयोगी होना) Playing is good for health.
54. Gaze at (ध्यान से देखना) He was gazing at the flower.
55. Guilty of (का दोषी होना) He is guilty of breaking the law.
56. Grateful to (कृतज्ञ होना) Mohan is grateful to Ram for helping him.
57. Hope for (आशा करना) He hopes for the best.
58. Hopeful of (का आशावान होना) He is hopeful of getting the last division.
59. Hungry for (भूखा होना, तीव्र लालसा होना) He is hungry for love.
60. Hint at (इशारा करना) He hinted at the new plan.

61. Hinder from (रोकना) The storm hindered me from reaching the city
62. Ill with (से ग्रस्त) He is ill with fever.
63. Interfere in (देखल देना) He interfered in my work,
64. Interested in (में रुचि होना) I am interested in stamp collecting.
65. Insist on (पर जोर देना) He insisted on going to Rewari.
66. Inferior to (से धटिया) This chair is inferior to that.
67. Junior to (से कनिष्ट) Mohan is junior to Sohan.
68. Jeer at (मजाक उड़ाना) The crowd jeered at the player.
69. Jealous of (ईर्ष्या करना) Radha is jealous of her sister.
70. Knock at (खटखटाना) He knocked at the door for some time.
71. Key to (कूँजी होना) Hard work is the key to success.
72. Laugh at (पर हँसना) The boys are laughing at the beggar.
73. Loyal to (वफादार होना) We should be loyal to the country.
74. Lead to ( की ओर जाना) This road leads to Ambala.
75. Liking for (रुचि होना) I have a liking for cricket.
76. Made of (का बना होना) This table is made of wood.
77. Mix with (से मिलना, संगती करना) You should not mix with bad boys.
78. Meddle with (दखाल देना) Pakistan is meddling with our affairs.
79. In need of (आवश्यकता होना) I am in need of money.
80. Pleased with (प्रसन होना) He is pleased with my work

81. Prefer to (प्राथमिकता देना) I prefer tea to coffee..
82. Popular with (प्रसिद्ध) Mohan is popular with his friends.
83. Prevent from (रोकना) He prevented me from going to Hissar.
84. Protect from (रक्षा करना) Woollen clothes protect us from cold.
85. Quarrel with (किसी व्यक्ति से झगड़ा करना) He quarrelled with me.
86. Quarrel over (किसी बात पर झगड़ना) He quarrelled over a pen.
87. Recover from (ठीक होना) He has recovered from illness.
88. Remind of (याद दिलाना) He reminded me of his application..
89. Rebel against (विद्रोह करना) People rebelled against the cruel king. : :
90. Rule over (शासन करना) Akbar ruled over India for a long time.
91. Repent of (पछताना) He repented of his misdeeds.
92. Send for (बुला भेजना) They sent for the doctor.
93. Search for (तलाश करना) The police is searching for the thief.
94. Similar to (के सामान) This shirt is similar to that.
95. Short of (कमी होना) At present I am short of money.
96. Sorry for (अफसोस होना) I am sorry for troubling you.
97. Surrendered to (आत्म समर्पण करना) The enemy surrendered to our army.
98. Slow at (धीमे होना) He is slow at learning English.
99. Succeed in (सफल होना) Mohan succeeded in getting Ist division.
100. Stare at (घूर – घूर कर देखना) The old man stared at me for a long time.

101. Speak to ( से बात करना) I spoke to him about it.
102. Tired of (तंग आ जाना) I am tired of waiting,
103. Think of (विचार करना) What do you think of this plan?
104. True to (पालन करना) You should be true to your word.
105. Talk about (बात करना) Everybody is talking about the new film.
106. Threaten to (घमकी देना) The terrorist threatened to blow up the plane,
107. Trust in (विशवास करना) We should have trust in God.
108. Taste for (रुचि होना) She has no taste for painting.
109. Useful to (व्यक्ति के लिए लाभदायक) This book is useful to me.
110. Useful for (किसी काम के लिए लाभदायक) This machine is useful for cleaning the wells.
111. Vain of (घमंडी होना) He is vain of his wealth.
112. Wait for (प्रतीक्षा करना) He is waiting for the bus.
113. Weep for (के लिए रोना) The brothers wept for their lost .: wealth.
114. Wish for (कामना करना) He wished for good weather.
115. Wonder at (हौरान होना) He wondered at the skill of that man.
116. Weary of (टंगा आ जाना) I am weary of listening to him.
117. Warn against/of (चेतावनी देना) The government warned the terrorists of serious results.
118. Worthy of (के योग्य) He is worthy of respect.
119. Weak in (में कमजोर) She is weak in Mathematics.
120. Write to (को लिखना) I have written to him about my plan.
121. Worry about (चिंता करना) He worried about the success of his son.
122. Witness of (गवाह होना) He is the witness of the whole scene. .
123. Yield to (हार मानना) The enemy yielded to uş.
124. Zeal for (जोश होना) He showed a great zeal for the party.

EXERCISE 1
Fill in the blanks, with suitable prepositions ;
1. He started going …………………………. school …………………………. the age of five. So now he’s been …………………………. school for ten years. He’s leaving …………………………. the end of this year.
2. He goes …………………………. his office every day except Sunday. On Sundays, he stays …………………………. home and works …………………………. the garden.
3. Don’t leave your luggage …………………………. the corridor. It’ll be …………………………. everyone’s way. Bring it …………………………. the compartment and put it …………………………. the rack.
4. He Is …………………………. his desk all day …………………………. his head …………………………. his hands.
5. …………………………. mistake I opened Mary’s letter instead of…………………………. my own. She was very angry …………………………. me.
6. I buy a newspaper …………………………. my way …………………………. the station and read it …………………………. the train. By the time I get …………………………. London I’ve read most …………………………. it.
7. He was charged …………………………. driving while the influence …………………………. alcohol. 1
8. People who drop litter …………………………. the pavements are liable …………………………. a fine …………………………. :
9. He accused me …………………………. selling secret information …………………………. the enemy.
10. You look worried, Are you …………………………. some sort …………………………. trouble? Yes, …………………………. a way. I’m …………………………. debt and my creditors want to be paid soon.
Answer:
1. to, at, at, at
2. to, at, in
3. in, in, into, on
4. at, with, in
5. By, of, with
6. on, to, in, to, of
7. with, under, of
8. on, to, of
9. of, to
10. in, of, in under.

Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions :
1. Much Ado About Nothing is …………………………. Shakespeare, and you’ll find more …………………………. his plays …………………………. the …………………………. bookcase …………………………. that corner.
2. As the child was too young to travel …………………………. herself, they arranged …………………………. her to travel …………………………. the guard’s van …………………………. the care …………………………. the guard,
3. Have you heard …………………………. John …………………………. his return? Yes, I had a letter …………………………. Monday. He’s thinking …………………………. going back …………………………. America.
4. He was ill …………………………. a week and …………………………. that week his wife’ never left his side.
5. Aren’t you coming …………………………. us. No, I’m waiting-Suresh.
6. I’m very sorry …………………………. þeing late. It was good …………………………. you to wait …………………………. me.
7. Passengers may leave bulky articles …………………………. the stairs …………………………. the conductor’s permission.
8. Remember to be …………………………. good time …………………………. the opera.
9. I want two seats …………………………. Romeo and Juliet …………………………. Friday night.
10. …………………………. spite …………………………. the heat he refused to take …………………………., his coat.
Answer:
1. by, of, in, in
2. by, for, in, under, of
3. from, since, on, of, to
4. for, during
5. with, for
6. for, of, for
7. under, with
8. in, for
9. for, for
10. In, of, off.

Exercise 3
Insert a preposition, where necessary. Choosing from the following: at, by, for, in, of, on, past, till/until, to, with.
1. He asked …………………………. his father …………………………. money.
2. They paid …………………………. me …………………………. the books.
3. I thought he would offer …………………………. Ann the job, but he offered it …………………………. me.
4. Keep …………………………. me a place, and keep a place …………………………. Ann too.
5. They showed …………………………. us photographs …………………………. their baby.
6. Buying presents …………………………. children is sometimes very difficult …………………………. the end I bought a kite …………………………. Tom and a torch …………………………. Ann.
7. Pass the salt …………………………. your father, Peter, and pass …………………………. me the pepper, please.
8. When you have lunch …………………………. a restaurant, who pays …………………………. the bill? On, each …………………………. us pays …………………………. what he has had.
9. Paul’s pianist. He sometimes plays …………………………. us …………………………. the evening. Last night he played some Chopin.
10. I think I’ll be able to find …………………………. Ann a job. Could you find a job …………………………. me, too?
11. He sold the picture …………………………. an American dealer …………………………. $5,000.
12. He promised …………………………. us a share …………………………. the profits.
Answer:
1. x, for
2. x, to
3. x, to
4. x, for
5. x, of
6. for, in, for, for
7. to, x.
8.at, x; of, for
9. to, in
10. x, for
11. to, for
12. x, in.

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