MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Natural Disasters and Disaster Management

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 6 Natural Disasters and Disaster Management Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Natural Disasters and Disaster Management

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Text Book Exercise

Objective Type Questions

Students can also download MP Board 10th Model Papers to help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Mp Board Class 10th Social Science Chapter 6 Question 1.
Multiple Choice Questions:
(Choose the correct answer from the following)

Class 10th Social Science Chapter 6 Question (a)
Most flood affected state:
(a) Bihar
(b) West Bengal
(c) Assam
(d) Uttar Pradesh.
Answer:
(c) Assam

Social Science Class 10 Mp Board Chapter 6 Question (b)
Area of the country where earthquakes often occur (high incidence zones):
(c) Assam
(b) Aravali mountain
(c) Orissa coast
(d) Goa.
Answer:
(c) Assam

Chapter 6 Social Science Class 10 Question (c)
The Tsunami of 2004 December, caused greatest loss of human lives in: (MP Board 2009)
(a) Tamilnadu
(b) Gujarat
(c) Kerala
(d) Orissa.
Answer:
(a) Tamilnadu

Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 Question (d)
Which place summit conference organised at the international level?
(a) Japan (Yakohama)
(b) India (Bangaluru)
(c) Brazil (Riyodijanero)
(d) United States of America
Answer:
(a) Japan (Yakohama)

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Very Short Answer Type Questions

Chapter 6 Class 10 Social Science Question 1.
What is done on the hilly roads to arrest landslides?
Answer:
Natural vegetation is grown on the side of hilly roads and construct strong wall.

Social Science Class 10 Chapter 6 Question 2.
Which natural disaster occur abruptly?
Answer:
Earthquake, Tsunami, Volcano, Landslide, Flood, Tornado etc.

Disaster Management Class 10th Question 3.
For which areas construction of bunds is considered useful?
Answer:
For storage of water.

Ch 6 Social Science Class 10 Question 4.
What is measured on the richter scale?
Answer:
An intensity of earthquake.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Short Answer Type Questions

Disaster Management Class 10 Questions Question 1.
What is meant by disaster?
Or
What do you mean by Disasters? (MP Board 2009)
Answer:
Disaster is a calamity either natural or which occurs due to human mistake. This results into loss of lives and natural resources, and ultimately the people suffer. A disaster hampers the normal routine of the whole society and a large section of the population is affected.

Class 10 Social Science Disaster Management Question 2.
What is drought and flood?
Answer:
In our country there are a few areas which never face the problem of drought. Any area which gets 25% or less average rainfall is called drought condition. Accumulation of large quantity of water on property is called flood. Floods are caused due to increase in the level of water in water reservoirs beyond limit, due to heavy rains the water overflows in rivers, storms and tornado occur and due to cracks or breaking of dams, a very large area is inundated.

Mp Board Class 10th Science Chapter 6 Question 3.
Describe three stages to protect ourselves from landslides?
Answer:
Measures to prevent the landslides and the losses:
Different measures should be taken in different areas.

1. First of all the landslide prone areas should be plotted on the map; this will enable us to know which areas should be excluded while planning for human settlements.

2. More construction and development activities should be taken up in such areas.

3. Natural vegetation should be encouraged on mountain or hill slopes. Slopy regions where vegetation is absent, such areas should be identified for plantation of suitable varieties of trees.

4. Care should be taken while constructing roads, canals for irrigation etc., so that the natural drainage of water is not hampered. It is also useful to construct strong walls on the sides of the roads in hill areas, set up control centers and ensure that water drains away in plain areas.

Disaster Management Class 10 Question 4.
What is meant by Tsunami?
Answer:
Earthquakes eruption from a volcano cause a sudden disturbance in the base of the ocean causing abrupt displacement of oceanic water. Consequently very high waves are produced, these are called Tsunami or earthquake affected oceanic waves. Normally only one high wave is produced and in due course chain of waves appear on the sea.

The speed of the waves is slow in shallow sea and is high in deep sea. In the deep sea, length of the tsunami waves is more and the height is less. On the shallow sea shores the waves can be 15 meter high or even more. This results into great disaster on the coastal area.

Question 5.
Why more earthquakes occur in Himalayan and North – Eastern Regions of India?
Answer:
It is believed that the earth’s surface is made of big plates. These plates shift towards each other due to earth’s internal heat. Their shifting or expanding cause earthquake. Where two plates meet, mountains are formed and where they shift new surface are formed. That’s why the danger of earthquakes is maximum in that areas.

Question 6.
Why droughts are more frequent in the Western Region and Madhya Bharat?
Answer:
We know that the western and middle region of India’s rainfall is less than 50% of the average rainfall or these areas does not get rains for two consecutive years, therefore situation of grave drought condition.

As per the Irrigation Commission’s report of 1972 these areas are called ‘drought – prone’, because of receiving average annual rainfall, less than 75 cm. So also if there is a variation of 25% in the annual average rainfall then that area is called drought-affected area.

Question 7.
Which are the main areas affected to Tsunami in India?
Or
Write the areas effected by Tsunami? (MP Board 2009)
Answer:
Coastal areas of the world are prone to Tsunami. These areas are particularly Pacific Ocean coasts (Alaska, Japan, Philiphines and Indonesia, Malaysia, etc. of South East Asia) and Indian Ocean coasts (Myanmar, Sri Lanka and India).

Question 8.
Exploitation of forest resources is responsible for natural disaster is it true? Explain? (MP Board 2009)
Answer:
Forests are homeland of nature. Forests attract the clouds to rain. The rainfedare is fit for agriculture. The agricultural production is the solution of drought. Thus forest is the root condition of natural resources.

Question 9.
How does epidemics spread? Explain?
Or
How does Epidemic spread? Classify? (MP Board 2009)
Or
What do you mean by epidemic disaster? Write its main causes? (MP Board 2009)
Answer:
The condition of epidemic is said to be one when the number of cases (patients) is more than expected. This requires emergency preventive steps. An epidemic can spread abruptly. When the number of cases of particular disease increase disproportionately that is considered to be warning of an epidemic. In some instances the breeding places of germs that cause the disease increase or the carriers of germs start dying (e.g. rats who are carriers of plague germs) an advance warning of the epidemic is received.

Causes and effects of the epidemic:
Cause of an epidemic are worms, germs, bacteria [bacteria, protozoa, fungi] polluted water, and food items, increase in the number of mosquitoes, large crowd of tourists and passengers from outside and effect of natural calamities on the atmosphere also bring epidemics.

Question 10.
What is meant by disaster management? Explain main elements of disaster management?
Or
What is meant by Disaster Management? Explain its main elements? (MP Board 2009)
Answer:
Disaster management is a chain of activities which are carried out not only before and after the disaster but carried out during the period of disaster also. This arrangement is something more than the expansion and contraction model.

Under this system it is believed that disaster management is efforts to prevent the calamity, minimise its effects, timely action and activities to bring the situation to normalcy; these activities are expanded and contracted as per the emergency, sense of insecurity in the society etc.

Main stages of disaster management:
Disaster management lays stress on four important things:

  1. Advance preparation
  2. Action at the time of disaster
  3. To restore normalcy and rehabilitation.
  4. Plan for preventing the recurrence of the disaster and minimise the ill effects of the disaster.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the factors responsible for floods? write the steps which should be taken to control floods?
Answer:
The following are the responsible factors of flood:

  1. Dams, bunds, barrages etc., are harmed.
  2. Increase of silt arid soil in rivers.
  3. Land slides.
  4. Hindrance in draining of water due to roads or other construction work.
  5. Silting of rivers and dams.
  6. Destruction of environment, soil erosion and soil draining.

Steps to control floods:

There is a reasonable period warning for floods other than the sudden floods which come due to rains or tornado. In India the Central Water Board/Commission, Irrigation and Flood Control Department and Water Resources Department issue warning regarding floods. The forecasts of Central Water Board are based on the 132 forecast centers located on the flood prone rivers of different states. Following efforts can be made to minimise the risks of flood in the flood affected areas:

  1. Many reservoirs can be made on the upper areas of the rivers.
  2. Small dams should be constructed on the tributaries and brooks so that the possibilities of floods in the main river can be minimised.
  3. Dense plantation should be done on the upper catchment area of the rivers.
  4. In the plains, water can be stored in reservoirs to be constructed on unused land.
  5. Attention should be paid towards the safety of bunds constructed on the coasts.
  6. Total or partial rehabilitation of people of the villages which are surrounded by waters between the bunds.
  7. Encroachment of human settlements on the lands adjacent to the banks of rivers should be prevented.
  8. Destruction of forests located in the catchment area of rivers should be controlled.
  9. Landslides can be controlled ensuing only limited use of explosives for construction of roads in the hill area.

Question 2.
What is meant by earthquakes? Describe the earthquake affected areas of India?
Answer:
This disaster abruptly crops up. It can come at any place, any time and without any warning. This incidence creates movements of the earth’s crust and cases shaking of the ground. As the waves move away from epicenter of the earthquake, its intensity goes on diminishing.

Earthquake affects in two ways. Firstly, it creates waves around the epicenter and the effect is widespread. The second effect is on and under surface of the earth. This effect is perpendicular type, this form of the earthquake is very destructive.

Earthquake – prone areas in India:
India can be divided into five areas on the basis of the effect and dispersal earthquakes:

  1. Highest earthquake – prone areas.
  2. More earthquake – prone areas.
  3. Medium affected areas.
  4. Low danger areas
  5. Normal areas.

The areas where the danger is maximum are The Himalayan region which includes Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, North Bihar and parts of North East India. Besides, areas of Kutchh, and coastal Kokan are also more dangerous areas. Middle India, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are areas less affected by earthquakes. Other areas of the country are moderate danger areas.

Question 3.
What is common between – drought and flood? How can flood and drought conditions be controlled by proper planning? Explain?
Answer:
Drought is common.
Steps to minimise the ill – effects of drought:

1. The condition of rainfall, reservoirs, lakes, rivers etc. should be closely watched with the intention to conserve water and for making water available, demand for water in different areas and supply should be monitored and water conservation and storage should be encouraged.

2. Efforts to increase water supply, storing water in homes and agricultural fields increases the availability of water. The water which drains away should be stored at one place and through bunds it should be allowed to go into the soil. Contour bunding, improved plantation of seeds in beds, etc. help in increasing availability of water.

3. Extension of irrigation facilities minimise the ill – effects of drought.

4. For providing employment, alternative avenues other than agriculture should be opened for employment. Besides, collection of forest produce other than wood, goat rearing, carpentry etc. should be encouraged.

Steps to minimise ill – effects of floods:
There is a reasonable period warning for floods other than the sudden floods which come due to rains or tornado. In India the Central Water Board/ Commission, Irrigation and Flood Control Department and Water Resources Department issue warming regarding floods. The forecasts of Central Water Board are based on the 132 forecast centres located on the flood prone rivers of different states. Following efforts can be made to minimise the risks of floods in the flood affected areas:

  1. Many reservoirs can be made on the upper areas of the rivers.
  2. Small dams should be constructed on the tributaries and brooks so that the possibilities of flood in the main river can be minimised.
  3. Dense plantation should be done on the upper catchment area of the rivers.
  4. In the plains, water can be stored in reservoirs to be constructed on unused land.
  5. Attention should be paid towards the safety of bunds constructed on the coasts.
  6. Total or partial rehabilitation of people of the villages which are surrounded by waters between the bunds.
  7. Encroachment of human settlements on the lands adjacent to the blanks of rivers should be prevented.
  8. Destruction of forests located in the catchment area of rivers should be controlled.
  9. Landslides can be controlled ensuing only limited use of explosives for construction of roads in the hill area.

Question 4.
What is meant by common disasters? Classify main common disaster and explain their causes, effect and the safety measures to be taken during the disaster?
Or
Write the basic tips to prevent domestic fire? (MP Board 2009, 2012)
Answer:
Common disaster means the disaster that occurs day – to – day social life e.g., fire, rail accidents, road accidents and plain accidents.

1. Fire:
Fire is very dangerous. Number of deaths caused by fire are much more than the total number of deaths caused by whirl winds, earthquakes, floods. There are many reasons of occurring, fire like, electrical heaters, accidents while cooking food, wiring (naked electrical wires and short circuit) fires in the garbage, explosives, etc.

Prevention of domestic fire:
Some basic tips are as under:

  1. Basic rules to prevent/save from fire and exit doors should always be remembered and followed.
  2. Do not keep hightly inflammable matter in the house.
  3. Always keep a fire extinguisher in home and learn to use it and teach it to other members of the family also.
  4. When you go out switch off all the gas and electric gadgets.
  5. In case of fire, call the fire brigade immediately, tell them your address, type of fire and place.

Rail Accidents:
Rail accident usually occur due to lack of maintenance of railway track, and railway engines, bogies, etc., human errors, and derailment. Derailment is sometimes caused by harming the rails/other systems (by anti – social elements)
Safety measures to be adopted:

Following steps should be taken to save ourselves from rail accidents:

  1. Always pay attention towards the signals; and swing barrier. When the gate is closed/barrier is put, do not try to cross the railway line under the barrier.
  2. When crossing a railway line where there is an unmanned level crossing always see on both the sides of the railway line to be sure that there is no train/engine upto a long distance.
  3. One should not smoke in the train or carry inflammable material.
  4. While travelling do not stand in the entrance gate or lean out from the window or door.

Road Accidents:
Roads are for facilitating easy transportation and service. But drivers drive at a very high speed and carelessly and as a result the number of roads accidents is increasing. Following are the main reasons of road accidents:

  1. Rash driving.
  2. Drinking in drunken state.
  3. Improper maintenance of vehicles.

Safety measures to be adopted:

  1. Start driving only when you are competent to drive.
  2. Follow your lane on the road, this is the best way to be safe on the road.
  3. Know the road signs and follow them.
  4. During rains drive very carefully.
  5. While driving do not increase or decrease the speed of your vehicle abruptly.
  6. See on both side of the road while crossing the road.
  7. Do not try to overtake unnecessarily.
  8. Do not take on the cell phone while driving.

Question 5.
What are chemical disasters? Give examples of main disasters and explain the steps proposed to be taken to prevent their recurrence?
Answer:
Chemical disasters are man – related tragedies. These can be caused abruptly without any warning chemical leakage can be caused by human mistake, technological follies or nature related. The chemicals when mix with water, air and land it pollutes the atmosphere and as a result crops, cattle, fish etc. either die or their development is retarded.

Some of the main chemical disasters are:

1. Leakage of chemical gas:
The Bhopal Gas Tragedy, occurred in the midnight of 2 – 3 December, 1984 is the biggest industrial – chemical tragedy. It was the result of a technological incidence. In this tragedy hydrogen, cynide and other products together with 45 tons of mythyl isocynide (MIC), on a highly poisonous gas leaked from the pesticide plant of Union Carbide, Bhopal in the midnight. It took a toll of about 3600 lives and many more developed severe health problems.

2. Another severest tragedy of the world was dropping of atomic bombs by America on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on Japan during the Second World War.

3. Attack of pests on crops, diseases caused by insects and bacteria like plague, viral attack bird flu, dengue, etc. are bio attacks. Suitable protective measures are necessary in respect of these diseases also.

Measures to minimise the ill effects:

1. General public should be educated as to how harmful chemicals should be used and stored and if by mistake they come in contact with any body part what action should be taken to nullify that effect.

2. Human habitations (residential areas) should be located away from industrial areas, and in between these two areas there should be a green belt.

3. Mock drills should be organised from time – to – time to face such calamities properly.

4. Warning system for fire fighting (and other such calamities) should be improved.

5. Storage of poisonous chemicals should be done only up to a particular limit.

6.  Industrial insurance and safety laws should be strictly enforced.

Question 6.
Please indicate on the map of India the place of your residence (by a point); also indicate earthquake drought, flood, landslide and Tsunami prone zones?
Answer:
Mp Board Class 10th Social Science Chapter 6

Class 10th Social Science Chapter 6 MP Board

Social Science Class 10 Mp Board Chapter 6

Question 7.
Please collect information from newspapers and magazines about four natural disasters? What steps can be taken to minimise the occurrence of these disasters?
Answer:
Do yourself.

Question 8.
Write an essay on disaster management?
Answer:
Disaster affects the society adversely and external assistance is needed to solve the problems caused by the disaster. Thus it can be said that disaster is the consequence of unnecessary interference in the nature’s system; this interference in turn is the result of consumerism and growing population.

Disasters are unexpected incidents; occurrence of which is beyond the human control. They occur abruptly and hamper the normal human activities. To meet the challenges of such disasters much more needs to be done than the minimum emergency services provided Disasters are not only the result of natural phenomena but they are closely related with human activities also.

Some human activities indirectly affect the environment e.g. landslides and floods due to destruction of forests. It is difficult to check natural disasters. Therefor, it is better to minimise their effect and a proper disaster management. Many efforts have been made in this direction. Important steps in this direction are setting up of Indian National Disaster Management Institute, The Summit Conference of May 1994 in Yokohama (Japan) and conferences, seminars etc. on Disaster Management.

Disaster management is a chain of activities which are carried out not only before and after the disaster but carried out during the period of disaster also. This arrangement is something more than the expansion and contraction model. Under this system it is believed that disaster management is efforts to prevent the calamity, minimize its effects, timely action and activities to bring the situation to normally. These activities are expanded and contracted as per the emergency, sense of insecurity in the society, etc.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Additional Important Questions

Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Multiple Choice Questions:
(Choose the correct answer from the following)

Question (a)
Tsunami hit occurred in India on?
(a) 24 December 2002
(b) 26 December 2004
(c) 28 December 2006
(d) 28 December 2008.
Answer:
(b) 26 December 2004

Question (b)
Which one of the following is a biological disaster? (MP Board 2009)
(a) Bomb explosion
(b) Bird flue
(c) Volcano
(d) Tsunami
Answer:
(a) Bomb explosion

Question (c)
The most flood state of India is:
(a) West Bengal
(b) Assam
(c) Orissa
(d) Tamilnadu.
Answer:
(b) Assam

Question (d)
Which of the following disaster is natural?
(a) Flood
(b) Earthquake
(b) Drought
(d) All of them.
Answer:
(d) All of them.

Question (v)
Landslides occur in the:
(a) Seashore
(b) Plain
(c) Mountains
(d) Forest.
Answer:
(c) Mountains

Question 2.
True and False type questions:

  1. Tornado occur in the plain regions.
  2. Vaccination will help the people to do disease – free.
  3. Bacterias and viruses are the agent of biological disaster.
  4. Rajasthan is the most drought – prone area of India.
  5. Losses of disaster can be minimized by disaster management. (MP Board 2009)

Answer:

  1. False
  2. True
  3. True
  4. True
  5. True.

Question 3.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 Natural Disasters and Disaster Management img 5
  2. …………………….. is the only disaster which can come at any place, any time and with out any warning.
  3. Destruction of forests is the ultimate cause of ……………………..
  4. ……………………. is the state of India which is the most storm – prone area in the country.
  5. ……………………. per cent of the total rains of the country are from monsoons.
  6. The area of ‘Spiti valley’ consests of Laddakh and Pradesh.
  7. ………………….. is the most flood effective state of India. (MP Board 2009)

Answer:

  1. capacity
  2. earthquake
  3. flood
  4. earthquake
  5. Japanese
  6. Orissa
  7. 80
  8. Himachal
  9. Assam.

Question 4.
Match the column:
Chapter 6 Social Science Class 10 MP Board
Answer:

  1. (c)
  2. (d)
  3. (b)
  4. (a).

Answer in One – Two Words or One Sentence

Question 1.
Which factor is responsible either drought or flood?
Answer:
Shortage or excess of monsoons.

Question 2.
Who published the building code and guidelines for construction work in earthquake zone?
Answer:
Indian Standards Bureau.

Question 3.
What is epidemic disaster?
Answer:
An epidemic is a disease or health problem which spreads unexpectedly on a large scale.

Question 4.
What is their effect on developmental clock?
Answer:
The disasters have turned the developmental clock back of the affected areas by decades.

Question 5.
Describe earthquake?
Answer:
It is the only disaster which can come at any place, any and with out any warning. In earthquake movement of earth crust takes place which leads to shaking of ground.

Question 6.
When and where did an earthquake hit on December 26, 2003?
Answer:
At Bam (Iran).

Question 7.
When did Tsunami hit south and south east Asia in the recent past?
Answer:
26 December 2004.

Question 8.
What is the toll of this Tsunami?
Answer:
2,7,000 +

Question 9.
What is the final toll of India in the December 26, 2004 Tsunami?
Answer:
9,575 +

Question 10.
Which toll cannot be calculated in respect of Tsunami of December 26, 2004?
Answer:
Emotional, economical and ecological toll.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How do we deal with natural disasters?
Answer:
We deal with natural disasters such cyclones, floods, droughts earthquakes and landslides, technically and scientifically within scientific disciplines.

Question 2.
What have we seen in the recent past/decades about disasters?
Answer:
In the recent decades we have seen an alarming increase in the occurrence of natural disasters and the magnitude of their social, economic and environmental impacts.

Question 3.
What was special about the earthquake of December 26, 2004?
Answer:

  1. It was biggest earthquake to hit the world in the last 40 years.
  2. Its intensity was 8.9 on the Richter Scale.
  3. It caused Tsunami waves with a height of up to 30 metres.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is the social and environmental effect of earthquake?
Answer:
The losses due to earthquake are widespread. If it occurs in a densely populated area then there is a great loss of lives. The means of transport and communication are destroyed and industry and development works are hampered. The roads get blocked and it becomes difficult to reach help to the people.

Question 2.
Discuss the types of disasters?
Answer:
Main types of disasters:
In India we have come across many calamities which are a cause of worry for us. They may be classified as under:

1. Disasters that appear abruptly:
Earthquake, Tsunami, eruption of volcano, landslide, flood, Tornado, (Whirl wind), avalanche, cloud burst etc.

2. Disasters that appear gradually:
Drought, hailstorm, environment deterioration, transformation of land into deserts etc.

3. Epidemics:
Food/water borne diseases, epidemics etc.

4. Industrial/Technological accidents:
System related problems/ failure; fire, explosion, chemical leakage etc.

Question 3.
Name the main drought – prone areas of the country?
Answer:
The drought – prone areas of India are mainly:

  1. The dry and semi – dry regions of Rajasthan where every two years drought conditions occur.
  2. Gujarat, Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Tamilnadu.
  3. Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Southern Karnataka and Vidarbha areas where once in every year.

Question 4.
Describe the effects of landslides?
Answer:
Effects of landslides:
The areas worst hit by landslides are deep slopes, low lying areas of the rivers flowing from hill slopes and settlements on the areas from where river flows. Following are the bad effects of landslides:

Physical harms:
Land slides destroy anything which come in their way. Landslides damage the roads, communication lines, human settlements, agricultural land, crops etc., The rails break, traffic is disrupted and development activities affected.

Loss of lives and property:
On the basis of the location of landslide human life and property is destroyed. Big landslide have sometimes taken thousands of peoples lives.

Question 5.
What are the causes of Tsunami? (MP Board 2009)
Or
Explain the causes of Tsunami?
Answer:
The sea water is never calm. Movements in the sea water is a common phenomenon. Earthquake and volcano when appear near the sea area then occurs Tsunami disaster. When the process of volcanic eruption and earthquake takes place in the base of the sea then the movements in the sea waters increase, as a result of this high waves are produced in the sea water which are in turn responsible for loss of lives and property.

Question 6.
What do you mean by the prevention of effect of disaster?
Answer:
The prevention and reduction of their effects of the disaster are discussed under the following heads:

  1. Prepare plan for land use.
  2. To prevent people from settling in risky areas.
  3. To construct buildings which can resist the risks involved in the disaster (e.g. earthquake proof building etc.)
  4. To find out ways and means to minimise the ill effects of the disaster before their occurrence.
  5. Community awareness and education.

Question 7.
How are landslides among the major natural disasters in the world?
Answer:

  1. Landslides are among the major natural disasters in the world.
  2. In hilly terrains of India, including Himalayan mountains landslides are major and widely spread natural disasters.
  3. They strikes life and property almost perennially and occupy a position of major concern.
  4. These landslides, year after year, bring about untold misery to human settlements and cause devastating damages to transportation and communication network.

Question 8.
How are disasters classified in India? (2010)
Answer:
In India disasters may be classified as under:

  1. Disasters that occurs abruptly like earthquake, Tsunami, landslide etc.
  2. Disasters that appear gradually for example draught, hailstrom, transformation of land into deserts etc.
  3. Epidemics Food and water – born diseases.

Question 9.
What caused landslides in Nepal on 21 August, 2002?
Answer:

  1. On 21st August, 2002, heavy monsoon in eastern Nepal triggered landslides and flash floods. They killed 419 people and injured 105 people.
  2. More than 53,152 families were affected and about 19,485 houses were destroyed.
  3. A total of 47 districts were affected.

Question 10.
Enumerate the factor that cause landslides?
Answer:
Factors causing Landslides:
Landslides occur due to the interplay of several factors. They are classed as under:

Natural Factors:

  1. Intensity of rainfall
  2. Steep slopes
  3. Stiffness of, slopes
  4. Highly weathered rock layers
  5. Soil layers formed under gravity
  6. Seismic activity
  7. Poor drainage.

Man – made Factors:

  1. Deforestation leading to soil erosion
  2. Non – engineered excavation
  3. Mining and quarrying
  4. Non – engineered construction
  5. Land use pattern (faulty).

Question 11.
How can the risk of landslides be reduced?
Answer:
The potential for landslides and destructive erosion can be greatly reduced by adopting the following measures:

  1. Proper development.
  2. Adoption of sound construction techniques.
  3. Erection of retaining walls.
  4. Avoiding steep slopes for construction of buildings.

Question 12.
How is water a source for all life forms? How is it tragic?
Answer:

  1. Water is a source for all life forms.
  2. In its absence no life is sustainable.
  3. It is tragic that same water in the form of floods takes away thousand of human and cattle lives.
  4. More than 10 lakh huts and poor houses are lost every year in floods in India.

Question 13.
Enumerate the most vulnerable homes in the wake of floods?
Answer:
The Most Vulnerable Homes:

  1. In the wake of floods the following are the most vulnerable homes, buildings, constructed with earth – based materials or using stone and brick in mud mortar.
  2. The huts made from biomass materials like bamboo, leaves, thatch or light construction using metal sheets.
  3. The buildings constructed within the flood plain of rivers.
  4. Houses constructed in high population concentration low lying areas.
  5. Jhuggi – Jhompri clusters in low lying flood plain areas.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write any four measures to prevent fire in house hold?
Answer:
Some basic tips to prevent house hold fire are as under:

  1. Basic rules to prevent/save from fire and exit doors should always be remembered and followed.
  2. Do not keep highly inflammable matter in the house.
  3. Always keep a fire extinguisher at home and learn to use it and teach it to other members of the family also.
  4. When you go out please switch off all the gas and electrical gadgets.
  5. Do not put so many electrical gadgets in one socket.
  6. Keep match boxes out of reach of children and do not allow anyone to smoke in the house.
  7. Do not block the entrance door of the house by putting almarah or any furniture against it.
  8. Try to know the reason of fire and take suitable action.
  9. In case of fire call the fire brigade immediately, tell them your address, type of fire and place.
  10. The passage where smoke is there, try to crawl on the ground because smoke is always less near the floor.
  11. There should be two exit doors in the house, do an exercise of going out from these doors twice in an year as per your plan.
  12. Do not store inflammable liquids, gas cylinder and other such risky material in the house.

Question 2.
Describe the human factors for drought disaster?
Answer:
Human factors responsible for drought: The drought comes gradually and it is difficult to decide the duration of its beginning and end. The dividing level of rains, diminishing ground water level, dry well, rivers and reservoirs and weak crop give a warning of the imminent danger of drought. Although drought is a natural calamity but the main factor responsible for it are as follows:

  1. Ignore land management.
  2. Ignoring traditional sources of irrigation viz tanks, wells, reservoirs, etc.
  3. Destruction of community forests.
  4. Natural water resources get dried due to destruction of forest, due to insufficient rains the ground water level goes down; water level in the ground water level goes down; water level in rivers also goes down.
  5. Fodder shortage for cattle.
  6. Drastic changes in rotation of crops.
  7. Imbalanced relationship with atmosphere (ecology) results in excessive demand for water in the agriculture, industry and cottage industry.
  8. Faulty management of water resource.

Question 3.
How do floods in Bangladesh become disasters? Give an example of such disasters?
Answer:
Bangladesh is a riverine country where recurrent flooding is both common and necessary. Every year large areas are submerged during the monsoon season and fertilized by deposits of fresh alluvium. If the waters remain stagnant for too long, these beneficial floods become major disasters.

Examples:

  1. In the summer and fall of 1974 when flooding extended over nearly 50% of the country and stagnated for more than a month.
  2. At least 1,200 people died in the floods and another 27,500 died from subsequent disease and starvation.
  3. Approximately 425,000 houses were destroyed or severely damaged.
  4. A total of 36 million people suffered severe hardship and losses due to the disaster.

Question 4.
What are the main reasons of floods? Discuss the effects and effected region in India?
Answer:
Main reasons of floods in India are leakage or cracking of bunds, dams etc. and releasing excess water from barrages. The danger of floods is also increasing because of defective construction of bunds, old dams etc. The water that are flowing from Himalayan rivers bring with them large quantities of soil and this is deposited on the land and areas near the sea coast.

According to an estimate, every year 10 lakh cubic feet of soil gets mixed up with the waters of rivers Gandak and Sarayu flowing from the Himalayas. This soil is deposited on the plains of Uttar Pradesh. Consequently the bottom of the rivers and their water surface is coming up. Thus every year the flow of these river is taking the form of floods.

In the mountainous regions, the river flow gets blocked due to landslides and water reservoirs are formed; then suddenly they crack and floods occur. In the Himalayan region landslides are common. In the mountainous regions the land has become unstable due to construction of roads, deforestation, uncontrolled cutting of roads, deforestation, uncontrolled cutting of hills etc. In the Himalayan area on an average 60,000 cubic meter soil is removed in construction 1 km long road. So far 50,000 kilometers of road has so far been constructed in the Himalayan region. This soil accumulation is also a cause of floods.

Flood regions in India:

Floods are a regular featured in India. The vast plains and coastal areas suffer from the devastation of floods. Floods are a regular annual feature in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa in the North-east India. The consequences of this are suffered by both, the human and cattle population.

Effects of floods:
Floods affect the life of human beings in the following manner:

1. Physical harm:
The flood waters harm the buildings, some buildings are razed to the ground. There is danger to the lives and property-. Landslides also occur due to heavy down pour of rains and flowing water.

2. Deaths and public health:
People and cattle drown/die in the flood waters. Epidemic, diarrhoea, bacterial, infections, malaria, etc. spread.

3. Hindrance in water supply:
The water sources get contaminated and there is problem in supply of potable water.

4. Crops and food supply:
The fields (crops) are inundated and the grain godowns are also harmed and damage is caused to food grains.

5. Change in the soil structure:
The soil is also affected and due to sea water there is a danger of soil becoming salty.

Map Work

Question 1.
On an outline map of India, show the seismic zones?
Answer:
Class 10 Social Science Chapter 6 MP Board

Question 2.
On an outline map of India, show drought-affected areas?
Answer:
Chapter 6 Class 10 Social Science MP Board

Question 3.
On an outline map of India, show flood-affected areas?
Answer:
Social Science Class 10 Chapter 6 MP Board

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