MP Board Class 11th General English Grammar Tenses

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MP Board Class 11th General English Grammar Tenses

प्रत्येक Simple Sentence का सामान्यतः प्रारम्भ एक Noun या Pronoun से होता है जो कि Subject (कर्ता) कहलाता है।
इसके पश्चात् एक Verb आती है जो कि Subject के द्वारा किए गए किसी कार्य या स्थिति (Action or Pronoun) को प्रकट करती है।
जो Verb केवल Position दर्शाती है गति (Action) नहीं, वह Incomplete Verb कहलाती है।
जो Verb कोई गति (Action) प्रकट करती है वह Complete Verb कहलाती है।

Incomplete Verbs

केवल Subject + Incomplete Verb से Sentence पूर्ण नहीं होता, इसके अर्थ को पूर्ण करने के लिए दिए गए Words Complement कहलाते हैं।
Incomplete Verbs तीन Tenses में होती है :

  1. Present,
  2. Past,
  3. Future.

1. Verb To be = होना।

  • Present Forms – am/is/are/art.
  • Present Participle – being
  • Past Forms – was/were/wert.
  • Past Participle – been
  • Future Forms – shall be/will be/wilt be.

Subject Verb Agreement–Verb अपनेके Subject अनुसार Number व Person में होती है।

Verb – To be = होना, Present रूप – am/is/are/art.
MP Board Class 11th General English Grammar Tenses 1
MP Board Class 11th General English Grammar Tenses 2

Note : Modern Grammar ने अब ‘shall’ के प्रयोग को समाप्तप्राय घोषित कर केवल ‘will के प्रयोग को प्रचलित किया है-
MP Board Class 11th General English Grammar Tenses 3
Rewrite using correct form of the verbs.

Exercise : 1
Structure – Subject – am/is/are. Complement.

  1. I (be) happy.
  2. We (be) students.
  3. You (be) late.
  4. He (be) there.
  5. She (be) in the hospital.
  6. It (be) I.
  7. His father (be) an accountant.
  8. The farmers (be) very clever.
  9. They (be) in a poor condition,
  10. O God ! Thou (be) kind.

Exercise :
2 Structure – Subject – was/were. Complement.

  1. You (be) very poor.
  2. Harish (be) in the garden.
  3. His son (be) sad.
  4. I (be) there.
  5. He (be) on the top of the mountain.
  6. The boys (be) very intelligent.
  7. Mohan (be) early.
  8. Your brothers (be) quarrelsome.
  9. One of the ministers (be) a cheat.
  10. Each boy (be) quick.

Exercise : 3
Structure – Subject – shall be/will be, Complement.

  1. I (be) there within an hour.
  2. You (be) present in the meeting.
  3. Mohan (be) a first class doctor.
  4. The child (be) on the terrace.
  5. His father (be) the first person to visit that place.
  6. The teachers (be) on leave.
  7. The fans (be) on.
  8. The lights (be) off.
  9. His brothers (be) quarrelsome.
  10. There (be) no place for you.

2. Verb – To have = पास में होना या रखना
Present Tense = have/has/hast
Present Participle – having.
Past Tense = had
Past Participle – had.
Future Tense = shall have/will have
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Exercise : 4
Structure Subject – have/has Complement.

  1. I (have) a nice pen.
  2. You (have) a big house.
  3. We (have) not had a glass of water.
  4. He (have) black shoes.
  5. She (have) six boxes.
  6. Radha (have) a pitcher on her head.
  7. Your son (have) a scooter.
  8. They (have) no car.
  9. The monkey (have) sharp nails.
  10. His brothers (have) no cups.

Exercise : 5
Structure. Subject – had, Complement.

  1. I (have) a very nice umbrella.
  2. We (have) so many cows.
  3. You (have) a big house.
  4. Gandhiji (have) a she-goat.
  5. Mohan (have) three pens.
  6. His father (have) a big farm.
  7. They (have) grass on their head.
  8. The king (have) two daughters.
  9. The teacher (have) a book in his hand.
  10. Mother (have) a nice saree.

Exercise : 6
Structure – Subject – shall/will have, Complement.

  1. I (have) wings.
  2. You (have) a good dictionary.
  3. He (have) a watch.
  4. She (have) a purse.
  5. They (have) a colour TV set.

Complete Verbs

Complete Verbs वे Verbs होती हैं जिनके द्वारा कोई Action प्रकट होता है। इनकी पाँच Forms होती है

  1. Present Form
  2. Past Form
  3. Past Participle Form
  4. Present Participle Form
  5. Singular Form.

इनका वर्णन हम आगे करेंगे। इन Forms का प्रयोग विभिन्न Tenses में Main Verb के रूप में किया जाता है। Dictionary में भी ये दी रहती हैं।

Verb की Tense का सम्बन्ध Time से होता है। मोटे तौर पर हम Time को तीन भागों में बाँटते हैं –

  1. Present वर्तमान समय
  2. Pasta बहुत समय
  3. Future भविष्यत

वास्तव में अस्तित्व केवल Present का है। Present ही बीत जाने पर स्मृतिस्वरूप Past बन जाता है तथा आने वाले वर्तमान की कल्पना ही Future कहलाती है।

The Verb

[A] Three Forms of Some Verbs
Group I
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Weak Verbs – d के स्थान पर t Present Tense
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Weak Verbs – एक Vowel कम करें
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Change in Inside Vowel As Well
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Group II
Weak Verbs – जो क्रियाएँ तीनों रूप में समान रहती हैं।
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‘en’ Verbs Present Tense
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Group III
Strong Verbs भीतरी स्वर बदलने से बनने वाली क्रियाएँ –
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Group IV
Strong Verbs इनमें n, या en जोड्नेसे परिवर्तन होता है –
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Group V
Strong + Weak Verbs मिश्रित रूप वाली क्रियाएँ –
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Group VI.
कुछ verb के दो रूप होते हैं एक strong की भाती दूसरा weak की भाती
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(B) Verb का Present Participle Form (ing रूप) बनाने के नियम –
1. अधिकांश verb में सीधे ing जोड़ते हैं
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II. जिन क्रियाओं के अंत में होती है उनमें e हटाकर ing जोड़ते हैं।
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III. (1) यदि शब्द एक syllable का हो (e.g., bat, spilt), (2) एक से अधिक syllable का हो, तो उसका accent अन्तिम syllable पर (e.g., control, for’get, occ’ur) तथा (3) दोनों में अंत में एक Consonant व उसके पूर्व एक Vowel (a, e, i, o, u) हो, तो अंत के Consonant को डबल करके जोड़ते हैं-
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IV. ie से अंत होने वाली क्रियाओं में ie को हटाकर। बनाकर – ing जोड़ते हैं।
As:
Die – dying
lie – lying
Tie – tying

(C) Verbs को Singular बनाने के नियम
I. अधिकांश क्रियाओं में केवल s जोड़ते हैं
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II. sh, ss, ch, x व ० से अंत होने वाली क्रियाओं में es जोड़ते हैं
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III. y से अंत होने वाली और उसके पूर्व Consonant रखने वाली क्रियाओं में हटाकर ies जोड़ते हैं।
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Present Indefinite (Or Simple) Tense

इस Tense में Verb की Present रूप या उसमें s, es या ies जोड़कर बनाई गई रूप (Singular form) प्रयोग में लायी जाती है
Subject-Verb Agreement
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इस Tense का प्रयोग निम्न को प्रकट करने के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है :
1. किसी स्थायी तथ या सत्य को प्रकट करने केलिए
As –
The Sun rises in the East
Cows eat grass.

2. जो कार्य हम नित्य या स्वभावतः करते हैं उसे express करने के लिए :
AS –
I always get up at 5 a.m.
We go to school every day.
They have curd every morning.

इस हेतु प्रायः निम्न adverbs का प्रयोग किया जाता है :
Always, never, every day, every week, every month, often (प्रया:), usually (सामान्यतः), Generally, once, twice, sometimes (कभी – कभी), several times (कई बार), a week, a month etc.

3. किसी भावी निश्चित कार्यक्रम (planned future action) को सूचित करने के लिए :
As –
We leave for Mumbai tomorrow.

4. If, as soon as, when, unless, after, before, till, until, even if, in case, as के बाद आने वाला subordinate clause भी Present Indefinite में लिखा जाता है यदि Principal clause future tense में हो :
As –
(a) If you work hard, you will pass.
(b) We shall make payment, if the officer signs the bill.
(c) I shall not write to him, unless he replies my previous letter.

5. (i) किसी author (लेखक) को उद्धत करते समय :
As –
Shakespeare says, “Frailty, thy name is women.”
(ii) Radio या TV से आँखों देखा हाल (Commentary) में :
As – Vijay passes the ball to Mohan.
Virendra strikes the ball while Rahim pushes it out.

(ii) कभी – कभी History लिखने में भी इसका प्रयोग होता है :
As –
Now Rani of Jhansi enters the scene.

Exercise : 1
A Rewrite the following sentences choosing correct form of the Verb given in brackets.

  1. This book (contain, contains) everything required.
  2. I (buy, buys) books.
  3. The train (reach, reaches) late.
  4. You (carry, carries) a flower pot.
  5. His father (fix, fixes) the date of marriage.
  6. Your son (get/gets) first division.
  7. They (care, cares) for us.
  8. The child (cry, cries) loudly.
  9. One of the sheep (graze, grazes) in the field.
  10. One of the ships (sink, sinks) into the sea.
  11. Hari (meet, meets) us at Mathura tomorrow.
  12. You (pass, passes) the examination.
  13. One of the ministers (resign, resigns) the post.
  14. The cattle (go, goes) to the jungle.
  15. His brothers (reply, replies) letters.

Exercise : 1
Rewrite the sentences using correct form of the verbs given in brackets and say what they indicate.
Structure Subject – Verb I/VI + s, es, ies, Object etc.

  1. The earth (move) a round the sun.
  2. Two and two (make) four.
  3. He never (reply) letters in time.
  4. The President (visit) America next week.
  5. Tom will have finished the work before I (reach) there.
  6. Shakespeare (say), “Nothing is good or bad, but our thinking makes it so.”
  7. The bus (start) at 7 p.m.
  8. I (read) his newspaper daily.
  9. She sometimes (go) to the Church.
  10. You frequently (take) bath in this tank.
  11. His son (control) the machine.
  12. Her sister (do) her work.
  13. She usually (speak) english. [2010]
  14. Water (freeze) in the freezer.
  15. Your shoe (shine).

Emphatic या Strong Form

इस Tense में Verb को Emphatic या Strong बनाने के लिए do/does: सहायक क्रिया तथा Verb की Ist form प्रयोग में लाई जाती है।

Negative बनाना

जैसा कि पूर्व Tense में हमने देखा कि Affirmative वाक्यों में सहायक क्रिया रहती है तो हम सहायक क्रिया के बाद not लगा लेते हैं। किन्तु इस Tense में Affirmative साधारण
वाक्यों में सहायक क्रिया नहीं है। अतः हम Strong form जिसमें सहायक क्रिया do/does . है उसकी सहायता से Negative बनाते हैं।

Exercise : 2
Change the following sentences into Negative : Structure Subject – do not/does not Verb I object.
1. The Sun goes around the earth.
2. I do my work. [2008]
3. We fly for Delhi tomorrow.
4. The teacher takes the period every Sunday.
5. You play very well.
6. She denies the charge.
7. They catch fish.
8. If Dinesh studies hard, he will get a first division.
9. Your father quarrels with neighbours.
10. Soniya likes only this book. [2013]

INTERROGATIVE बनाना

साधारण वाक्यों में सहायक क्रिया न होने से Interrogative भी Strong form की सहायता and .
As
1. I take tea. – Do I take tea?
2. You reply letters. – Do you reply letters.
3. His brother teaches Hindi. – Does his brother teach Hindi?
4. He lost his pen yesterday. – Did he lose his pen yesterday? [2008]

किन्तु
MP Board Class 11th General English Grammar Tenses 32

Exercise : 3
Change the following sentences into interrogative : Structure – Do/Does Subject (not) Verb I Object etc.?

  1. I like mangoes.
  2. We do not grow rice.
  3. You speak the truth.
  4. He never sings well.
  5. She catches birds.
  6. They read every lesson twice.
  7. His brother does not carry tables.
  8. They win the match every time.
  9. The boys of this class often make great noise.
  10. The sheep return at 6 p.m.

Present Continuous Tense

इस Tense को Progressive या Present Imperfect भी कहते हैं। यह Tense निम्न अर्थ का प्रकट करने के लिए उपयोग में लाया जाता है।
1. इन sentences से यह बोध होता है कि कोई कार्य इस क्षण हो रहा है और इसका अंत होगा इसमें just, at present, at moment, now इत्यादि adverb का प्रयोग होता है।
As –
Boys are playing Cricket.
I am writing a letter.
Rekha is knitting a sweater.

2. भविष्य की Time adverbial जुड़ी होने पर भविष्य में होने वाले कार्य का बोध होता है। Present Indefinite से भी हम इस तरह का कार्य लेते हैं किन्तु उससे ज्यादा certainty (निश्चितता) प्रकट होती है जबकि Present Progressive से कम।
As –
1 am meeting Mohan tomorrow.
We are going to Bhopal next week.

3. किसी कार्य से झल्लाहट व्यक्त करने के लिए always, continually, often adverbs के साथ इसका प्रयोग होता है।
As –
The teacher is always complaining about my son.
She is continually demanding money.
They are often disturbing me.

4. निम्न Verbs का प्रयोग साधारणत: Present Continuous में नहीं होता। इन्हें Present Indefinite में लिखा जाता है :
(a) Verbs of perception (अनुभव कराने वाली क्रियाएँ – see, hear, smell, notice.
(b) Verbs used to express feelings or state of mind – want, desire, wish, refuse, forgive, care, hate, adore, like, dislike, admire, etc.
(c) Verbs involving the process of thinking (विचार प्रक्रिया बताने वाली) – think, feel, know, mean, suppose, remember, realise, recollect, forget, recall, mind, understand, etc.
(d) Verbs denoting possession (अधिकतर बताने वाली) – own, belong, possess.
(e) Verbs such as – contain, consist, keep, cost, seem.

Examples
(i) Incorrect – I am feeling unwell.
Correct – I feel unwell.
(ii) Incorrect – We are hearing the bell.
Correct – We hear the bell.
(iii) Incorrect – He is owning a car.
Correct – He owns a car.

Note – आगे दी जा रही Exercise में सहायक क्रियाओंAgreement पूर्व में दिए अनुसार रहेगा।

Exercise : 4
Rewrite the sentences into Present Progressive (or Continuous) Tense using correct form of the verb given in brackets.

Structure – Subject – am/is/are – Verb + ing – Object etc.

  1. I (write) a letter.
  2. You (speak) the truth.
  3. Ducks (swim) in the tank now.
  4. The cat (run) after the rat.
  5. The Ganga (flow) pretty fast these days.
  6. The two teams (play) a match next Sunday.
  7. Weavers (weave) cloth.
  8. The farmer (tie) bulls at the moment.
  9. Your brother always (ask) money from me.
  10. Father (do) some work.
  11. She (shed) crocodile tears.
  12. Mohan (fly) kites.
  13. The Sun (rise).
  14. Hari (draw) a picture.
  15. It (rain) heavily.

double consonant + ing.

Negative बनाना

किसी Affirmative (सकारात्मक) Sentence को Negative (नकारात्मक) बनाने का सामान्य तरीका है
सहायक क्रिया के बाद (Adverb) not जोड़ना ऊपर दिए Sentences को जब आप Present Continuous Tense में लिख लोगे तब उन्हें Negative बनाने का अभ्यास करो –
As –
Affirmative – The horses are running.
Negative – The horses are not running.

Interrogative बनाना

किसी भी Affirmative या Negative Sentence से सामान्यतः हिन्दी में प्रश्नवाचक बनाने के लिए हम ‘क्या’ शब्द प्रारम्भ में जोड़ देते हैं।

किन्तु English में हम What न जोड़कर, उस वाक्य की सहायक क्रिया को प्रारम्भ में लिखकर अन्त में प्रश्नवाचक चिह्न लगाते हैं।

As –
Affirmative – The horses are running. घोड़े दौड़ रहे हैं।
Interrogative Are the horses running? क्या घोड़े दौड़ रहे हैं?
Negative – The horses are not running. घोड़े दौड़ नहीं रहे हैं।

Interrogative Are the horses not running?
Or
Aren’t the horses running?
क्या घोड़े दौड़ नहीं रहे हैं?

Note : Exercise 4 के वाक्यों को Negative व Interrogative बनाओ।
आगे भी ये ही नियम लागू होंगे।

Present Perfect Tense

इस Tense का प्रयोग निम्न को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है।
1. जो कार्य अभी समाप्त हुआ होः इसके साथ already, yet, since, just, so far, till, now, upto the present etc.का प्रयोग होता है :

As – I have lost my book.
The train has already left.
The chief guest has not arrived yet.
I have just finished this book.

2. यदि कार्य पूर्ण हो गया हो किन्तु कार्यारम्भ तथा पूर्ण होने का समय निश्चित न हो :
As –
I have met him before.
She has passed the examination.

3. जो कार्य में रूप हुआ और हभी जारी है :
As –
We have been at this place since 9 O’clock.
His father has been in this job for 12 years.
Thakurs have lived here for 5 months.

Exercise : 5
Rewrite the following sentences using correct form of the verbs given in brackets.

Structure Subject – havelhas (not) Verb III Object.

  1. I (take) two cups of tea.
  2. We (not read) this book so far.
  3. Father just (leave) for office.
  4. His brother (not come) till now.
  5. The manager already (give) us passes.
  6. The sun (rise).
  7. You (speak) the truth.
  8. His sister (live) in Mumbai for 10 years.
  9. They (show) this film.
  10. The driver (stop) the bus.
  11. We (study) Physics.
  12. You (kill) the lion.
  13. She (not finish) the work upto the present.
  14. The farmers (sell) all the crop.
  15. It (rain) here.

Note : Negative व Interrogative बनाने के लिए सहायक क्रिया have/has ही है।

Present Perfect Progressive

इस Tense का प्रयोग निम्न को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है (इसे Present Perfect Continuous भी कहते हैं):

1. कोई कार्य भूतकाल में शुरू हुआ, अभी चल रहा है तथा भविष्य में भी जारी रहेगा :
As –
I have been sitting here for two hours.
He has been living here since 1982.

2. कोई कार्य अभी हाल तक चलता रहा है जिसका प्रभाव अभी भी है :
As –
The workers have been drinking a lot.
I have been running too fast. She has been working in the kitchen.

Exercise : 6
Rewrite the following sentences using correct form of the verbs given in brackets :
Structure Subject – have/has + been + Verb + ing + Object – since/ for time.

  1. He (work) in the post office for twenty years. [2009]
  2. It (rain) in torrents ……. an hour.
  3. We (wait) …… on the platform since seven o,clock. [2011].
  4. The teacher (teach) the lesson ….. two days.
  5. The horses (run) on the ground ……… morning.
  6. He (grow) rice ……… 10 years.
  7. She (wash) clothes …….. Monday.
  8. People (use) this bridge ……. 1970.
  9. His brothers (quarrel) …… half an hour.
  10. The author (write) ……. books.
  11. His mother (talk) …….. an hour.
  12. Father (worry) …….. 2 hours for me.
  13. The fishers (catch) fish ……. 3 months.
  14. They (build) this house ……. April 1989.
  15. I (live) here since 1960. [2015]

(double consonant + ing)
Change above sentences into Negative and Interrogative.

Past Simple Or Indefinite Tense

इस Tense का प्रयोग निम्न को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है :
1. भूतकाल में समाप्त हुए किसी कार्य का बोध कराने के लिए. इसके साथ कभी – कभी yesterday, ago, yesterday evening, last night, last week, last month, last year etc. of का प्रयोग होता है

As –
Yesterday, we saw a beautiful bird.
It rained heavily last night.
Pandit Nehru died in 1964.

2. Polite request वाले Sentences में इसका प्रयोग किया जाता है यद्यपि अर्थ के दृष्टिकोण से ये Present Tense के ही होते हैं।

As –
Could you lend me your pen please?
lend me your poco pofase osease?
Would you pass on the lemon plate please?
I wanted to talk to you for a minute.

3. Subjunctive Mood (अर्थात् शर्त का अनुमान सूचक या wish वाले Sentences में प्रयुक्त) Verb को Past Tense में लिखा जाता है—(और इसमें verb to be’ की क्रिया की रूप केवल ‘were’ होती है, ‘was’ नहीं।)
As –
I wish I were a king.
He speaks as if he knew it.
It is (high) time we started for the station.
इन Sentences में Simple Past से Future time का बोध होता है।

4. Rule of sequence of tense के अनुसार किसी वाक्य में Principal clause की Verb past tense हो व Subordinate clause की Present Indefinite तो Subordinate clause की Verb Past Indefinite में लिखी जाती है भले ही अर्थ Present Indefinite का हो :

As –
I explained ……..
Why do I go there?
I explained why I went there.
Hari said, “The teacher teaches well.”
Hari said that the teacher taught well.

Exercise : 7
Rewrite the following sentences using correct form of the verbs given in brackets : .
Structure Subject + verb II + Object etc.

  1. I (clean) the room yesterday.
  2. We (bring) a shawl from Haryana.
  3. You (buy) wool.
  4. He (meet) me last night.
  5. The soldier (shoot) at the enemy.
  6. I.(want) a ticket, please.
  7. Father wished if he (build) a temple.
  8. His father said that Dinesh (sleep) soundly.
  9. The teacher (write) a book.
  10. The merchant (sell) all the sugar.
  11. Mother (cut) mangoes.
  12. Somebody has (steal) my book. [2008]
  13. The driver (stop) the bus.
  14. Father (send) me a nice gift last month.
  15. I (do) it myself yesterday. [2008]

Emphatic या Strong Form

इस Tense में Verb की Emphatic या Strong form did + Verb द्वारा बनाई जाती है

As –
I caught the bird – I did catch the bird.

Negative या Interrogative

चूँकि इस Tense के साधारण वाक्यों में सहायक क्रिया नहीं होती अत: Emphatic form की सहायता से Negative तथा Interrogative बनाते हैं।
MP Board Class 11th General English Grammar Tenses 33
Exercise : 8
Change the following sentences into Negative : Structure – Subject – did not Verb 1 + Object etc.

  1. The Sun rose at 6 a.m.
  2. I bent the stick.
  3. You studied Chemistry.
  4. I wish I went there.
  5. The train left the station at 6.30 a.m.
  6. Sanjay shut the door. [2010]
  7. The teacher gave me a book.
  8. She ate biscuits.
  9. The cloth shrank.
  10. He did his work. [2008]
  11. The officer did his duty well. [2011]

Exercise : 9
Change the following sentences into Interrogative : Structure – Did Subject (not) Verb I + Object?

  1. He tore your shirt.
  2. The boy did not stand up on the bench.
  3. His brother wore a blue shirt.
  4. Water did not freeze last night.
  5. She broke the glass.
  6. Mother told you a story.
  7. The villain shed crocodile tears.
  8. The driver did not drive the car fast.
  9. The ship sank into the water.
  10. Many persons drowned into the Yamuna.

Past Continuous Tense
(Or Past Progressive Tense)

Present Continuous ही जब बीत जाता है तो उसकी स्मृति Past Continuous बना जाती है

As –
The horses are running (now).
The horses were running (then).

इस tense का प्रयोग निम्न को व्यक्त करने के लिये किया जाता है। 1. भूतकाल में शुरू और समाप्त हुए किसी कार्य का बोध कराने के लिए :
As –
(a) I was reading the Ramayan yesterday at this time.
(b) Mukul was writing letters.

2. जिस समय एक कार्य जारी था काई दूसरा कार्य जो उससे अधिक महत्त्वपूर्ण था, घटित हुआ।
प्रधान कार्य को (Simple Past) व जारी था कई को (Past Continuous) में लिखते है :

As –
(a) When I met him, he was going to cinema.
(b) As I was going to the market, it started to raiņ.
(c) While the patient was taking medicine, the doctor came.

3. यदि भूतकाल में दो कार्य साथ – साथ चल रहे थे तो दोनों को Pase Continuous Tense में लिखा जात है:
As –
While Renu was singing, Mona was dancing
Hema was reading, her sister was knitting a sweater.

4. Rule of sequence of tense के अनुसार Principal clause की Verb Past Tense हो व Subordinate Present Continuous हो तो जोड़ने पर उसे Past Continuous में लिखा जाता है जबकि अर्थ Present Continuous ही होता है:

As –
(1) (a) I knew ……..
(b) The minister is coming.
I knew that the minister was coming.

(ii) His father said,
“Children are playing.”
His father said that children were playing.

Exercise : 10
Rewrite the following sentences using correct form of the verb given in brackets :
Structure – Subject – was/were Verb + ing Object.

  1. I (shave) my face.
  2. We (play) hockey.
  3. Gopal (run) on the ground.
  4. His brother (quarrel).
  5. One of the ministers (lie).
  6. Father arrived as mother (tell) us stories.
  7. Abdul (water) plants, Mohan (pluck) flowers.
  8. Students (talk) quite the teacher teach the lesson.
  9. Price (increase) rapidly.
  10. I felt that I (sink) into the ground.
  11. The Principal said that the teachers (go) on strike.
  12. The farmers (cut) crops.
  13. She (tie) the cow with the peg.
  14. People (listen) to the leader with interest.
  15. You (manage) the bank well.

Change the above sentences into Negative and Interrogative. (Double consonant + ing)

Past Perfect Tense

इस Tense का प्रयोग निम्न को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है :
1. कभी – कभी complex sentence में दो verbs होती है, जो भूतकाल में समाप्त हुई रहती है। दो में से जो घटना पूर्व में घटित होती है उसे Past Perfect व बाद वाली के Past Indefinite (Verb Il form) में प्रकट करते हैं :
As –
(1) I had taken bath before the sun rose.
सूर्य उदय होने से पूर्व मैं स्नान कर चुका था।

(2) I took bath after the Sun had risen.
सूर्य उदय होने के पश्चात् मैंने स्नान किया।

(3) He had left when I arrived here.
मैं जब यहाँ आया, तब वह जा चुका था।

2. Direct से Indirect Speech में बदलते समय Reported Speech यदि Past Tense या Present Perfect में हो तो उन्हें Past Perfect में बदला जाता है :

As –
Hari said, “Guests have taken tea.”
Hari said that guests had taken tea.
His father said, “I took the pen.”
His father said that he had taken the pen.

3.Conditional (शर्तसूचक) वाक्यों से यदि यह प्रकट हो कि शर्त पूरी नहीं हुई (Future in the past) तो इस Tense का प्रयोग किया जाता है :
As –
(1) If you had worked hard you would have passed.
यदि तुमने कठिन मेहनत की होती तो तुम पास हो जाते।
(2) Had she asked me for help, I would have helped her.
यदि उसने मुझसे सहायता माँगी होती, तो मैं उसकी मदद करता।

Exercise : 11
Rewrite the following sentences using correct form of the verbs given in brackets :
Structure Subject + had + Verb III + Object.

  1. I (buy) the book, before the teacher asked me.
  2. We called the servant, after he (clean) the room.
  3. When the father reached, the son (pay) fees.
  4. The doctor said that his wound (heal).
  5. The customer said that prices (fall) during festivals.
  6. She (lose) her purse.
  7. When she reached the station, the train (leave).
  8. The artist (draw) a picture.
  9. The boy (tear) his shirt.
  10. Father (write) the letter.
  11. The cloth (shrink).
  12. Our team (win) the match.
  13. Sheela (knit) a sweater.
  14. Deer (run) away before the lion (see) them.
  15. The thief ran away after he (see) the police.

Change the above sentences into Negative and Interrogative.

Past Perfect Continuous Tense
(Or Past Perfect Progressive Tense)

इस Tense का प्रयोग निम्न को व्यक्त करने के लिये किया जाता है।

1. कोई कार्य भूतकाल में एक निश्चित समय तक जारी था :
(a) The workers stopped for a rest after they had been working for 5 hours.
(b) I had been standing here for 10 minutes before you opened the door.

2. Direct speech से Indirect speech में बदलते समय Reported Verb Present Perfect Continuous में हो तो Rule of Sequence of Tense के अनुसार Past Perfect Continuous में लिखते है :

As –
He said, “I have been living here for six months.”
He said that he had been living there for six months.

Exercise : 12
Rewrite the following sentences using correct form of the Verb given in brackets :

Structure Subject had been + Verb + ing + Object.

  1. I (read) the Ramayan ………. 3 hours.
  2. The child (weep) ………. morning.
  3. Tom (spend) money uselessly ………. last year.
  4. We (sell) this product ………. 10 years.
  5. The teacher (sit) here ………. evening.
  6. His brother (study) Physics ………. 3 hours.
  7. The king (smell) the flower ………. morning.
  8. His sister (wash) clothes ………. 3. O’clock.
  9. They (work) here ………. 40 years.
  10. The servant (sweep) the room ………. 40 minutes.
  11. The moon (shine) …………… 3 p.m.
  12. It (rain) ……… 10 days.
  13. He (tell) lies ……………. his birth.
  14. The artist (draw) pictures …………. years.
  15. Boys (fly) kites …………. a month. ( double consonant + ing)

Make the above sentences Negative and Interrogative.

Future Indefinite Tense

इस Tense से कोई कार्य भविष्य में गॉन का बढ़ होता है:
As –
1 shall go to Bhopal on Monday.
They will do this work next week.
Our team will take part in these tournaments.

Exercise : 13
Rewrite the following sentences using correct form of the verbs given in brackets.

Structure Subject – shall will/erb 1 + Object.

  1. I (write) an essay.
  2. We (buy) a TV set.
  3. You (bring) toys tomorrow.
  4. She (sing) a song in the party.
  5. She (ask) two questions.
  6. His father (read) the newspaper.
  7. They (return) from Mumbai next Monday.
  8. Dinesh (learn) French.
  9. The farmers (grow) more food.
  10. You (get) a prize.
  11. One of his brothers (give) you money.
  12. Father (drive) the car.
  13. She (wear) a blue saree this morning.
  14. India (make) a great progress.
  15. His son (copy) the lesson.

Note – इन वाक्यों में shall/will सहायक क्रिया होने से इनके बाद not लगाने से Negative तथा shall/will को कर्ता के पहले रखने से Interrogative बनाये जाते हैं।

Future को प्रकट करने के अन्य तरिके –
1. Going to + Verb got yety of to
As I am going to open a shop.
He is going to buy a TV set.
There is going to be a meeting on Monday.
They are going to vote for Mohan.

2. Present Indefinite का प्रयोग करके
As –
The meeting starts at 5 p.m.
The Prime Minister visits Moscow next week.

3. Present Continuous Tense का प्रयोग करके
As –
I am going to Indore tomorrow.

4. About + to-infinitive का प्रयोग करके
As –
The bus is about to start.
The peon is about to ring the bell.

5. (Verb) be + infinitive का प्रयोग करके
As –
I am to finish this book soon.
He is to blow the whistle.

Future Continuous Tense
(Or Future Progressive)

भविष्य के किसी समय पर क्या हो रहा होगा – इसे Tense द्वारा व्यक्त करते है।

As –
The horses are running (now).
The horses will be running (at this time tomorrow etc.)

यह Tense निम्न को व्यक्त करने के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है

1. सामान्य तरीके से कोई कार्य भविष्य में होता रहेगा।
As –
It will be raining all morning.
पूरी सुबह वर्षा रहेगी
At 5 a.m. tomorrow I shall be reading.

2. कोई कार्य वक्ता की किसी पहले से निर्धारित योजना के अनुसार होगा :
Gopal will be staying with you.
Paul will be marrying Mary next Sunday.
I shall be going to Delhi tomorrow.

Exercise : 14
Rewrite the sentences using correct form of the verb given in brackets : Structure Subject – shall/will be Verb + ing Object.

  1. I (clean) the room.
  2. Horses (run) on the ground.
  3. His father (write) a letter.
  4. We (meet) you next Monday.
  5. The teachers (visit) Mandu on Sunday.
  6. The government (control) prices.
  7. The officer (compel) them to attend to their duties.
  8. She (knit) a sweater.
  9. He (ask) questions to the teacher.
  10. They (catch) fish. (double consonant + ing).

Note – (1) Negative बनाने के लिए पहली क्रिया all shall/will के बाद not जोड़ों

Interrogative बनाने के लिए पहली सहायक क्रिया shall/will को Sentence के प्रारम्भ में लिखो।

Future Perfect Tense

यह Tense निम्न को प्रकट करने के लिए प्रयुक्त होता है:
1. Future में किसी निश्चित समय पर कोई कार्य समाप्त हो चुका होगा :
As –
I shall have finished this work by 5 p.m.
She will have typed all the letters before the meeting begins.

2. वक्ता का belief कि कुछ घटना हो चुकी है।
As –
You will have heard about Laxmibai, Queen of Jhansi.
They will have known about our plans for future.

Exercise : 15
Rewrite the sentences using correct form of the Verb given in brackets :

Structure – Subject – shall/will + have + Verb III + Object etc.

  1. The teacher (come) before the peon rings the bell.
  2. I (write) this book by the next month.
  3. You (clean) the room by 5 p.m. ;
  4. The farmer (borrow) a large sum from Mahajan.
  5. They (take) bath before the sun rises.
  6. All the persons (know) about our plans.
  7. His brother (join) the army before the telegram reaches there.
  8. The officer (pay) the bill before we object.
  9. The police (catch) the thief before he steals the ornaments.
  10. The country (make) a big progress by the end of this century.

Change the above sentences into Negative and interrogative.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense
(Or Future Perfect Progressive)

इस Tense से पता चलता है कि किसी निश्चित समय तक कार्य चलता रहेगा :

As –
I shall have been playing hockey for two hours.
By 10th March his father will have been working for 25 years.

Exercise : 16
Rewrite the following sentences using correct form of the Verb given in brackets :

Structure – Subject – shall/will + have been + Verb + ing + Object etc.

  1. I (grow) wheat for 2 years by June next.
  2. Students (copy) the lesson for 30 minutes.
  3. We (talk) for 2 hours.
  4. His father (read) the Ramayan for an hour.
  5. Boys (practise) swimming since morning.
  6. He (get) prizes for two sessions.
  7. The bird (lay) eggs for 3 seasons.
  8. Your brothers (cut) grass for 2 months.
  9. The train (run) for 15 hours.
  10. You (eat) cakes for 10 minutes.

(double consonant + ing)
Change the above sentences into Negative and Interrogative.

Additional Exercises

Exercise : 1
Complete the following sentences with proper tense forms,
1. Birds of same feather …………………
2. They came to Bhopal in 1976 and …………………
3. We had hardly reached the station, when ………………
4. ………………. before we reached the station.
5. ……………… when a third one joined them.
6. ……………… that we cannot help him.
7. ……………. who has some books in his bag.
8. Sita was watching the television …………………….
Answers
1. flock together
2. have been living there since then.
3. the train left
4. The train had left.
5. The two shopkeepers were quarreling for an hour,
6. We have told him clearly
7. There comes Ramesh
8. when Lata knocked at the door

Exercise : 2
Reorder (Rearrange) the following sentences to form meaningful sentences :

1. theatre/he/the/goes/seldom/to.
2. I/in Delhi/living/have been/last two years/for the.
3. Penguin/I/a/seen/never/have.
4. since morning/has been/it/raining.
5. did/come/He/yesterday/here/not.
6. don’t/nests/build/cuckoos.
7. last night/house/our/broke intola thief.
8. he/message/a/if/you/give/him/come/will.
Answers
1. He seldom goes to the theatre.
2. I have been living in Delhi for the last two years.
3. I have never seen a Penguin.
4. It has been raining since morning.
5. He did not come here yesterday.
6. Cuckoos don’t build nests.
7. Last night a thief broke into our house.
8. If you give him a message he will come.

Exercise : 5
Complete the following dialogues using suitable verb forms:
1. Smita – Where do your parents reside?
Hema ………………………
2. Smita – How long have they been residing there?
Hema ………………………
3. Smita – When did you come here?
Hema ………………………
4. Smita – Did you come here alone?
Hema ………………………
5. Smita – With whom have you come?
Hema ………………………
6. Smita – How do you feel here?
Hema ………………………
7. Smita – Where do you want to go today?
Hema ………………………
Answers
1. They reside at Mumbai.
2. They have been residing there for two years.
3. I came here yesterday.
4. No, being a small girl I did not come alone.
5. I have come with a friend of my father.
6. I feel quite home here.
7. I want to see the Taj Mahal today.

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