MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How many alphabets are there in the longest inscription of the Indus civilization?
Answer:
More than 2500 inscriptions has been found in this civilization till now. The longest inscription have 17 alphabets.

Question 2.
Which epics were written during the epic period?
Answer:
During the epic period epics like the Mahabharat and the Ramayana were written.

Question 3.
To which religion are the literacy creations Kalpasutra and Parishishta Parwan related?
Answer:
Kalpasutra of Bhadrabahu and Parishishta Parwan of Hemchandra are the literary creations of the Jain religion.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you mean by cultural trends? (2008)
Answer:
Cultural trends familiarize us with the ancient historical background. The history of a country is only important when its cultural parameters are studied on a scientific basis. Indian culture is one of the world’s most ancient cultures.

Since ancient times, India has been known in the world for its rich culture. Its chief speciality, along with continuity, are forces of antiquity, spirituality, unity and integrity. Indian culture is a valuable asset of human society.

Question 2.
Write the characteristics of architecture during the Indus civilization. (2008, 09, 12, 16)
Answer:
The excavations in the Indus valley provide information about the contemporary architecture. People of this period were experts in the field of architecture. Big granaries, well planned houses and cities, big palaces, ports, the great bath throw sufficient light on the architecture.

The modern developed cities can be compared to the buildings of the period. Covered drains, doors and windows of buildings, direction away from the main road, kitchen inside the building, bathroom, adequate provision of ventilators, construction of ordinary and state buildings etc. are unique examples of architecture of the Indus civilization. It is an evidence of the first urbanisation towns in India.

Question 3.
“Vedic period literature is very prosperous from the creativity point of view.” Explain. (2008)
Answer:
Vedic period literature is very prosperous from the creativity point of view. The literature of this period has a very lively description of ancient life and values. Vedic literature includes: the Vedas, the Brahamanas, the Aranyaka, the Upanishads, the Vedanta, the Epics, the Smritis, the Puranas etc.

The Vedas are four in number the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samveda, the Atharvaveda. The oldest of Vedic literature is the Rigveda. During the epic period epics like the Mahabharat and the Ramayana were written which depict the social and political life during the period.

Question 4.
Write the features of Gupta period paintings. (2008, 09, 10, 14, 16)
Answer:
Painting was based on scientific lines during the Gupta period. The finest examples of paintings are in the Ajanta caves. These have been included in the world heritage sites. These paintings are mostly based on religious themes. They depict the Buddha and the Bodhisattva.

Descriptive scenes from Jataka stories can also be seen. These paintings are original, lively and impressive. The paintings of this period can be seen in the caves of Bagh (in M.P. Dhar district). The themes of the picture in these caves are wordly. During this period beautiful colours have been used in the pictures.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Question 5.
Mention the special features of the temples of the Gupta period. (2008, 09, 12, 13, 15, 17)
Answer:
Architecture was at its peak during the Gupta period. The special achievement of the period was in the field of temple construction. Temples were constructed with stones and bricks. The temples constructed during the Gupta period had flat roofs. The first ‘Shikhar’ was constructed at the Dasavatar in Deogarh temple (Jhansi, U.P.). After the construction of this temple, the construction of Shikhars in the temple started.

Many of these temples still exist such as the Buddhist shrine in Sanchi in Vidisha district of M.P., Bheetargaon in Uttar Pradesh and the temple at Deogarh are a few examples. The Ajanta caves no. 16, 17 and 19 are believed to be of the Gupta period. The sculptors of the Gupta period were experts in working with iron and bronze. The iron pillar at Mehrauli in New Delhi is an exceptional specimen of technology. It was built in the 4th century A.D. has not rusted till date.

Question 6.
Describe the art of dance and music during the Gupta period. (2008, 09)
Answer:
The art of dance and music prospered during the Gupta period. Dance and music were practised in the contemporary period during Vasant Utsav, Kaumidi Utsav, Deepotsav etc. Information of ‘Ganikas’ in that period is also found; their job was to dance and sing. The Gupta rulers themselves patronized the artists. Samudra Gupta himself was an accomplished Veena player.

In order to keep this memory alive, he got coins minted showing him playing the Veena. In the Bagh caves an important scenes of dance and music of the Gupta period has been found, which is a symbol of the splendour of dance and music is that period. From Malvikagnimitra we come to know that there were art institutions and dance teachers (Acharyas) in towns. In this way ample evidence of music and dance during the Gupta period is found.

Question 7.
Write a note on the Ashoka’s pillars. (2008, 09, 10, 14, 15)
Answer:
The best specimens of Mauryan architecture are the pillars of Ashoka which were constructed by him for propagation of the teachings of Baudha Dhamma. These pillars are nearly 20 in number and located in various parts of India, such as Sarnath, Prayag and Kaushambi in Uttar Pradesh, Lumbini and Nigilva in the plains of Nepal.

Besides these, Ashoka pillars have been found in Sanchi, Loriya, Nandgarh and various other places. The caption on the pillars was extremely creative. The famous architecture of the Mauryan period are the pillar edicts of Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh) and of Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh.

Question 8.
Write the differences between the Mathura and the Gandhara art. (2008, 09, 11, 13, 14, 16)
Answer:
Differences between the Mathura and the Gandhara Art

  • The Mathura art developed in Rajasthan and the Uttar Pradesh regions whereas the Gandhara style of art developed near Pushkalavati, Taxila and Purushpur (Peshawar).
  • Statues in the Mathura style were mostly built of sand stone whereas Gandhara style were constucted of slate.
  • The technique used in Mathura art was purely Indian while in Gandhara art it was Greek.
  • The statues in the Mathura art were shown spiritual beauty while statues in the Gandhara art have beeen made attractive and beautiful. For this, they were decorated with ornaments and clothes.

Question 9.
What is the difference between the temples of the Nagara and the Dravidian style? (2009, 14, 16)
Answer:
Besides north India many temples were constructed in the South and East India. The temples constructed during this period are classified into two styles: the Nagara style and the Dravidian style. The difference between two are as follows:

  • The Nagara style temples were mainly constructed in north India and the Dravidian style temples were constructed in south India.
  • In the Nagara style the ‘Shikhar’ is nearly spiral whereas the ‘Shikhar’ is rectangular in the Dravidian style.
  • In the Nagara style around dome and a Kalash is found on the top of the Shikhar while in the Dravidian style Shikhars are constructed by placing rectangular blocks, one over the other.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Question 10.
“The Gupta period was the golden age of literature.” Give reasons. (2009)
Answer:
The Gupta period was the golden age of literature. The form in which literature flourished during this period is unparalleled. During this period there were literary creations in many fields of science and knowledge. Smriti Literature was composed during this period. Yajanvalkya, Narad Smriti, Kavya Smriti are the chief among them. The Ramayana and the Mahabharat were written in this period.

The Buddhist philosopher Asanga composed the Mahayan Sutranka and Yogacharya Bhoomi Shastra. The great scholar of this period was Kalidasa who produced famous works like Meghadoota, Kumarasambhava and Abhigyanashakuntalam. Another delightful work of the Gupta period is the Panchatantra written by Vishnu Sharma. It has been translated into different languages of the world.

Question 11.
Mention the special features of paintings of the Rajput period. (2008)
Answer:
During the Rajput period the art of painting had developed fully. During this period many regional styles of painting had developed, such as the Gujarat style, the Rajputana style etc. The Gujarat style has scenes depicting the Jain life style and religion. In the Rajputana style, romantic scenes of Radha Krishna have been depicted. Frescoes were made to decorate temple and palaces. The art of miniature painting also developed during this period. These paintings were made to decorate books.

Question 12.
Write any four features of the Mughal period architecture. (2008)
Answer:
Features of the Mughal period architecture are as follows:

  • The Mughal style developed as a result of fusion between foreign and Indian styles. Hence Mughal period architecture has a mixed influence of Jain, Buddhist, Rajput, Persian and Baghdad styles.
  • Among Mughal buildings, those constructed by Akbar are of red stone while those constructed by Shahjahan are of white marble.
  • The engraving of diamonds in white marble, pietra dura and running water in the places are some of the salient features of Mughal architecture.
  • The chief features of the architecture of the period were carved Mehrabs and minars.
  • Huge attractive doors were constructed in Mughal buildings. Buland Darwaza, doors in Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Jama Masjid are its examples.
  • The famous buildings of this period are the Agra Fort, Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Delhi and the Taj Mahal.

Question 13.
State the features of medieval period paintings. (2013, 17)
Answer:
The art of painting declined during the sultanate period. Still painting remained alive in Gujarat, Rajasthan and regions of Malwa. The books written on ‘birch bark’ in Gujarat by Jain monks have a very high quality of small illustrations. Mughal paintings were started during the rule of Humayun.

Akbar gave an organized form of Mughal paintings. The first Mughal period painting collection in Mughal style painting is the Hamzanama which is also popular as Dastan-e-Amir Hamza, the speciality of these paintings is that they were made from the juice of foreign plants, trees and their leaves and flowers. Fresco painting started for the first time during the Akbar period. Jahangir’s period is known as the golden period of Mughal paintings.

During his period portrait painting, natural scenes and paintings related to people’s lives started. During Shahjahan’s reign borders and underlines in paintings progressed. Aurangzeb considered painting to be against Islam and banned it. Therefore painting in the courts come to an end and styles of regional paintings developed.

Question 14.
Describe the buildings constructed by Shahjahan. (2008)
Answer:
Description of buildings constructed by Shahjahan is as follows:
(1) Taj Mahal: The biggest accomplishment of the period is the Taj Mahal when architecture reached its pinnacle of progress. Shahjahan constructed it in the memory of his beloved wife. The Taj Mahal is a 313 ft. high square mausoleum made of white marble which has been built on a 22 ft. high platform. The four comers of the Mausoleum have a minar each. It is two storeyed, on top of a dome. It took 22 years to be constructed. 50 lakhs rupees were spent on its construction.

(2) Moti Masjid: This mosque is situated in the Agra Fort. 3 lakh rupees were spent on its construction.

(3) Jama Masjid: This mosque is situated in front of the Agra Fort railway station. It was built by Jahanara Begum, the daughter of Shahjahan. The main building is 103 ft. tall and 100 ft. broad 5 lakh rupees were spend on its construction.

(4) Red Fort of Delhi: It was constructed on the bank of the river Yamuna. The length of this building is 3200 ft. and width is 1600 ft. Diwan-e-Khas and Diwan-e-Aam is also constructed in its premises. Moti Mahal, Heera Mahal and Rang Mahal are famous places in this fort.

Besides above, Jama Masjid of Delhi, Jharokha-i-Darshan in the Agra Fort, Musamman Vurj, Nagina Mosque etc. buildings were also constructed by Shahjahan. In this way, we can say that Shahjahan’s period is known as the golden age of Mughal architecture.

Question 15.
Write the names of four prominent temples of Rajput period and their places. (2010, 15)
Answer:

  • Kandariya Mahadev – Khajuraho
  • Dilwara temple – Mt. Abu
  • Sun temple – Konark
  • Brihadeshwar temple – Tanjore

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Question 16.
Explain the Buddhist literature. (2011)
Answer:
Buddhism has greatly enriched the Pali and Sanskrit language. Buddhism has Tripi-tikas meaning three baskets: Vinaypitika, Sutta pitika and Abidhamma pitika. Vinaypitika contains the rules of daily life. The Sutta pitika contains virtues and Buddha’s discourse and sayings on the four eternal truths.

Abhidhamma pitika contains the philosophical development of teachings of Buddha. Buddhist literature also includes Deepvansh, Mahavansa, Divyavdan, Milind Panha, Mahakodhi, Vansa, Mahavansa like Aryamanjushree, Mulkalp etc.

Question 17.
Explain the Jain literature. (2010, 15, 17)
Answer:
Jain literature has three branches. Religious books, philosophical and secure coritings. These chiefly have prose, legends, grammar and dramas. Out of these most of the compositions are still in the form of manuscripts and are found in the chaityas of Gujarat and Rajasthan. The compositions are: Angas, Pangas, Prakim, Cheda, Sutra and Malsutra.

Towards the last stage while writing discourse, the Sanskrit language was used instead of Prakrit. The prominent books in Jain literature are Kalpasutra of Bhadrabahu and Parishisht Parwan of Hemachandra.

Question 18.
Write a note on the fine arts during Medieval period. (2008)
Answer:
Fine arts in the Medieval period: There was a significant development of fine arts during the medieval period. Ras Lilas were staged in Vrindavan and Mathura. During this period, besides epics, dramas were also based on historical characters. Vijaynagar’s ruler Harihar II’s son Veerupaksha wrote a play Narayan Vilas and Unmata Raghav. In the same sequence Ramchandra wrote a drama Jagannath Vallabh.

In staging dramas social and religious dramas were given preference. Calligraphy also developed during that period. Besides decorated utensils, decorated wall carvings on minars and mausoleums, clothes of Zari, Kashidakari, art of Pachikari, carved fountains, carpets etc. throw light on the art of the period.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How did literature grow from ancient to medieval period? (2009, 12)
Answer:
Literature is considered as the mirror of society. Indian literature is as prosperous and glorious as Indian history, Indian literature has a vast store of Sanskrit literature. The Vedic literature has a very lively description of ancient life and values. It includes the Vedas, the Brahamanas, the Aranyaka, the Upanishads, the Vedanta, the Epics, the Smritis and the Puranas.

Epics like Mahabharat and Ramayana were written after Vedic period. Evidences of literature during Mauryan period have also been found. Kautilya wrote the Arthashastra during the Mauryan period. The famous book Charak Samhita was written during this period. Literature flourished during the Gupta period. Smriti Literature was composed during this period. Harshavardhana respected the scholars.

He himself wrote three Sanskrit plays-Nagananda , Ratnavali and Priyadarshika. Banabhatta was a great writer in Harsha’s court who wrote two books: Harsha charitra and Kadambari. The creation of literacy and extremly flowery language work was on the rise during the Rajput period. During this period books were written on medicine, astrology, grammar, sculpture and various other subjects.

The growth of literature continued in the medieval period. The literature of this period throws ample light on the Mughal period organization. Individualistic history writing had started in that period. The creation of religious and secular literature started during the period. The Dohas and puzzles written by Amir Khusro are popular even today. Many languages prevalent today developed during the Mughal period.

Compositions of Namdev, Ramanand, Guru Nanak, Kabir etc. have a place of special importance in Hindi while Meera used words from Rajasthani and Maithili. Mughal rulers were admirers of literature and patronized scholars. Urdu was known as ‘Zaban-i-Hindavi’. Literary writing was done in Persian and the Turkish language also. Akbar got many Sanskrit books translated into Persian.

Question 2.
State the features of sculpture of Indus Civilization. (2011)
Answer:
Very few stone statues have been found in the Indus civilization. The reason behind it could have been availability of less stones in the adjoining regions of civilization. The statues of this period have been made from baked clay, limestone, sandstone and slate.

The practice of making metal statues started during this period. A bronze statue of a dancing girl has been found in Mohenjodaro. A statue of a bronze chariot of this civilization has also been found. The two-wheeled chariot is being pulled by two bulls and a man is driving the chariot. The artists depicted their artistic skills on scales in the form of elephants, rhinoceros and Buffaloes.

The Humped bull is found on most of the seals found here. Other animals on the scales include dogs, pigs, monkeys and other birds and animals. The clay statues of women are found in large numbers in the Indus civilization. The seals of this civilization are rectangular and spherical. They are made of ‘Gomed’, ‘Chirt’ and clay. Copper seals have been found from Desalpur in Lothal. One of them is Pasupati Shiva seated on a stool surrounded by an elephant, a cheetah, a rhinoceros, a buffalo etc.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Question 3.
How did sculpture develop in the medieval period? Describe. (2008,09,12)
Answer:
There was a splendid development in the field of sculpture in south India during the medieval period, statues and sculpture were used to decorate the interiors and outer parts of the temples. Islam did not believe in idol worship. This affected medieval sculpture. The art of sculpture began during Akbar’s period. Sculpture was also encouraged during Jahangir’s reign.

In Agra Fort Amar Singh’s and Kama Singh’s statues were put up beneath the window. The Elephant gate entrance at the palace of Fatehpur Sikri is decorated with two massive elephants. The art declined during Shahjahan and Aurangzeb’s reign. On the whole, sculpture did not flourish during the medieval period which affected its development.

Question 4.
Describe the Mughal period architecture. (2008, 09, 13, 17)
Answer:
(1) Architecture during the reign of Babur: The Mughal period architecture was started in the reign of Babur. Babur was busy in the expansion of his kingdom therefore less number of buildings could be constructed in his reign. The prominent monuments were: Kabuli Bagh Masjid, Jama Masjid of Ruhelkhand and Masjid in the Lodhi Fort of Agra.

(2) Architecture during Humayun’s reign: There were political disturbances in the reign of Humayun. Thus he got a palace constructed named Dinpanah and also built a mosque at Agra and Firozabad.

(3) Architecture during Akbar’s reign: The actual and splendid development of
architecture started from Akbar’s reign. There was an intermingling of Persian style with Hindu and Buddhist architectural styles. Fatehpur Sikri’s Diwan-e-Aam, Diwan-e-Khas, Agra Fort, Palace of Jodhabai, Panch Mahal, Jama Masjid and Buland Darwaza are specimens of Akbar’s period architecture.

(4) Architecture during Jahangir’s reign: Jahangir was keen interested in paintings as compared to architecture. He got Akbar’s and Itmad-ud-daula’s mausoleum built.

(5) Architecture during Shahjahan’s reign: Shahjahan’s period is known as the golden age of Mughal architecture. He mostly used white marble in building construction. The famous buildings of Shahjahan’s period are the Red Fort Delhi the Diwan-i-Khas, the Jama Masjid and the Taj Mahal at Agra. After Shahjahan, the architecture declined during Aurangzeb’s reign.

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
When did the first urbanization take place?
(i) New stone age
(ii) Indus civilization
(iii) Mauryan period
(iv) Gupta period
Answer:
(ii) Indus civilization

Question 2.
Where has the bronze statue of a chariot been found?
(i) Daimabad
(ii) Mohenjodaro
(iii) Kalibanga
(iv) Punjab
Answer:
(ii) Mohenjodaro

Question 3.
Who was the originator of the Quwali?
(i) Akbar
(ii) Shahjahan
(iii) Tansen
(iv) Amir Khusro
Answer:
(iv) Amir Khusro

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Question 4.
Which dynasty started coins with the Veena emblem?
(i) Maurya dynasty
(ii) Gupta dynasty
(iii) Vardhana dynasty
(iv) Rajput dynasty
Answer:
(ii) Gupta dynasty

Question 5.
The first Mughal period painting collection in Mughal style painting is:
(i) ‘Akbamama’
(ii) ‘Hamzanama’
(iii) ‘Babumama’
(iv) ‘Humayunama’
Answer:
(ii) ‘Hamzanama’

Question 6.
Which Mughal ruler considered painting to be against Islam and banned it?
(i) Humayun
(ii) Aurangzeb
(iii) Babur
(iv) Jahangir
Answer:
(ii) Aurangzeb

Question 7.
Author of Raj tarangini: (2008, 09)
(i) Kautilya
(ii) Panini
(iii) Kalhan
(iv) Harsha
Answer:
(iii) Kalhan

Fill in the Blanks

Question 1.
Near Bhopal ………… caves are found. (2012)
Answer:
Bhimbetka

Question 2.
India’s two great ………… are the Ramayan and the Mahabharat. (2013)
Answer:
Epics

Question 3.
The Nalanda University was established during ………… period.
Answer:
Gupta period

Question 4.
In the Gupta period, Aryabhatiyam was written by ………… (2009)
Answer:
Aryabhatta

Question 5.
Mughal paintings were started during the rule of …………
Answer:
Humayun.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Match the Columns

A B
1. Humayunama (a) Mudrarakshsa
2. Chandell rulers (2016) (b) Gulbadan
3. vishakhadutta (2009) (c) Temple of Khajuraho
4. Kalhan (2015) (d) Vishnu Sharma
5. Panchtantra (e) Rajtarangini

Answers:
1. (b)
2. (c)
3. (a)
4. (e)
5. (d)

True/False

Question 1.
Vedic period literature is very rich from the creativity point of view.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Indus Valley civilization has a knowledge of script.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
The famous writer Kamban wrote
Answer:
True

Question 4.
The originator of Quwali was Amir Khusro. (2010)
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Initially Urdu was known as Zaban-e-Hindavi. (2011)
Answer:
True

Question 6.
The Nalanda University was established during the Mauryan period. (2009)
Answer:
False

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Answer in One Word/Sentence

Question 1.
How many alphabets are there in the longest inscription of the Indus civilization?
Answer:
17 alphabets.

Question 2.
To which literature are Deepavansa, Mahavansa and Divyadan related?
Answer:
The Buddhist literature.

Question 3.
What is the subject of Shrotasutra? (2016)
Answer:
Yagya.

Question 4.
In which period were the Ellora temples constructed? (2017)
Answer:
Gupta period.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Unit 9 Major Cultural Trends

Question 5.
Mathas for Buddhist Monks. (2008)
Answer:
Viharas.

Question 6.
Who built the Taj Mahal? (2008, 09)
Answer:
Shahjahan.

Question 7.
Mauryan temples of collective worship. (2008)
Answer:
Chaityas.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

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