MP Board Class 11th Special English Grammar Modals

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MP Board Class 11th Special English Grammar Modals

Modals एक प्रकार की auxiliary verbs हैं जो Main Verbs के साथ मिलकर कार्य करने के mode को व्यक्त करती हैं। उनकी सहायता से ability, capacity, permission, possibility, duties जैसे विचारों को व्यक्त किया जाता है। निम्न Auxiliary verbs modals कहे जाते हैं, will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might, must, need, dare, used to, ought to.

Features of Modals :
(a) Modals सहायक क्रियाएँ कभी अकेली नहीं आतीं। इनका प्रयोग सदा : main verb के साथ किया जाता है;

जैसे-
” You must do this work.
I’ can solve this sum.

(b) Subject के number, gender और person का modals पर कोई प्रभाव नहीं होता; जैसे
I can go there.
We can go there.
You can go there.
They can go there.
He can go there.
She can go there.

(c) Modals के साथ verb की Ist form का प्रयोग होता है, परन्तु ought और used के साथ ‘to’ infinitive का प्रयोग होता है;

जैसे-
He will leave for Mumbai today.
You should work hard.
I can help you.
We ought to serve our country.
He used to help me in the past.

(d) Modals के साथ ‘be’ लगने पर उसके बाद verb की Ist form और ing का प्रयोग करते हैं; जैसे-
Sudha will be writing a letter.
I shall be travelling in a train tomorrow.
Poonam will be dancing.

(e) Modals के बाद ‘have’ लगने पर उसके बाद verb की IIIrd form का प्रयोग करते हैं;
जैसे-
He must have done this work.
He should have passed the test.
He may have gone to Delhi.

Uses of Modals :
Modals Auxiliary के प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हैं

1. Shall
(i) Shall का प्रयोग Ist person (I, We) के साथ साधारण future tense – को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है;
जैसे-
I shall know my result tomorrow.
We shall leave for Mumbai in the evening.

(ii) आदेश (command) के लिए 2nd person (You) और 3rd person (He, She, They, It) के साथ होता है;

जैसे-
You shall do as I say.
You shall not disobey your parents.

(iii) वचन (promise) को व्यक्त करने के लिए 2nd और 3rd person के साथ;
जैसे-
You shall get a prize.
The school shall remain closed tomorrow on account of Holi.

(iv) बाध्यता या अनिवार्यता (compulsion or necessity) को व्यक्त करने के लिए 2nd और 3rd Person के बाद;

जैसे-
You shall not enter the kitchen with dirty feet.
You shall not make a noise.

(v) संकल्प (determination) अथवा निश्चय (certainty) को व्यक्त करने के लिए 2nd और 3rd Person के बाद;
जैसे-
He shall take revenge on his enemy.
He shall get good marks, I am sure.

(vi) प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों (interrogative sentences) में shall का प्रयोग We के साथ किसी दूसरे के लिए अपनी सेवा प्रस्तुत करने के लिए प्रार्थना करने के लिए किया जाता है।

जैसे-
Shall I bring a glass of water?
Shall I carry your heavy bag?
Shall we go to see a film today?

2. Will
(i) Will का प्रयोग 2nd और 3rd Person (You, He, She, They, It आदि) के साथ simple future tense को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है;
जैसे-
He will come here at Diwali.
They will never learn good manners.
They will learn dancing from Birju Maharaj.

(ii) प्रार्थना या निमंत्रण के लिए;
जैसे-
Will you open the door, please?
Will you have a cup of tea?

(iii) Or या Otherwise वाले वाक्यों में चेतावनी देने के लिए;

जैसे-
Work hard or you will fail.
Run fast otherwise you will miss the train.

(iv) Ist person (I/We) के साथ निश्चय (certainty) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
I will write a letter to her in the evening.
We will visit the theatre next week.

(v) I/We के साथ संकल्प (determination) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;

जैसे-
I will succeed in this matter.
I will never speak to him.

(vi) इच्छा (willingness) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
I will come with you if you want.
I will help you in this matter.

(vii) शर्त वाले (conditional) वाक्य के लिए;
जैसे-
If you work hard, you will pass.
If you don’t run, you will miss the train.

3. Should
(i) Indirect Speech में shall के past tense के रूप में;

जैसे-
I told him that I should help him.
He said that they should go there.

(ii) कर्तव्य (duty) की भावना प्रकट करने के लिए;

जैसे-
We should obey our parents.
We should help the poor.

(iii) सलाह तथा सुझाव (advice or suggestion) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;

जैसे-
You should work hard.
You should take exercises.

(iv) Lest के पश्चात् उद्देश्य (purpose) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;

जैसे-
Work hard lest you should fail.
Walk slowly lest you should fail.

(v) नैतिक उत्तरदायित्व (moral obligation) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
You should not drink wine.
You should help your sister.

(vi) कल्पना (supposition), संभावना (possibility), तथा शर्त (condition) की भावना को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
Should you see my brother teli him to send me a good book.
I think you should win the championship.

(vii) अनुमान (assumption) की भावना को दर्शाने के लिए;

जैसे-
She should be here by now. They should have reached Delhi.

4. Would
(i) Indirect speech में will के past के रूप में;

जैसे
He told me that he would go to Mumbai.
Mohan said that he would not do that work.

(ii) Past के किसी कार्य को करने की आदत को व्यक्त करने के
Gandhiji would spin for hours.
He would often study till late in the night.

(iii) विनम्र प्रार्थना (polite request) के लिए;
जैसे-
Would you open the door, please?
Would you lend me your bicycle for an hour?

(iv) किसी की इच्छा को जानने के लिए;
जैसे-
Would you have a cup of tea?
Would you like to come with me?

(v) इच्छा (wish) व्यक्त करने के लिए;

जैसे-
Would that I were a king!
Would that my son were a hard worker!

(vi) असंभावित परिस्थिति (improbable condition) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;

जैसे-
If a thief came here, he would find only books.
If I got a lottery, I would be very happy.

(vii) दृढ-निश्चय (determination) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
He would have his own way.
I would buy that car at any cost.

(viii) अधिमान (preference) को बताने के लिए;

जैसे-
I would like to have coffee.
I would rather starve than beg.

5. Can
(i) योग्यता (ability) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
I can solve this problem.
He can swim across the river.

(ii) अनुमति (permission) देने के लिए;
जैसे-
You can see a film if you like.
You can go home if you have done your work.

(iii) अनुमति माँगने के लिए; जैसे
Can I use your dictionary?
Can I go home?

(iv) संभावना (possibility) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;

जैसे-
Any team can win this match.
He can reach here any time.

मत करने के लिए. जैसे (0) क्षमता या शक्ति (capacity or power) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
I can lift this heavy table.
The Headmaster can remit your fine.

6. Could
(i) Indirect speech में can के past के रूप में;

जैसे-
Mohan said that he could solve the sum.
He asked me if I could help him.

(ii) Past की अनुमति (permission) को दर्शाने के लिए;

जैसे-
Father said that I could the film.
She asked me if she could meet me.

(iii) Past की संभावना (possibility) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
If he had money, he could buy a scooter.
I wondered whether the news could be true

(iv) भूतकाल में क्षमता (capacity) या योग्यता (ability) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
I could swim when I was young.
She could solve the sum when she was only five-year-old.

(v) विनम्र प्रार्थना करने के लिए please वाले प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों में-
(i) Could I talk to the Headmaster, please?
(ii) Could I change my seat, please?

7. May
(i) औपचारिक अनुमति (formal permission) लेने या देने के लिए;

जैसे-
May I come in, sir? Yes, you may.
May I use your book? Yes, you may take it.

(ii) इच्छा (wich), प्रार्थना (prayer) या आशीर्वाद (blessing) को व्यक्त करने के लिए ;
जैसे-
May you live long !
May I be able to cross the river !
May God bless her with a son !

(iii) संभावना (possibility) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
There are clouds in the sky. It may rain.
Mohan may reach here any time.

(iv) उद्देश्य (purpose) को बताने के लिए यदि so that से पहले verb की Ist Form लंगी हो तो;

जैसे-
We eat so that we may live.
I go to school so that I may become a great man.

(v) Past possibility (अतीत की संभावना) को व्यक्त करने के लिए may have का प्रयोग होता है;

जैसे-
He may have reached Kanpur.
You may have heard about Akbar.

8. Might – यह may का past रूप है। इसका प्रयोग निम्नलिखित अवस्थाओं में किया जाता है :
(i) भूतकाल में अनुमति लेने या देने के लिए;
जैसे-
I asked him if I might use his book.
My father told me that I might see a picture.

(ii) भूतकाल (past) में संभावना (possibility) को व्यक्त करने के लिए ;

जैसे-
The doctor said that the patient might recover.
He might have done the mischief.

(iii) भूतकाल की इच्छा (wish) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
I wished that I might pass the examination.
Mohan wished that his sister might win the race.

(iv) भविष्यतकाल में किसी क्षीण संभावना (remote possibility) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;

जैसे-
I might go to the market, but I am not sure.
He might come, if he gets time.
The prices might fall down a little.

(v) सुझाव (suggestion) देने के लिए; जैसे-
You might consult a doctor.
You might seek legal opinion.

(vi) उद्देश्य को बताने के लिए यदि so that से पहले verb की 2nd Form लगी हो तो; जैसे He died so that his country might survive. He worked hard so that he might get good marks.

9. Must
(i) तीव्र आवश्यकता (dire necessity) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
You must take an umbrella as it is raining.
We must run if we want to catch the train.

(i) तीव्र आवश्यकता
(ii) अनिवार्यता (compulsion) या बंधन (obligation) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
A servant must obey his master.
We must obey the laws of the country.

(iii) दृढ़-संकल्प (determination) को व्यक्त करने के लिलिए;
I must finish this work by evening.
We must attack the enemy before day break.

(iv) कर्तव्य (duty) को व्यक्त करने के लिए; जैसे-
You must obey your parents.
We must serve our country.

(i) मनाही (prohibition) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;

जैसे-
You must not swim in that river.
You must not disobey your elders.

(vi) उत्तरदायित्व (obligation) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
We must serve our country.
We must pay the taxes.

(vii) संभावना (possibility) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
He must have reached Delhi.
She must have gone to bed by now.

10. Ought
Ought का प्रयोग should के स्थान पर किया जा सकता है, मगर इसके साथ to का प्रयोग आवश्यक है। इसके प्रयोग निम्नलिखित है;
(i) नैतिक एवं सामाजिक कर्तव्य (moral and social duty) के लिए;
जैसे-
We ought to obey our teachers.
You ought to help the poor and the needy.
We ought to take pity on the beggars.

(ii) Advice (सलाह) या Suggestion (सुझाव) को व्यक्त करने के लिए;
जैसे-
You ought to work hard for the examination.
You ought to consult the doctor.

Ought to + have + verb की IIIrd form के द्वारा यह व्यक्त किया जाता है कि कार्य होना चाहिए था, मगर हुआ नहीं;
जैसे-
You ought to have met the principal. (but you did not).
You ought to have informed the police.

11. Need
Need एक नियमित क्रिया भी है और एक modal भी। Modal के रूप में इसका प्रयोग केवल नकारात्मक (Negative) तथा प्रश्नवाचक (Interrogative) वाक्या में निम्नलिखित रूप में होता है :
(i) आवश्यकता का न होना;

जैसे-
You needn’t take an umbrella as it has stopped raining.
We need not go to England to learn English.

(ii) आवश्यकता के बारे में कोई प्रश्न पूछना; जैसे
Need you go home so soon?
Need you speak so fast?
Need she run for catching the bus?

12. Dare Need
की तरह dare का प्रयोग भी नियमित क्रिया एवं Modal दोनों प्रकार से होता है। Modal के रूप में इसका प्रयोग केवल नकारात्मक (Negative) और प्रश्नवाचक (Interrogative) वाक्यों में निम्नलिखित रूप में होता है :

(i) साहस का न होना; जैसे
I dare not enter the Headmaster’s office.
The child dare not go into a dark room at night.

(ii) साहस के बारे में प्रश्न करना; जैसे
Dare you catch a lion by its tail?
How dare you insult me?

13. Used to
Used to का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित अवस्थाओं में किया जाता है:
(i) भूतकाल की किसी आदत (past habitual action) को दर्शाने के लिए;

जैसे-
In the past people used to believe that the earth was flat.
Before marriage, he used to drink a lot.

(ii) भूतकाल में किसी वस्तु के अस्तित्व के लिए;
जैसे-
There used to be a big building at the corner. A fair used to be held in this ground every year.

EXERCISE 1
Fill in the blanks with ‘shall’ or ‘will’ :
1. We ……………… know the result tomorrow.
2. He ……………… go to Mumbai next month.
3. ……………… you help me in this matter.
4. …………….. you have a cup of tea?
5. You ……………… not enter the kitchen with muddy shoes.
6. You ……………… get all help from me, this is my promise.
7. If you desire, I ……………… come with you.
8. ………………. you do me a favour?
9. ……………… I ring him up?
10. It is my determination that I ……………. go to England for higher studies.
Ans.
1. shall
2. will
3. Will
4. Will
5. shall
6. shall
7. will
8. Will
9. Shall
10. will.

EXERCISE 2
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with ‘can’ or ‘could’:
1. He …………. come here any time without ringing the bell.
2. I wish I …………….. drive a scooter.
3. Her daughter ……………… cook well.
4. Everybody ……………… make mistakes.
5. Although the water was cold, I ……………. cross the river.
6. Although she is only five years old, she …………….. solve this sum.
7. We ……….. always visit his house any time (we had permission).
8. I ……………… climb the trees when I was a boy.
9. …………….. you lift this heavy box?
10. He ……………. come any moment.
Answer:
1. can
2. could
3. can
4. can
5. could
6. can
7. could
8. could
9. can
10. can.

EXERCISE 3
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with ‘May’, ‘Might, ‘Musť and ‘Need’ :
1. …………….. I take your book?
2. You ……………… take my book if you need.
3. I think it …………….. rain today.
4. We …………….. pay our taxes.
5. …………….. she live long !
6. A son ……………… obey his father.
7. Mohan wished that he …………….. get a lottery.
8. I ……………… visit Lucknow, but I am not much sure.
9. You ……………… work hard if you want to succeed in life.
10. You …… ………. not swim in the river as there are crocodiles in it.
11. You …………….. do this work. This is an order. 12. One ……………… respect the national flag.
13. You …………….. take the raincoat, it has stopped raining.
14. You …………….. go to Delhi to learn music, I can teach you here.
15. ……………. you take so much luggage with you?
Answer:
1. may
2. may
3. may
4. must
5. may
6. must
7. might
8. might
9. must
10. must
11. must
12. must
13. needn’t
14. needn’t
15. Need.

EXERCISE 4
Fill in the blanks with ‘Would’ or ‘Should :
1. Work hard lest you ……………… fail.
2. …………… you like to have a cup of tea?
3. …………. you mind helping me?
4. They …………… arrive here any time.
5. Mohan ………….. keep sitting near the railway line for hours.
6. I ………. like to get a good post.
7. He told me that Mohan ……………… meet me after two days.
8. I told him that I…………….. do that work.
9. We ……………… respect the elders.
10. The examinations are drawing near. You ……………. work hard.
Answer:
1. should
2.Would
3. Would
4. should
5. would
6. would
7. would
8. should
9. should
10. should.

.EXERCISE 5
Fill in the blanks with modals appropriate to the meaning given in the brackets :
1. You ……………… do as you are told. (obligation)
2. He …………… rather go to the cinema than to sit here. (preference)
3. He …………….. attend the dinner. (Future)
4. I ……………… meet him tomorrow. (future)
5. He ……………. help the poor. (past habit)
6. You …………….. write an essay. (advice)
7. If he were here, he …………… help you. (possibility)
8. ……………… you please tell me the way? (polite request)
9. You …………… bring an umbrella. It has stopped raining, (absence of necessity)
10. The train …………. be late because of heavy rains. (possibility)
Answer:
1. must
2. would
3. will
4. shall
5. used to
6. should
7. might
8. Will
9. needn’t
10. may.

EXERCISE 6
Fill in the blanks with modals appropriate to the meaning given in the brackets :
1. He didn’t come yesterday, he ……………… come today. (remote possibility)
2. You ………….. help your younger brother ing an in me thelp you. (advice)
3. I ………….. lend you some money if you so desire. (willingness)
4. Work hard lest you …………….. fail. (expression of fear)
5. I ……………… like to ask you something (wish)
6. You ……………. hurry, there is plenty of time. (absence of necessity)
7. I …………….. not come yesterday since I was busy. (past inability).
8. You ………….. touch those books. (prohibition)
9. You ………………. see a doctor at once.. (emphatic advice)
leave the papers here and go. (permission)
Answer:
1. might
2. should
3. will
4. should
5. would
6. needn’t
7. could
8. shall
9. must
10. may.

EXERCISE 7
Fill in the blanks with modals appropriate to the meaning indicated in brackets :
1. You …………….. not disobey your father.(moral obligation)
2. I am afraid ………….. not succeed even this year.(probability).
3. He ………. tell his father the whole truth. (absence of courage).
4. You …………….. see a doctor at once. (advice)
5. Sometimes he ……………. get very angry with his children. (a frequent happening in the past)
6. I …………….. like to ask you something. : (would)
7. I ……………… rather fail in the examination than use unfair. (preference)
8. The Headmaster ………….. be in his room. The fan is on. (certainty)
9. You ………. drive fast: there is a speed limit here.(prohibition)
10. You ……………… have the money tomorrow. (promise)
Answer:
1. should
2. may
3. daren’t
4. should
5. used to
6. would
7. would
8. must
9. mustn’t
10. shall.

EXERCISE 8 Fill in the blanks with modals appropriate to the meaning in brackets:
1. I …………….. help you at all costs. (determination)
2. …… meet you at the bus stand. (future)
3. You …………….. help the needy. (duty)
4. You ……………… come to my ……. come to my office. Just ring me up. (absence of necessity)
5. He ………… face the officer again. (absence of courage) …….. coor die than besan’t.
6. You …………….. have the money tomorrow. (promise)
7. I ………….. speak English well. (present ability)
8. I …………….. work hard when I was young. (past ability)
9. He …………….. come tomorrow. (slight possibility)
10. I …………… rather die than beg. (preference)
Answer:
1. will
2. shall
3. should
4. needn’t
5. daren’t
6. shall
7. can
8. could
9. might
10. would.

EXERCISE 9
Fill in the blanks with modals appropriate to the meaning in brackets:
1. You ……………… go home now. (permission)
2. You ……….. …… finish your work before going home. (compulsion)
3. I …………… not let myself become a slave to machines. (determination)
4. You ……………. run: the train is late.(absence of necessity)
5. Mohan went to Agra last week. He ……………. come today. (probability)
6. I am afraid he …………… fail even this time. (probability)
7. …………….. you lift this baggage? (present ability)
8. We do not know whether the primitive men ………. plough the fields. (past ability)
9. He ……………… tell his father the truth.(absence of courage)
10. …………….. you mind moving a little? (polite request)
Answer:
1. may.
2. must
3. will
4. needn’t
5. might
6. may
7. can
8. could
9. daren’t
10. Would.

EXERCISE 10
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with ‘dare’, ‘ought to’, ‘used to’:
1. How ……………… you say such a thing?
2. You …………… work hard for the examination.
3. We ……………… serve our nation.
4. I ……………. enter his room in his absence.
5. ……………. you go into that house at night?
6. I …………… to go for a walk daily; now I rarely go.
7. A great man …………….. to live in this house in the past.
8. You ……………. to take regular exercise.
9. I …………….. to go to the college on foot. Now I go on a scooter.
10. You ……………… to have consulted a doctor.
Answer:
1. dare
2. ought to
3. ought to
4. daren’t
5. Dare
6. used
7. used
8. ought
9. used
10. ought.

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