MP Board Class 11th General English Essay Writing

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MP Board Class 11th General English Essay Writing

किसी निश्चित topic पर prose में लिखे हुए एक short piece को essay या निबंध कहते हैं। आपको अपनी परीक्षा के लिए किसी विषय पर 250 शब्दों में essay लिखने के लिए कहा जाएगा।

Essay का कोई एक निश्चित structure नहीं होता और न ही इस बात का कोई बंधन होता है कि उसे किस बात से प्रारम्भ किया जाए और किस बात पर उसका अन्त हो। निबंध लेखक दिये गये विषय पर अपने विचारों, तर्कों, निष्कर्षों और भावनाओं को अपनी इच्छा तथा योजनाओं को प्रस्तुत करने के लिए स्वतन्त्र होता है। यह बिल्कुल आवश्यक नहीं है कि topic के बारे में सभी सूचनाओं, तर्कों, या दृष्टिकोणों को उनकी सम्पूर्णता में दिया जाये। बल्कि आवश्यक यह होता है कि जो भी points of thought या विचार बिन्दु निबंध के में दिये जाएँ वे पढ़ने वाले को प्रभावित कर सकें। विश्वसनीय तथा logical लगें और लेखक के दृष्टिकोण को स्पष्टता के साथ प्रतिबिम्बित करते हों।

Essay में paragraphs का निर्धारण भी अपनी योजनानुसार किया जा सकता है। हाँ essay की विषय वस्तु (content) को प्रारम्भिक वाक्यों में introduce करना होता है और उसके बाद विषय का विस्तार करना होता है जिसमें सूचनाओं, तर्कों और भावनाओं को एक systematic ढंग से प्रस्तुत करना होता है। अन्त में किसी विचार. निष्कर्ष, प्रश्न. सम्भावना, भविष्यवाणी या रोचक कथन के साथ essay का conclusion (समापन) कर दिया जाता है। यह आवश्यक नहीं कि introduction, main body व conclusion के लिए अलग-अलग paragraphs ही लिखें जाएँ। निर्धारित शब्द सख्या की सीमा में रहते हए essay को एक, दो, तीन, या चार-जितने भी उचित लगें-paragraphs में लिखा जा सकता है। हाँ, 250 शब्दों का निबंध structure में सन्तुलित दिखे, उसके paragraphs भी आकार में सन्तुलित लगें और उनमें points को उचित क्रम से संयोजित किया जाए। Essay की एक विशेषता यह भी होती है उसमें सभी सर्वमान्य विचारों, धारणाओं या points को सम्मिलित करना आवश्यक नहीं होता है। लेखक के अपने निजी तों, धारणाओं और निष्कर्षों को स्वतन्त्र रूप से essay में स्थान मिलता है। शर्त केवल यह है कि वे readable, तर्कसंगत, प्रभावी और रोचक हों।

निबंध के स्वरूप और उसके लेखन कौशल को ठीक से समझने के लिए इन essays को ध्यान से देखिए जो वर्तमान समय के लिए प्रासंगिक (relevant) topics पर लिखे गए हैं।

1. Festival Of Lights Or
Diwali [2008]
Or
An Indian Festival [2012, 14]

(1) Introduction-Diwali is called Festival of Lights. Really on Diwali, people light their houses by several lamps, bulbs, mercury tubes etc. Light is a very important thing in our lives. Light is the symbol of knowledge and learning also. Light makes us free from fears of darkness.

(2) The Main Festival-This festival is observed on Kartik Amavasya Day. The Amavasya (total darkness) is made ‘Poornima’ (full moon day) by lighting the houses, shops and buildings with intense bright light. People welcome Goddess Laxmi whole-heartedly. People of all ages wait for this day very eagerly. They wear new dresses. They decorate their houses. Children explode crackers. Sweet music is played. People offer sweets and presents to the goddess.

(3) Preparations-Preparations for this festival start before many days. People white wash their houses. Shops are cleaned, painted and decorated. The market looks very beautiful. People buy several things for this day. They think that Deepawali brings joy and prosperity for them, so they prepare to welcome her.

(4) The Festival-It is believed that Lord Ram returned to Ayodhya on this day. People welcomed him by decorating the whole city and lighting their houses. It has become a national festival, though originally it is a Hindu Festival. People of all communities, caste and creed observe this festival. It is observed mainly for three days-Dhan Teras (Worshipping of Money), Roop-Choudas or Narak Chaturdashi and the Amavasya (Diwali day).

(5) New Year-Diwali marks the end of the year. A new year starts from the next day. So people greet each other and wish a happy new year. Some merchants change accounts on-this day. People distribute sweets. Diwali Greeting Cards are sent. We see freshness and new spirit everywhere.

(6) Conclusion-Some bad customs are also attached with this festival. Some people gamble and drink wine. Due to carelessness at the time of letting off fireworks some people get burnt. There is a danger of life and property too. However, Diwali is a very nice festival.

2. MY HOBBY [2008, 10, 14, 15]

(1) Introduction-Hobby means a work that we do when we have no other work to do. When we are not busy, we find it difficult to pass time. An idle mind is the devil’s workshop. Bad thoughts enter our mind and sometimes we catch bad habits such as smoking, chewing tobacco or gambling.

(2) Hobby-The work that interests us, gives us joy and fills us with new power, we call it hobby. We can do planting, care for them, water them and see them. This will fill our hearts with joy and our time will pass happily. We won’t catch a bad habit. We may also collect some stamps and arrange them in a register. Our guests may enjoy when we show it to them. We may also take a camera. With its help we may take photograph of birds, trees, mountains, natural scenery or even men in their different moods. A big list can be drawn. Playing on musical instruments, carpentry, helping the sick, serving food to the poor etc. All can be called a hobby.

(3) My Hobby-My Hobby is toy-making. Since my boyhood I have been very interested in toys. I have seen several puppet shows. A child becomes very happy when he gets a toy. I have made many dolls, toys of birds and other animals. Not even children but elders have praised toys prepared by me. They say the toys look like living things. 1 have made toys showing different moods. My toys have been shown at exhibitions in my school. My friends, teachers and our principal admired these toys. I have also become successful in making some mechanical toys.

(4) Advantages of My Hobby-My hobby does not affect my studies. On Sundays I do not do any work. This is free time. I pass my Sundays mostly in making toys. In my vacations also 1 make toys. It gives great pleasure. When I present my toys to children they become happy. When some guests come to my house I show them my toys. They praise me, sometimes I get some rewards also. I have been greatly benefitted by my hobby.

(5) Conclusion-No good work, however small it may be, ever goes useless. A small seed sown gives us flowers, fruits, shade and wood. So small good works give you several gifts. A good hobby helps us in our later life when we have no work to keep us busy. Hence, I appeal to all my colleagues to adopt a hobby if they have not any.

3. Science In The Service Of Humanity (2009)
Or
Science In Our Daily Life F
Or (2008, 11,/12, 13)
Science In Human Life (2009)
Or
Science-Uses And Abuses (2009, 16)
(Advantages And Disadvantages)
Or
Science And Human (2010)
Or
Wonders Or Science

Science in the key which unlocks the storehouse of nature.

– V. Samuel

(1) Introduction-Science has revolutionised our life. It has considerably changed the world by its wonderful discoveries and inventions. No aspect of our life remains untouched by science, whether at home, school, market or office. In every walk of life it has become essential. Science has changed our thorny life into a bed of roses.

(2) Scientific Inventions-It is difficult to count the blessings of science. They are numerous. T.V., Video, CD, DVD, fan, light of mercuries, CFL, cooking gas, washing machines etc. have made our life easy, comfortable and enjoying.

(3) Means of Communication-In the field of transport and communication science has rendered great services. Aeroplanes, and helicopters are quickest means of transport. Mobile phone and Internet have been as great asset. Even the poorest and humblest can afford them and remain in touch with his friends and relatives, all over the world. The computers, Laptop and Internet have revolutionised our lives. With a high speed and lowest cost they can transfer information to any part of the world.

(4) Large Machines-With large and heavy machines we can quickly build roads, bridges, houses and big buildings. Manufacturing process also becomes faster and convenient with big machines. Also, the number and quality of goods manufactured is greatly improved.

(5) Medicines and Surgery-Science has given us life saving drugs. Today doctors are able to perform complicated operations and can save the life of serious patients. It has lengthened our life and made it healthier.

(6) Atomic Energy-With the discovery of atomic energy science has harnessed an inexhaustible source of energy. It can meet the demands of energy for a long time.

(7) Controlling and using Nature-Science has controlled natural distasters. It has sent satellites and space travellers in the sky. Man has reached the moon and is preparing to reach other planets. He has also become successful in the discovery of God Particle. ,

(8) Disadvantages of Science-It is said the science is a good servant but bad master. It has made man a slave of machines. It has made him lazy and crazy. It has also spread unemployment. With the use of destructive weapons, has created great threat to humanity. An atom bomb can destroy big cities into dust. Harmful chemical weapons too are a great threat to the ‘peaceful life.

(9) Conclusion-To list all the blessings and curses of science is very difficult. In short we can say that science in like a Jinn who can bring many gifts to man, but if uncontrolled it has the power to destroy humanity.

4. India In The Twenty-First Century [2014]

(1) The Glorious Past-Ancient India was better known as golden bird, a world leader in almost every field. But the plunderers and invaders in the medieval period and then the British robbed India of all its glory and prosperity. However, after becoming independent in 1947 India has taken impressive strides in practically every important direction.

(2) Present Scenario-Today, we have emerged as a widely respected and dependable member of the world community. We do not carry a begging bowl any more, rather we help the needy and impoverished nations. Our bright young men and women have successfully proved their superior intellectual powers in foreign countries. They are making laudable contribution to the prosperity of the countries where they work and are also strengthening India’s own economy. As doctors, engineers, IT professionals, industrialists and entrepreneurs, Indians are earning worldwide reputation and wealth.

(3) The Way Ahead-In the twenty-first century, India is all set to assume world leadership in several ways. It is a recognised nuclear power, an acknowledged ‘Yoga Guru’, a globally favoured destination for medical tourism, a popular entertainment resort and a unique nursery of spiritualism. As a social and political system also we have emerged as a force to reckon with, although we must immediately put a stop to corruption and the disintegration of the country on the basis of religion, caste and regionalism.

(4) Conclusion-In view of all these Indian achievements and steady and unmistakable steps of progress it can be unarguably predicted that the twenty-first century shall certainly be India’s century in the true sense.

5. Population Problem [2008]
Or
Any Burning Problem Of India [2010, 15]

(1) Introduction-Looking at the population figures, we come to the conclusion that the population in India has been rapidly increasing. Though this is not a problem of India alone but of the world, it is certain that backward countries like India suffer most from it. In about 10 years the population increases by about five crores. At present it is above 100 crores.

(2) Low Standard of Living-As science is making progress, the death rate is falling due to better medical facilities, while the birth rate is increasing. There is acute shortage of food because of this tremendous increase in population. We have limited resources and national wealth. Due to a large number of people, the income of an individual is very less. People cannot afford enough food, water and other necessities of life. Acute poverty and starvation is the result.

(3) Unemployment-Increasing population is also resulting in unemployment problem. It is becoming very difficult to provide jobs to so many people. This brings frustration among the youth. Unemployment brings unrest and a threat to law, order and peace in the country. The economy of the country may burst out at any time in the country.

(4) The Family Planning-The only solution to this problem is family planning. We will have to check the birth rate. A small family is the need of the hour. We can provide all necessities of our children when their number is limited. Children are the future of the country. If they are healthy and prosperous only then our country can make progress. Hence every adult person should pay attention to it. Our government is fully aware of it and is trying to educate the people about it. So many useful devices have been provided to check the number of births of children.

(5) Marriage at Proper Age-One of the reasons of growing population is early marriage also. People marry their children at a very early age. This results in early pregnancy and birth of children. Now the government has made it compulsory that a girl under 19 and a boy under 21 cannot be married.

(6) Conclusion-People are becoming aware of the problem and we hope that soon we shall bring it under control.

6. A Match I Witnessed (2008)
Or
Any Cricket Match (2009)
Or
Any Interesting Match (2012)

(1) Introduction-Cricket has become a very popular game. Test Matches are played for five days. They are played in two innings. A team may play for as many overs (1 over = 6 balls) till all players are out. Due to length of time, people get bored. Sp now one-day matches of limited overs have become very popular.

(2) One-Day Matches-These matches are played in a day. For the half period one team bats, the other fields. The overs given are generally 50, but it may be lessened. In second half the second team bats and the first one fields. The team that makes more runs is declared victorious. Mostly due to the decision of victory, there is sensation in the match. The persons who watch these games enjoy it. Telecasting of these’matches have made them very popular.

(3) The Match I Witnessed-I witnessed a match played by two very nice cricket clubs of our town. On 25th January, the Subhash Cricket Club and Nehru Cricket Club decided to play a match of 35 overs. On loudspeakers people were informed about this match. I was also eager to witness the match, so 1 bought a ticket for the match. Two of my friends also accompanied me.

(4) The Match-The match was to start at 10 a.m. We reached the ground at 9.30 a.m. The two teams reached the ground. The Nehru Cricket Club won the toss and put Subhash Club in to bat. The match started. Mr. Ajit and Mr. Shamshuddin were the first two players. They played very well. Ajit scored 15 runs with two fours, he was caught by the captain of the other team, when he was sure to get a sixer. Mr. Shamshuddin scored very slowly but he played for a long time, he scored 23 runs and was declared L. B. W. out. The other players also played well and when 35 overs were completed they had scored 151 r&ns with 3 wickets in hand.

(5) The Second Half of the Match-After lunch break from 12 noon to 1.30 p.m. the match resumed. Nehru Club started batting. The height of almost all their players was more than that of the opposite team. The openers played very well. They scored 45 runs. Their captain was a very skilled batsman. He alone made a score of 55 runs. They had to make 152 runs. The Match was very exciting. Subhash Club was trying hard to defeat the Nehru Club. They threw the ball very fast, several times spinning. They wanted to see all the players out soon. But the players of the Nehru Club gave a tough fight. They scored 152 runs in the 33rd over and so won the match with two overs still to go and having 4 wickets in hand.

(6) Conclusion-Prizes were distributed by the Collector of our district. Mr. Amritlal Merwani of Nehru Club was declared the Man of the Match. We enjoyed the match and returned happily to our homes.

7. News Papers [2015]
Or
Importance Of Newspaper [2016]
Or
Power Of The Press Or The Media [2011]

(1) Meaning of ‘The Press’-The word ‘Press’ is collectively used for newspapers and magazines and those parts of radio and television which broadcast and telecast news, views and publicity materials. The term also includes reporters and photographers working for them. ‘Media’ is another name given to whatever is covered under the ‘Press’. These materials are conveniently classified as ‘Print Media’ covering the newspapers and magazines, and ‘Electronic Media’, which include the audio-visual mediums such as Radio and Television.

(2) Its Motive-The function of the Press or the Media is to inform the people, motivate or demotivate them and influence their opinion. It creates a collective public opinion which is the driving force behindevery democracy. Political leaders and parties are always seen working hard to catch media attention so that they can spread their influence far and wide. Elections are won and lost depending on how the Press projects the personalities, the parties and their programmes as also the important incidents involving them.

(3) Its Rol e-The media plays a vital role in spreading social awareness. Tod^y, all social, political and cultural campaigns are launched by media support. It is because of their coverage in the print and electronic media that even children understand the meaning and message behind them.

(4) The Other Side-However, all that the press promotes in the society is not always good. Glitzy presentation and fake publicity promotes unhealthy consumerism and artificial mode of living. We must, therefore, control the evil influences of the Press, otherwise it can do very serious danger to the society.

8. A Visit To A Historical Place [2008, 16]

(1) Introduction-Visiting a place is a sort of education-informal education. It teaches us more than the books do. I like visiting places specially historical places. History is one of my optional subject. Last year our history- teacher took us on a historical tour to Agra.

(2) Visit to the city of Taj-We reached Agra by the Utkal Express at about 10 a.m. We got off at Raja-ki-Mandi station and went to a nearby guest house. After breakfast we hired a tourist bus and reached the famous Taj Mahal.

(3) Historical Buildings We Visited-There was no need of the tourist guide as our history teacher had a very good knowledge of historical buildings of Agra. He told us that Shahjahan built it in the memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz. I liked the beauty of the Taj Mahal but was sorry to know that Shahjahan got the craftsmen’s hands cut off.

After visiting the Taj we visited the Red Fort. It is made of red sandstone. It is so big that we were tired. Then we came back to the guest house and took our lunch. In the evening we did some shopping.

Next day we visited Sikandara and Fatehpur Sikri. Our history teacher told us many interesting things about the Fatehpur Sikri and Salim Chisti-the if saint. We liked the Panch Mahal and the Buland Darwaza. We saw the ponds where the queens used to take bath.

(4) The conclusions-our historical tour taught us much about the history of Agra. We were taken back for a while to the Mughal period of Shahjahan and Akbar. It was very fascinating.

9. Journey By Train
Or
The Happiest Journey You Have Undertaken [2007]

(1) Introduction-I always longed for a long journey by train. A journey by bus is not so thrilling as that by train. So, my joy knew no bounds when our games teacher informed us that our hockey team will go to Jabalpur for taking part in Inter-divisional Tournament. Our players were asked to reach Indore on 4th September.

(2) Preparations-I reached home and informed my parents about my selection for the tournament. My parents blessed me. All other members of the’family too became very much pleased. I took all my necessary clothes and other articles in a bag. Mother prepared some sweets and napkin for me and my friends. We started on 3rd September and reached Indore on the same day by bus. We stayed in a lodge for the night.

(3) At Indore-It was decided that we should go by the Indore-Bilaspur express which left Indore at 2.30 p.m. We got up early in the morning and, took our morning exercises. Then we went out for shopping and visiting some places at Indore. We returned at about 12.00 noon and took our lunch. At about 1.30 p.m. we reached the Railway Station.

(4) The Scene at the Railway Station-We entered the station and saw s that there was a big rush of people there. People were going in and out of the platform. Porters were carrying luggage of the passengers. At the booking office, there was a long queue of the people. As our tickets had been booked in advance, we did not need to purchase them from the booking window.

The train was standing on the platform. The hawkers were selling various articles. Men, women and children were wandering here and there. We entered our compartment. Exactly at 2.30 the guard whistled and the train started moving slowly.

(5) The Journey-I and my friends were feeling the excitement as it was our first long journey by train. When the train moves on rails it produces a rhythmic sound and I like it very much. We feel as if we are swinging on a swing. The train passed over the bridges. We saw vast fields, factories and rows of houses. We saw different types of people. We saw farmers ploughing their fields. The train passed on the curved rails and it gave me great joy to see it running in a curve motion. When we reached Bhopal it was about 8 p.m. So, now we should have a night journey.

At Bhopal several passengers got down and new passengers entered. Our train started from Bhopal. We saw the beauty ofBhopal illuminated by electricity. Jt was moonlit night, so night journey added a new dimension of joy to our journey. 1 saw- silver houses, silver trees and silver fields. A dreamy atmosphere was created. I thanked God for giving me this opportunity to see this aspect of nature, otherwise in electric light of our towns and cities we have lost the enjoyment of the beauty of the Moon and the Stars. At about 2 a.m. our games teacher asked us to sleep for some time. Though I wanted to enjoy the whole night looking out of the window, I had to obey the discipline. So 1 went off to sleep.

(6) Conclusion-1 was awakened by the shouting of our games teacher in the morning. It was day break. We had reached Jabalpur. We got off the train and went to our lodging place. I shall never forget this beautiful journey.

10. The Menace Of Terrorism
Or
Terrorism [2009]
Or
The Problem Of Terrorism [2009]

(1) What is Terrorism?-Terrorism is a violent way of behaving, motivated by political, social or religious beliefs, hatred or ambition, for achieving or promoting a particular objective or cause. It generally aims to overthrow the established order. Terrorist acts are designed to spread fear through indiscriminate, arbitrary and unpredictable violence such as hijacking, kidnapping and mass killings.

(2) Its Spread-Terrorism has now become a global phenomenon. The LTTE has shaken Sri Lanka and killed the young, illustrious Rajiv Gandhi of India. The U.S. lost its twin World Trade Towers with hundreds of people working therein. Grenade attacks on the tube stations in Britain, violence in Afghanistan, Chechenya, North Ireland and terrorist activities in several other countries have left ineffable scars on the face of humanity in general.

(3) Position in India-India has long been an unfortunate victim of this evil perpetrated by a number of militant outfits. Khalistan in Punjab, insurgent groups like ULFA in some north-eastern states, Naxalite groups in a sizeable : part of India and Jehadi terrorism from across the border in Jammu & Kashmir have left this peace loving country bleeding. Now this poison keeps erupting . sporadically anywhere and everywhere. Hijacking of the Indian plane, Mumbai serial blasts in 1993,2006 and recently on 26th Nov. 2008, attacks on the Indian . Parliament, Akshardham temple, Sankatmochan temple, and Ramjanmbhumi temple are all manifestations of this dreadul menace. Because of certain political constraints and weaknesses in the system, India has unfortunately not c succeeded in stopping the spread of terrorism. But, soon we must establish peace in the country.

11. My Ambition (In Life) [2008, 12, 16]

(1) Introduction-Ambition means a strong wish to become something in future. When a student starts learning, his parents and he himself wishes to have an aim in life. Aimless work wastes energy. When the aim is fixed a student follows a particular kind of study using his utmost attention and energy to become perfect in that work.

(2) Several Targets-Some students want to become engineer, some .’ doctor, some technicians, someone wants to become a teacher. A student who wants to become a doctor studies Biology. To become an engineer one has to opt for mathematics in place of Biology. The lawyer has to study – history, politics and economics. Someone who wants to become a teacher has a keen interest in one of the subjects.

(3) New Jobs-The advancement of science and technology has opened ^ . the gates for several kinds of jobs. Polytechnics teach several kinds of jobs civil, mechanical, electrical etc. Computers have brought a revolution in all ‘ walks of life. They work as the brain works. They do several jobs in a fraction „ of a second.

(4) My Ambition-I feel greatly attracted towards computers. When saw small calculators doing complex calculations in seconds, I was filled with _ wonder. I also heard about several youths who have become computer scientists and computer technicians and are earning a lot of money. 1 thought , that this was the course I should adopt in future.

(5) Realities about Computers-Some think that computers are complex and difficult. Others think that computers are capable of solving any problem. Both are wrong. Nothing is difficult if we study with interest. Computers are means not end in themselves. They make difficult and strenuous problems easy.

(6) Conclusion-For studying computer science one must have good knowledge of English language and mathematics. I am very much interested in learning these subjects. My teachers always inspire me to become successful. hope that by the grace of God, blessings of my teachers and elders and by working intelligently hard, 1 shall be successful in fulfilling my ambition.

12. The Evil Of Environmental Pollution
Or
Pollution Problem [2009, 14]

(1) Introduction-The most horrifying problem that confronts humanity today is that of environmental pollution. With the advancement of science and technology coupled with man’s unbridled greed and thoughtless action, the world is increasingly becoming uninhabitable for all forms of life. Earlier, mainly big cities were polluted, but now this menace is fast spreading over small towns and villages as well.

(2) The Cause-Pollution assumes different forms, such as soil pollution, water pollution, air pollution, and noise pollution. People have been digging the earth recklessly and then filling it with toxic waste and industrial effluents that poison the earth’s heart. The upper strata of soil are polluted when, out of his greed for producing more and more crops, man blindly uses chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. These chemicals flow into pond and rivers with rain water and poison them. Besides, the dirty sewage and industrial effluents are being continuously dumped into rivers. This has polluted almost all the water bodies on earth. Today, unpolluted potable water has become a scarce commodity.

(3) Its Effects-Deforestation and large scale industrialisation have caused global air pollution. Smoke and toxic gaseous emissions from vehicles and industrial activity have caused global warming. The entire atmosphere has been polluted causing respiratory, cardiac, genetic and other physical disorders in humans. Noises created by the roar of vehicles, their horns and hooters and the deafeningly blaring loudspeakers are causing awful damage to man’s health.

(4) Remedies–If we do not check the pollution, it would become impossible for people to survive. The factories and mills must be erected outside the cities. Vehicles should be tuned to produce less smoke. Dirty things should not be allowed to mix in water. The vehicles should be compelled to produce little sound and there should be a complete ban on nuclear tests. Also, an effective way to fight this deadly menace is to return to nature and give up vicious greed.

13. Tree Plantation And Its Importance [2009]
Or
Importance Of Trees [2012]
(Forests and Human Life)

“Any interference with nature is damnable. Not only nature but also people will suffer.

– Anahario

(1) Introduction-Trees are very important for us. They give us fruits to eat and firewood to bum. We build houses and make furniture with their wood. Trees support the life of living things. They give us oxygen to breathe. They absorb the carbon dioxide which we exhale. They produce starch for our food.

(2) Other Services-Trees cause rainfall. Hot days are made cool by trees. They check the surface soil of the earth from being washed away by rains. Trees also help to prevent sudden floods.

(3) Different Kinds of Trees-There are various kinds of trees that fulfill our needs. Rubber trees supply rubber. Every part of the coconut tree can be put to some use or other. The sap of the cow tree is used in place of milk.

(4) Usefulness to Animals-The branches of trees give shelter to millions of birds. Forests give shelter to many wild animals. The leaves of the trees are food for animals. Many insects also depend on trees for their lives.

(5) Other Importance-We value trees not only for their usefulness but also for their beauty. They refresh our eyes and mind. The Rishis of the olden days lived in forests. They had their ashrams there. These were the centres of knowledge and learning. Trees help to check pollution.

(6) Urgent Need of Planting Trees-In olden days large areas of India were covered with forests. As the population grew, trees began to be cut down for man’s use. That is how a great part of forest wealth is lost. While the forests are disappearing, the demand for timber and wood is growing. We must, therefore, protect and develop our forests. We are trying to replace this loss. Our Government wants trees to be planted all over the country. ‘Van Mahotsava’ has been started for this purpose. During this week lakhs of saplings are planted throughout the country. Trees are the country’s wealth. We must consider it our sacred duty to protect them. We should plant new trees wherever we can and look after them properly.

(7) Conclusion-The Government has started a programme of ‘Samajik Vaniki’ for this purpose. Plants are freely distributed to the citizens. They also provide advice for their care and development. It is the duty of every citizen to plant at least one tree and take its full care.

14. Dowry Problem

(1) Introduction-Marriage in the Hindu religion is not merely tying of a girl and a boy for life. It is a ‘Sanskar. It is joining of so many families and relations. So many rites are performed before and after the main function. These continue for a number of days and involves a lot of expenditure by both the sides.

(2) The Barat Entertainment-The bride’s family bears the heaviest burden. It has not only to care for the guests and relatives of its side, it has to pay special attention to the ‘Baraties’. These people behave themselves as V.V.l. Ps and the bride side has to bear all their coquetries. Up to some extent it is good to entertain the guests. But sometimes it goes too far and ends in bitterness and strains in the relations.

(3) Kanyadan-The marriage of a daughter is considered as ‘Kanyadan’ and a ‘Dan’ without ‘Dakshina’ is useless. Hence the father of the bride has to give ‘Dan’ in cash and kind. Previously it may have been justified to give some of the articles of daily use to the new couple to settle the ‘Grahasthi’. But slowly and gradually it involved luxurious articles like Fridge, Scooter, Colour TV, Washing Machines etc. and big sums in cash.

(4) A Social Evil-The Dowry has become a social evil and it is eating away the Hindu society. All persons cannot spend so much money. The bridegroom side extracts full advantage of the situation. A bridegroom who is highly educated or nicely employed sells himself at auction and is carried away by the highest bidder. The father of a daughter, however good looking and highly educated his daughter might be cannot find a nice Dulha if he does not possess enough money.

(5) Remedy-This evil must be removed from society. Some attempts have been made in this direction when it was found that the ‘brides’ were harrased and either they were burnt or compelled to commit suicide. An AntiDowry law has been brought into force. Some young men ‘and progressive and reformative persons have also tried to check it.

(6) Conclusion-The measures are still not sufficiently effective. Police itself cannot take action against anybody. Secondly the bride’s side cannot run the risk of the daughter’s future. Hence the whole burden lies with the youth. If they take a vow not to accept any dowry, only then it can be controlled and checked.

15. Reservations In India

(1) The Objective of Reservations-The framers of our constitution made a special provision for safeguarding the interests of the traditionally exploited, deprived and weaker sections of the Indian society. They recommended positive discrimination in favour of these classes in order to bring them on a par with the rest of the people. For that purpose the castes and tribes that were socially and economically weak were listed in the schedule for planned development. These are now known as ‘scheduled castes’ and ‘scheduled tribes’. Reservation of seats in educational institutions and jobs in the public sector were some of the measures for their welfare.

(2) After-effects of Reservation-These reservations in a given proportion were intended to continue until these deprived classes came up to the level of the general sections. All political parties supported these reservations, but gradually their own political interest became more important than the original motive behind reservations. For votes, government created another group of traditionally weak castes. It is known as ‘Other Backward Castes’ (OBCS). These castes were also given the benefit of reservation.

(3) The Present time-Now there are demands for even religion based reservations. More castes and religious outfits, even converted groups, are extent it is good to entertain the guests. But sometimes it goes too far and ends in bitterness and strains in the relations.

(3) Kanyadan-The marriage of a duaghter is considered as ‘Kanyadan’ and a ‘Dan’ without ‘Dakshina’ is useless. Hence the father of the bride has to give ‘Dan’ in cash and kind. Previously it may have been justified to give some of the articles of daily use to the new couple to settle the ‘Grahasthi’. But slowly and gradually it involved luxurious articles like Fridge, Scooter, Colour TV, Washing Machines etc. and big sums in cash.

(4) A Social Evil-The Dowry has become a social evil and it is eating away the Hindu society. All persons cannot spend so much money. The bridegroom side extracts full advantage of the situation. A bridegroom who is highly educated or nicely employed sells himself at auction and is carried away by the highest bidder. The father of a daughter, however good looking and highly educated his daughter might be cannot find a nice Dulha if he does not possess enough money.

(5) Remedy-This evil must be removed from society. Some attempts have been made in this direction when it was found that the ‘brides’ were harrased and either they were burnt or compelled to commit suicide. An AntiDowry law has been brought into force. Some young men and progressive and reformative persons have also tried to check it.

(6) Conclusion-The measures are still not sufficiently effective. Police itself cannot take action against anybody. Secondly the bride’s side cannot run the risk of the daughter’s future. Hence the whole burden lies with the youth. If they take a vow not to accept any dowry, only then it can be controUed and checked.

15. Reservations In India

(1) The Objective of Reservations-The framers of our constitution made a special provision for safeguarding the interests of the traditionally exploited, deprived and weaker sections of the Indian society. They recommended positive discrimination in favour of these classes in order to bring them on a par with the rest of the people. For that purpose the castes and tribes that were socially and economically weak were listed in the schedule for planned development. These are now known as ‘scheduled castes’ and ‘scheduled tribes’. Reservation of seats in educational institutions and jobs in the public sector were some of the measures for their welfare.

(2) After-effects of Reservation-These reservations in a given proportion were intended to continue until these deprived classes came up to the level of the general sections. All political parties supported these reservations, but gradually their own political interest became more important than the original motive behind reservations. For votes, government created another group of traditionally weak castes. It is known as ‘Other Backward Castes’ (OBCS). These castes were also given the benefit of reservation.

(3) The Present time-Now there ar6 demands for even religion based reservations. More castes and religious outfits, even converted groups, are clamouring for reservation in education and employment. The quota of reservations is increasingly growing and the opportunities foF even the talented poor in the general classes are shrinking. This is creating frustration and anger among the general classes. This critical situation urgently needs to be brought under control through a judicious review of the reservation policy to help the genuinely needy people.

16. Cleanliness Drive
Or
Swachhta Abhiyan

‘Cleanliness is Godliness’

– Mahatma Gandhi

(1) Introduction-‘Cleanliness’ is not a work which we should do forcefully. It is a good habit and healthy way of our healthy life. All type of cleanliness is very necessary for our good health whether it is personal cleanliness, surrounding cleanliness, environment cleanliness, pet animal cleanliness or work place cleanliness (like school, college, office etc.) We all should be highly aware about how to maintain cleanliness in our daily lives. It is very simple to include cleanliness in our habit. We should never compromise with cleanliness, it is necessary as food and water for us. It should be practiced from the childhood which can only be initiated by each parent as a first and foremost responsibility.

(2) Problem of Uncleanliness-People of India, in general are not aware of the loss due to uncleanliness. Modiji drew attention of the people of India toward uncleanly habits. It is a great hindrance on the path of progress. We throw refuse anywhere on the roads, on public places like bus-stands, railway stations, hospitals, in buses and trains etc. This makes our surroundings ugly and spreads diseases. Stray animals too spread dirtyness. This also creates wrong impression on foreigners. They laugh at us. Foreign tourists also avoid coming to India.

(3) Cleanliness Drive-Clean India Mission is a national campaign by the Government of India, covering 4041 statutory towns, to clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country.

This campaign was officially launched on 2 October 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi, where Prime Minister Narendra Modi himself cleaned the road. It is India’s biggest ever cleanliness drive and 3 million government employees and school and college students of India participated in this event. The mission was started by Prime Minister Modi, who nominated nine famous personalities for the campaign, and they took up the challenge and nominated nine more people and so on (like the branching of a tree). It has been carried forward since then with people from all walks of life joining it.

(4) Other Activities-Modiji in a public meeting administered the oath Qf cleanliness to several political workers, students and other people. He asked them to make cleanliness a habit. They should stop throwing refuse in public places like hotels, restaurants, parks etc.

(5) Model-Our country should be neat and clean like other modern countries. Our roads should be neat and clean. A programme of cleaning our rivers the Ganga and Yamuna has also been started. Our cities and villages should be models. Our countrymen have given their whole hearted support to this programme.

(6) Conclusion-Modiji wants that our country should become like other modern countries. It should be a model country in the world. It should again be leader in the world. For this we should whole heartedly support the government. Specially our youth must come forward and make our country great. We should keep our houses, surroundings, villages, cities and towns clean. They should look beautiful and joyful in living.

17. The Value Of Games And Sports [2011]
Or
Importance Of Sports And Games [2013, 15]

(1) Introduction-Games and sports are an important part of education. They help in the development of the physique and mind of the student. A sound body possesses a sound mind. If we are weak and §ick we cannot have a fertile brain. Games keep us active and make us smart.

The importance of health in human life could be very well understood from the following Arabian proverb “He who has health has hope, and he who has hope has everything.”

(2) Physical and Mental Education-Gandhiji said, “Physical training should have as much place in curriculum as mental training’. Mere bookish knowledge would not lead to proper development of a personality. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. Mere studies would not suffice. Similarly mere sports won’t do. The two should be blended in a suitable proportion so that the students can have the best of them. They should not only develop the mind but also the body. Both are essential for a wholesome personality.

(3) Other Benefits-Games and sports do not merely keep us healthy and physically fit, they also inculcate in young people the duty of loyalty. These qualities can be summed up in a word ‘sportsmanship’. The first and the foremost thing that games teach us is to take victory and defeat alike. In every game, there are two parties. One wins and the other loses. The winners need not be over-zealous and the loser ones should not get asperated. Both the parties should greet each other heartily after the game. Secondly, games and sports teach us discipline. Every player must obey his or her captain. He has to play obeying all the rules of the games. He has also to abide by the decision of the referee or umpire. Thirdly, games broaden our outlook. The players need have no bias. They should treat other players alike.

The player ought not to differentiate between one another on the basis of nationality, caste, creed or colour. The games promote international brotherhood and affection amongst the people of the world. Thus, they promote world peace too. The Reliance Cup 1987 organised jointly by Pakistan and India is an example. unemployment. As the age of machines advances, an ever-increasing number of people are thrown out of service. Lack of enterprise and hard labour among youth is also responsible for unemployment. Our youth hesitates to undertake any enterprise. They lack adventurous nature. They also abhor jobs in which hard labour and continuous work for a long time is needed. Hence, they shirk doing strenuous work and as such remain without work, while work is waiting for them.

(4) Remedies-The problem of unemployment is an economic one. It is essential, therefore, that the economic policy of the country be overhauled. Government has taken several steps in this direction. The banks have been nationalised. Banks are granting soft loans to unemployed persons who wish to start some factory, shop, or some other business. Various steps have been taken under 20-points programme to solve the rural unemployment problem. Several new jobs have been created. With the advancement of technology and mechanical advancement, job opportunities have increased. ‘Jawahar Rojgar Yojana’ has been started to solve the unemployments However, these measures do not outweigh the problem.

The increasing population is also to be controlled. Government is giving many incentives to the people to control the birth of children under family planning programmes. A lot has been achieved in this field too and much is left.

Wise use of machinery should also be made. Ill-planned and reckless industrialization has posed big problems. This needs deep thinking. Our government has become aware of this and many steps have been taken in this direction.

More stress should be laid on technical and vocational education. The present bookish education which produces clerks should be changed.

(5) Conclusion-Our country cannot advance economically, politically or socially unless this problem is solved. Many a social evil is spread through the unemployed. Unrest and disorder increase in society. It is a matter of satisfaction that the top priority has been given to this problem in our Five Year Plans.

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