MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 20 Profit and Loss

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MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 20 Profit and Loss (Rabindranath Tagore)

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Profit and Loss Textual Exercises

Word Power

Question 1.
Keeping the text in mind, write ten sentences using the following words to describer-the mental state of Ramsunder Mitra: despodeinf, hagglung, dowry, subterfuge, extortionate, looked down upon, mutely implored, wailed at, impasse.
Answer:
Ramsunder Mitra Was a victim of extortionate case.of down with a great haggling he could Search a groom for his daughter. He implored to the Raybahadur who refused to allow his son to marry without taking the full money of dowry. However’ the marriage performed But he was looked down upon by his daughter ‘s-in-laws. His daughter tolerated all misbehaviour mutely. Ramsunder Mitra was despondent. He wailed at the condition of his daughter. But it proved to be an impasse. It was a subterfuge of Nirupama’s-in-laws.

Question 2.
Fill in the blank spaces with appropriate words given below. (Use the words in their correct form)
vicious, indiginity, malice, resort to, diminish, gloomy, trembling, forbid, condemn
1. The assaults of the boss were ………… upon Rajesh.
2. He sat at the window in a sad and ………… mood.
3. He had ………… towards none.
4. The law ………… smoking at public places.
5. The size of a candle ………… as the flame bums.
6. The old man could hardly hold the stick in his ………… hands.
7. He was over-burdened with liabilities. He had to ………… borrowing money.
8. Everyone ………… the meanness of Amar.
9. Rajesh was treated with ………… by his colleagues.
Answer:

  1. vicious
  2. gloomy
  3. malice
  4. forbids
  5. diminishes
  6. trembling
  7. resort to
  8. condemned
  9. indignity

Question 3.
Idioms, Proverbs and phrasal verbs:
A. An idiom is an expression of a given language that is peculiar to itself grammatically and which cannot be understood from the meanings of the individual words that comprise the idiom. Here are a few examples of idioms.

  • Crocodile tears: It means an insincere show of sympathy or I sadness; crocodiles were once thought to ‘ weep’ large tears before they are their victims.
  • To break the ice: It means to be the first one to say or do l something, with the hope that others will follow.
  • Kick the bucket: It means ‘to die’. Its meaning cannot be deduced from knowing the meanings of kick and the bucket.

B. An idiom must be distinguished from a proverb. Proverbs are old but familiar sayings that usually give advice. Here are a few examples of proverbs:

  • An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
  • A friend in need is a friend indeed.
  • A little knowledge is a dangerous thing;

Idioms and phrases are conditioned the culture of the country where the particular language is spoken. For example, in Hindi we have a proverb “आम के आम गुठलियों के दाम” such a proverb could not be coined in English where mangoes are not produced. In the same way “break the ice” is a typical idiom of cold countries, and such an idiom could not have been coined in Hindi speaking belt.

C. A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb, which creates a meaning different from the original verb. Here are a few examples of phrasal verbs:

  • pickup
  • put down
  • turn on.

(A) Now, explaining the meanings of the following idioms that occur in his story.

(a) Let (something) slip from one’s fingers.
(b) (bring) bad luck on (somebody)
(c) at length
(d) out of the question
(e) to set one’s heart on (something)
(f) go to great length!
(g) a bed of nails
(h) at all
Answer:
(a) let (something) slip from one’s finger – to lose something.
(b) (bring) bad luck on (somebody) – to cause unfavourable situation for someone.
(c) at length – distant
(d) out of the question – impossible
(e) to set one’s heart on (something) – to decide
(f) go to great lengths – to keep distance
(g) a bed of nails – troublesome
(h) at all-completely

(B) The following phrasal verbs also occur in this story. Learn these meaning and use them in a sentence of your own:

1. turn up
2. break off
3. hold (somebody or something) back
4. look down on (upon) somebody
5. resort to
6. find out
7. flare up
8. let (somebody) down
9. set off
10. brood over (something)
11. put on (something)
Answer:

  1. turn up – He has not turned up yet.
  2. break off He decided to break off all relation with me..
  3. hold back I don’t intend to hold back this project.
  4. look down on (upon) somebody – We should not look down on (upon)anyone.
  5. resort to – For having no job at last he had to resent to start a business.
  6. find out – l am trying to find out the real cause of the problem.
  7. flare up – The father was flared up by the son’s report card.
  8. let (somebody) down Don’t let down your friends.
  9. set off – He has just set off for aboard.
  10. brood over (something) – He was always brooding over his past days.
  11. put on (something) – The child put on his school uniform.

Comprehension

(A) Here is provided the summary of the story, “Profit and Loss” but the sequence of the sentences has been disturbed. Put the sentences in their logical order.
1. Nirupama was the only daughter of her parents.
2. Even the servants looked down on him.
3. When Ramsundar’s sons came to know that he was selling the house to pay the dowry they protested.
4. Ramsundar had no respect in his son-in-law’s house.
5. Njrupama was taken seriously ill.
6. The impasse was resolved when the groom rebelled against his father.
7. A dowry of 10,000 rupees had been asked by the bridegroom’s family.
8. Ramsundar fell on the feet of Raybahadur.
9. Ramsundar often went to see his daughter at Raybahadur’s place.
10. The groom said, “I came here to marry and marry I shall.”
11. When reports of ill-treatment of his daughter came to Ramsundar, he decided to sell off his house.
12. Ramsundar could not bring his daughter home as he had not paid , the dowry agreed upon.
13. Nirupama asked her father not to come to her in-laws house to take home.
14. In the end’. Nirupama took offence and stopped sending messages to his father.
15. Raybahadur decided to take back the marriage-party without marriage.
16. Nirupama was treated very shabbily in her father-in-law’s house.
17. One day Nirupama asked her father to take her home.
18. Nirupama sent one after other message’s to her father, he should take her home.
19. Ramsunder dared not ask Nirupama’s father-in-law to send her home.
20. Ramsundar’s sons were unhappy when he sold the house.
21. Raybahadur’s wife Informed her son that another girl had been selected for his marriage.
22. Nirupama asked he/father to give not even a paisa to her father-in-law.
23. When she died, Raybahadur spent much money on her funeral rites.
24. This time, the dowry was twenty thousand rupees in cash.
Answer:
The sequence of the sentences can be set in the following order:

  1. Nirupama was the only daughter of her parents.
  2. A dowry of 10,000 rupees had been asked by the bridegroom’s family.
  3. Raybahadur decided to take back the marriage-party without marriage.
  4. Ramsundar fell on the feet of Raybahadur.
  5. The impasse was resolved when the groom rebelled against his father.
  6. The groom said, “I came her to marry and marry I shall.’5
  7. Ramsundar often went to see his daughter at Raybahadur’s place.
  8. Ramsundar had no respect in his son-in-law’s house.
  9. Even the servants looked down on him.
  10. Nirupama was treated very shabbily in her father-in-law’s house
  11. When reports of ill-treatment of his daughter came to Ramsundar, he decided to sell off his house.
  12. One day Nirupama asked her father to take her home.
  13. Ramsunder dared not ask Nirupama’s father-in-law to send her home.
  14. Ramsundar could not bring his daughter home as he had not paid the dowry agreed upon.
  15. When Ramsundar’s sons came to know that he was selling the house to pay the dowry they protested.
  16. Ramsundar’s sons were unhappy when he sold the house.
  17. Nirupama sent one after other message’s to her father, he should take her home.
  18. Nirupama asked her father to give not even a paisa to her father- in-law.
  19. Nirupama asked her father riot to come to her in-laws house to take her home.
  20. In the end, Nirupama took offence and stopped sending messages to his father.
  21. Nirupama was taken seriously ill.
  22. When she died, Raybahadur spent much money on her funeral 4 rites.
  23. Raybahadur’s wife informed her son that another girl had been ‘ asked for his marriage.
  24. This time, the dowry was twenty thousand rupees in cash.

(B) Answer the following questions in about 200-250 words:

Question 1.
Suppose you are Ramsundar. Rewrite, the story ‘Profit and Loss’ from your point of view. Began like this…when a daughter ; was born, I named her Nirupama…
Answer:
When a daughter was born, I named her Nirupama, she was peerless in every sense. She was born after five sons. When she came of age, I began searching a suitable groom for her. But it was a hard task to manage. However, I could find the only son of a grand Raybahadur. Though his ancestral wealth had diminished, but the family was noble. They agreed upon a dowry of Rs. 10,000 along with many additional gifts. I agreed but by ill-luck I could not manage till the time of marriage.

Still I was talking Rs, 6000-7000. On the wedding day Raybahadur refused to allow his son for marriage until the entire amount was paid. I made all requests and pleas but in vain. It was good sense that prevailed upon Raybahadur’s son who protested his father and married my daughter. After the marriage when I visited my son-in-law’s house. I met with a very awkward situation. No 5 attention was paid to me. I was allowed to meet my daughter only for a few minutes’, I came back dejectedly. I decided to arrange the rest amount of ; dowry by selling my house. But my sons protested it.

However I began taking loans at high interest rates. As the amount was not full, it was not accepted and I was treated badly. My daughter was facing spiteful behaviour , at every turn. Again my made efforts etc bring her home but failed. Nirupama asked me to take her home only for once. But I didn’t dare. Later I sold my  house secretly. My sons came to know and became angry. Nirupama also knew it and she asked me not to give any money to her in-laws, not to visit her again.

Then I came to know that she left food and became seriously ill. As a result she died. Her funeral was arranged with great pomp and show. Raybahadur’s generocity was talked much. After that they searched another bride for their son, who was a deputy magistrate. This time the dowry was twenty thousand hard cash.

Question 2.
Write a character-sketch of Ramsundar highlighting the . following points:
(a) his poverty;
(b) his love for his daughter;
(c) his attempts to provide dowry for his daughter and the failure in his attempts;
(d) his reception at the place of his daughter’s parents-in-laws;
(e) the attitude of his sons towards him.
Answer:
Ramsundar is the central character of the story ‘Profit and Loss’. He represents a man from typical Indian background. He belongs to a poor middle class family. He had five sons and a daughter. As the daughter was the youngest one after the five sons he loved her very much. He wanted to marry her to the most suitable groom. He went on searching for it. But he had to face the problem of dowry.

Finally he got the only son of renowned Raybahadur. Though the demand was Rs. 10,000 along with many additional gifts, he finalised the deal. But in no way he could raise all the money. Even after pawning, selling and using every method he could not manage the entire sum. Still he needed six-seven thousand rupees.

On the wedding day Raybahadur refused to allow his son to marry without getting the entire amount. Ramsundar fell on his knees before the Raybahadur, he implored him not to bring bad luck by breaking of the ceremony, insisted he would pay him in full. But Raybahadur was adamant.

Ramsundar was very miserable. However the marriage was performed with the support of groom’s good sense and youthful spirit.After the marriage when Ramsundar went to meet her daughter, he was treated badly. He had no honour at all his son-in-law’s house. Even the servants neglected him. Sometimes he saw his daughter just for five minutes in a separate outer room of the house.

Sometimes ht was not allowed to see her at all.It was unbearable for him. So he decided to manage the rest amount by selling his house. But his sons didn’t support him. Day by day, Nirupama’s tale of woes was growing. She had to bear the burnt of her in-laws’ spiteful behaviour Ramsundar finally sold his house secretly. When Nirupama knew it, she asked her father not to give any money to her in-laws. After that she didn’t send any massage to Ramsundar. Finally he died of illness, starvation and pangs of torture. Ramsundar heard all these. He also heard how Raybahadur made the funeral of Nirupama a grand occasion. Ramsundar’s position was too miserable to utter a word at the inhuman traits of so-called high class of people.

Question 3.
Write a summary of the story ‘Profit and Loss’ in your own words.
Answer:
‘Profit and Loss’ is a story by Rabindranath Tagore. It highlights the age-old burning problem of dowry in our society. A daughter, after five sons,- was born to Ramsunder Mitra. She was named as Nirupama – peerless. When she came of age Ramsunder Mitra went on searching for a suitable groom for his daughter. After a long search, he got the son of a Raybahadur, a grand family at the dowry of Rs. 10,000. Till the time of marriage Mitra failed to arrange the amount. Still there was the due amount for Rs. 6,000 or 7,000 .On the wedding day Raybahadur was adamant to allow his son to marry after getting the entire amount. Mitra’s all pleas failed to impress Raybahadur. By good luck Raybahadur’s son revolted against his father and agreed to marry showing his youthful spirit and value.

After the marriage whenever Mitra went to meet his daughter he was treated indifferently. Even the servants didn’t pay any attention to him. He was allowed to meet Nirupama only for, a few times in an outer room. Sometimes he was not allowed to even see her. Nirupma was never allowed to go to her father’s house. Ramsunder Mitra was very much pained at such behaviour and so he decided to arrange for the due amount of dowry anyhow.

On the other hand, Nirupama was treated very badly and spitefully at every turn. She shut herself into her room and wept. Everyday, every time she had to bear the burnt of insults. Her mother-in-law’s assaults were especially vicious. Ramsunder’s pain was growing day by day. Now it was growing unbearable. So he decided to sell his house to pay the amount. But his sons came to know of it and they protested it. Then Ramsunder began raising loans from various quarters at high interest rates. Nirupma understood everything.

She longed to visit her father’s house even once. But Ramsunder was so much heartbroken that he couldn’t ask for its permission. Though he promised his daughter that he would manage for it. But ultimately the father proved to be helpless. He could manage three thousand rupees. He was treated badly again. Then he resolved not to come to his daughter’s-in-laws’ house until he could manage the total due amount.

Many months passed but Ramsunder didn’t come even after her daughter sent many messengers. It as the days of Navratra. Once again he dared to go there with a few money that he had arranged by selling his house secretly. When his sons knew it they became very much furious.

However Nirupama came to know it. She asked her father not to give any money to her in-laws. Ramsunder came back. After that Nirupama lost interest in food. She fell ill seriously. She had no wish to live in the world. In the meantime her husband sent massage that he was managing for new settlement in the new city where he was deputed as Deputy Magistrate. He had no time to visit his house. It might be also a situation created by Nirupama’s-in-laws not to let them meet. Nirupama ultimately died out of her illness and starvation. Her funeral was a grand occasion.

Raybahadur arranged it in such a way that it became a never before and never after celebration in the surrounding areas. Such a huge sandalwood pyre had never been seen. It was said that it put them into debt also. But they were happy. Ramsunder also heard all these from those who came to console him. Meanwhile a letter from Deputy Magistrate came to his parents that he had arranged everything well in the new city. Now his wife could be lent quickly. His mother replied to her dear son that they i had secured another girl for him. He should come for new marriage. This time the dowry was 20,000 rupees cash down.

Question 4.
What moral do you draw from the story ‘Profit and Loss’? Do you think dowry is justified? Why or why not?
Answer:
‘Profit and Loss’ is a story by Rabindranath Tagore. It highlights the theme of the greatest social curse which had prevailed in society right from ancient eras. It tells us the woes of dowry. Its forms have been changing through the different ages. In old times it was in the form of exchange of gifts. Later it was changed to the monetary gain. The voice of protest against it has always been raised but of no concrete result. Laws are their but with no effect.

Dowry has worsely affected the society. It is in no way justified because it spreads hate, indignation, dissatisfaction, frustration and depression. Life can’t be lived with support of dowry. Marriage is a mutual relationship which is established riot brought. Hence, there is a need  abolish it. No law can do it. Only good sense and youthful spirit can bring out a change. Females should also have the courage to raise their voice against it.

Profit and Loss Summary in English

‘Profit and Loss’ is a story by Rabindranath Tagore. It highlights the age-old burning problem of dowry in our society. A daughter, after five sons,- was born to Ramsunder Mitra. She was named as Nirupama – peerless. When she came of age Ramsunder Mitra went on searching for a suitable groom for his daughter. After a long search, he got the son of a Raybahadur, a grand family at the dowry of Rs. 10,000. Till the time of marriage Mitra failed to arrange the amount. Still there was the due amount for Rs. 6,000 or 7,000 .On the wedding day Raybahadur was adamant to allow his son to marry after getting the entire amount. Mitra’s all pleas failed to impress Raybahadur. By good luck Raybahadur’s son revolted against his father and agreed to marry showing his youthful spirit and value.

After the marriage whenever Mitra went to meet his daughter he was treated indifferently. Even the servants didn’t pay any attention to him. He was allowed to meet Nirupama only for, a few times in an outer room. Sometimes he was not allowed to even see her. Nirupma was never allowed to go to her father’s house. Ramsunder Mitra was very much pained at such behaviour and so he decided to arrange for the due amount of dowry anyhow.

On the other hand, Nirupama was treated very badly and spitefully at every turn. She shut herself into her room and wept. Everyday, every time she had to bear the burnt of insults. Her mother-in-law’s assaults were especially vicious. Ramsunder’s pain was growing day by day. Now it was growing unbearable. So he decided to sell his house to pay the amount. But his sons came to know of it and they protested it. Then Ramsunder began raising loans from various quarters at high interest rates. Nirupma understood everything.

She longed to visit her father’s house even once. But Ramsunder was so much heartbroken that he couldn’t ask for its permission. Though he promised his daughter that he would manage for it. But ultimately the father proved to be helpless. He could manage three thousand rupees. He was treated badly again. Then he resolved not to come to his daughter’s-in-laws’ house until he could manage the total due amount.

Many months passed but Ramsunder didn’t come even after her daughter sent many messengers. It as the days of Navratra. Once again he dared to go there with a few money that he had arranged by selling his house secretly. When his sons knew it they became very much furious.

However Nirupama came to know it. She asked her father not to give any money to her in-laws. Ramsunder came back. After that Nirupama lost interest in food. She fell ill seriously. She had no wish to live in the world. In the meantime her husband sent massage that he was managing for new settlement in the new city where he was deputed as Deputy Magistrate. He had no time to visit his house. It might be also a situation created by Nirupama’s-in-laws not to let them meet. Nirupama ultimately died out of her illness and starvation. Her funeral was a grand occasion.

Raybahadur arranged it in such a way that it became a never before and never after celebration in the surrounding areas. Such a huge sandalwood pyre had never been seen. It was said that it put them into debt also. But they were happy. Ramsunder also heard all these from those who came to console him. Meanwhile a letter from Deputy Magistrate came to his parents that he had arranged everything well in the new city. Now his wife could be lent quickly. His mother replied to her dear son that they i had secured another girl for him. He should come for new marriage. This time the dowry was 20,000 rupees cash down.

Profit and Loss Summary in Hindi

‘Profit and Loss’ रविन्द्रना थटैगोर लिखित कहानी है। इसमें हमारे समाज में प्रचलित दहेज की ज्वलंत समस्या को उजागर किया गया है। रामसुन्दर मित्रा के घर पांच पुत्रों के बाद एक बेटी का जन्म हुआ। उसका नाम निरूपमा-अद्भुत-रखा गया है। जब वह बड़ी हुई तब रामसुन्दर मित्रा अपनी बेटी के लिए एक सुयोग्य वर की तलाश में भटकने लगे। लंबी खोज के बाद उन्हें दस हजार रकम की दहेज पर एक भव्य परिवार वाले रायबहादुर का बेटा मिला। विवाह के दिन तक मित्रा पूरी रकम जुटाने में असफल रहे। अभी भी छह-सात हजार रुपये की रकम बकाया था। विवाह के दिन रायबहादुर पूरी रकम लेने के बाद ही अपने बेटे को शादी के लिए भेजने पर अडिग थे। मित्रा के सभी अनुनय-विनय रायबहादुर को प्रभावित करने में असफल रहे। भाग्यवश रायबहादुर का बेटा अपनी जवानी के जोश और मूल्यों को दिखाते हुए अपने पिता के खिलाफ विद्रोह कर बैठा और शादी के लिए राजी हो गया।

विवाह के बाद जब भी मित्रा अपनी बेटी से मिलने गया, उसके साथ अजीब-सा व्यवहार हुआ। यहां तक कि नौकरों ने भी उस पर कोई ध्यान नहीं दिया। उसे सिर्फ थोड़ी देर के लिए बाहरी कमरे में निरुपमा से मिलने दिया जाता था। कभी-कभी तो उसे निरुपमा से मिलने भी नहीं दिया जाता था। निरुपमा को कभी अपनी पिता के घर जाने की अनुमति नहीं मिली। रामसुन्दर मित्रा इस तरह के व्यवहार से बहुत दु:खी थे और इसीलिए उन्होंने किसी भी तरह दहेज की बकाया रकम की व्यवस्था करने की ठान ली। . दूसरी ओर निरुपमा के साथ बहुत ही बुरे और तीखे-ताने वाले व्यवहार हर क्षण होते थे। वह अपने को अपने कमरे में बंद कर रोती रहती थी। हर दिन हर क्षण उसे बेइज्जती सहनी पड़ती थी, खासकर उसकी सास का बुरा व्यवहार बहुत ही जहरीला था। रामसुन्दर का दुःख दिनों-दिन बढ़ता जा रहा था। अब यह असहनीय हो चला।

इसीलिए उसने रकम चुकाने के लिए अपना घर बेचने का निश्चय किया। लेकिन उसके बेटों को इसका पता चल गया और उन्होंने इसका विरोध किया। रामसुन्दर ने अलग-अलग जगहों से ऊंचे ब्याज की दर पर कर्ज लेना शुरू किया। निरूपमा सबकुछ समझ गयी। उसने केवल एक बार अपने पिता के घर जाने की इच्छा जताई। लेकिन रामसुन्दर इतना टूट चुका था कि वह इसकी अनुमति निरुपमा के सास-ससुर से नहीं मांग पाया। हालांकि उसने अपनी बेटी से वादा किया कि वह इसकी व्यवस्था करेगा। . लेकिन अंततः वह पिता लाचार साबित हुआ। वह केवल तीन हजार रुपयों की व्यवस्था कर पाया। उसके साथ फिर बुरा व्यवहार हुआ। तब उसने अपनी बेटी के ससुराल तब तक न जाने की ठान ली जब तक वह पूरी बकाया रकम इकट्ठी न कर ले।

बहुत महीने गुजर गए। लेकिन रामसुन्दर अपनी बेटी के कई संदेश भेजने के बाद भी उससे मिलने नहीं गया। ये नवरात्रि के दिन थे। एक बार फिर उसने कुछ पैसा जो उसने अपने घर को चुपके-से बेचकर इकट्ठा किया था, लेकर अपनी बेटी के घर जाने की हिम्मत जुटाई। जब उसके बेटों को इसका पता चला, वे बहुत नाराज हुए। निरुपमा को भी इसका पता चल गया। उसने अपने पिता से कहा कि वह उसके ससुराल वालों को कोई रकम न दें। रामसुन्दर वापस लौट आया। उसके बाद निरुपमा ने खाना-पीना छोड़ दिया। वह बुरी तरह बीमार पड़ गई। वह इस दुनिया में जीना नहीं चाहती थी। उन्हीं दिनों उसके पति का संदेश आया कि वह नए शहर में जहां वह डिप्टी मजिस्ट्रेट के रूप में पदस्थापित था, नई व्यवस्था में लगा था।

उसके पास घर आने का समय नहीं था। हो सकता था कि यह निरुपमा के ससुराल वालों के द्वारा बनायी गई स्थिति हो जो की उन दोनों को मिलने नहीं देना चाहते थे। अंततः निरुपमा बीमारी और भूख से मर गई। उसका दाह-संस्कार एक भव्य आयोजन था। रायबहादुर ने इसकी ऐसी व्यवस्था कि जैसे उस इलाके में न कभी हुई थी न कभी होने वाली थी। चंदन की लकड़ियों की इतनी बड़ी चिता कभी देखी नहीं गई थी। कहा जाता था कि इससे रायबहादुर पर कुछ कर्ज भी हो गया था। लेकिन वे लोग बड़े खुश थे। रामसुन्दर ने भी उन लोगों से ये बातें सुनी जो उसे सांत्वना देने आए थे। इसी बीच डिप्टी मजिस्ट्रेट का अपने माता-पिता के पास यह पत्र आया कि उसने नए शहर में घर बसाने की सारी व्यवस्था कर ली थी। अब जल्दी ही उसकी पत्नी को भेज दिया जाए। उसकी माँ ने अपने प्रिय पुत्र को जवाब भेजा कि उन लोगों ने उसके लिए एक दूसरी लड़की खोज ली है। वह जल्दी ही नई शादी के लिए आ जाए। इस बार दहेज की रकम बीस हजार रुपये नकद थी।

Profit and Loss Word Meaning

MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 20 Profit and Loss 1
MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 20 Profit and Loss 2

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