MP Board Class 12th General English Grammar Parts of Speech

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MP Board Class 12th General English Grammar Parts of Speech

The Noun

(i) Definition – A Noun is the name of a person, place or a thing. (संज्ञ किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु या स्थान के नाम को कहते हैं।)

(ii) Kinds of Nouns
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(iii) Number (वचन)
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(iv) Gender (लिंगा)
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(v) Position (स्थिति) or Function (कार्य) –
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Examples :

  1. Mohan writes a letter.
  2. He is making kites.
  3. Mohan sends his father a parcel.
  4. His father was an engineer.
  5. You brought sweets from the market for my son.
  6. Dr. Manmohan Singh, our Prime Minister, has arrived in the city.
  7. I saw a girl carrying flowers.
  8. Making kites is not easy.
  9. The child wanted to fly a kite.

The Pronoun

(i) Definition – A Pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun. – (सर्वनाम वह शब्द है, जो किसी noun के स्थान पर प्रयुक्त होता है।)
(ii) Kinds of Pronouns
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(iii) Person (पुरुष)
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The Adjective

(i) Definition – An Adjective is a word which qualifies a Noun or a Pro noun. (किसी Noun या Pronoun की विशेषता या गुण बताने वाले word को adjective कहते हैं)
(ii) Kinds of Adjectives :
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(iii) Use of Adjectives
1. Attributive use – गुणसूचक उपयोग : जब Adjective को Noun के पूर्व रखा जाता है।
As – Pratap was a brave king.
2. Predicative use – विधेयसूचक उपयोग : जब Adjective को Noun के पश्चात् रखा जाता है।
As – The King was brave.

(iv) Degrees of Adjectives
(a) Positive Degree.
(b) Comparative Degree.
(c). Superlative Degree.

The Article

Articles भी adjectives ही हैं। ये तीन हैं a, an और the A तथा an – Indefinite Articles कहलाते हैं। वास्तव में ये Adjective of Number हैं। The – Definite Article कहलाता है, जो वास्तव में Demonstrative Adjective का काम करता है। इनका प्रयोग Common Nouns के पूर्व होता है।

(1) ‘A’ का प्रयोग – Singular Common Nouns, जिनका General रूप में प्रयोग। होता है तथा Consonant उच्चारण से प्रारम्भ होने वाले nouns के पूर्व ‘a’ का प्रयोग होता है –
As – (i) A boy is coming here.
(ii) He is a European,

(2) ‘An’ का प्रयोग Singular Common Nouns, जिनका General रूप में प्रयोग होता है तथा Vowel उच्चारण से प्रारम्भ होने वाले Nouns के पूर्व ‘an’ का प्रयोग होता है –
An – (i) An elephant reaches 60 years of age.
(ii) He is an M.A.

(3) ‘The’ का प्रयोग परिचित, संदर्भित एवं विशिष्ट Common Nouns के पूर्व ‘the’ का प्रयोग होता है।
As – (i) He is the boy who won the prize.
(ii) The milk of this milkman is pure.
Note – The’ के कुछ विशेष प्रयोग भी होते हैं। e.g., The more, the merrier.

The Verb

(i) Definition – A Verb is a word that denotes some position or action.
(ii) Kinds of Verbs.
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(iii) Voice (वाच्य)
1. Active Voice – कर्तृवाच्य – जब क्रिया Subject के अनुसार लिखी जाती है –
As – Hari is writing a letter.

2. Passive Voice – कर्तृवाच्य – जब क्रिया subject के अनुसार लिखी जाती है –
As – A kite is being flown by Gopal.

(iv) Tense (काल)

  1. Present Tense वर्तमानकाल
  2. Past Tense भूतकाल
  3. Future Tense भविष्यत्काल

(v) Forms of Verbs ( क्रिया के रूप) –
मूल क्रिया to लहकर लिखी जाती है व Infinitive कहलाती है –
As – to go, to run, to be, to sing, etc.
इनके स्वरूप में पाँच परिवर्तन होते हैं

  1. Present form
  2. Past Tense form
  3. Past Participle form
  4. Present Participle form
  5. s, es, ies form or singular form.

(vi) Subject-Verb Agreement
Verb अपने subject के Number व Person के अनुसार लिखी जाती है।

As –
1. I am playing hockey (न कि playing)
2. Boys are playing hockey (न कि playing)

Three Forms of Some Verbs

(a) वे Verbs जिनकी तीनों Forms एक – सी होती हैं।
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(b) वे Verbs जिनकी दो Forms एक – सी होती हैं।
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(c) वे Verbs जिनकी तीनों Forms अलग – अलग होती हैं।
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The Adverb

(i) Definition – An Adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or an adverb. (Adverb वह शब्द है, जो किसी verb, adjective, या adverb की विशेषता बतलाता है।)

(ii) Kinds of Adverbs
1. Simple Adverb

  • of time
  • of place
  • of number
  • of manner
  • of degree
  • of reason
  • of affirmation or negation.

2. Interrogative Adverb
when, where, why, how, how many, how much.
जब वाक्य के प्रारम्भ में आयें।

3. Relative Adverb
when, where, why, how, etc.
जब वाक्य के बीच में आयें।

4. Introductory Adverb
As – Here is Mr. Joshi.
There are 8 peons in our school.

(iii) Degrees of Adverbs
(a) Positive Degree
As – late, near, slowly, etc.

(b) Comparative Degree
As – later, nearer, more slowly, etc.

(c) Superlative Degree
As – latest, nearest, most slowly, etc.

The Preposition

(i) Definition – A Preposition is a word that shows the relation of a noun or a pronoun with other words. (Preposition वह शब्द होताहै, जो किसी noun या pronoun का अन्य शब्दों से सम्बन्ध बतलाता है)

(ii) Kinds of Prepositions

1. Simple Prepositions
As – in, on, to, for, from, out, after, over, through, till, under etc.

2. Compound Prepositions
As – about, above, across, along, before, outside, within etc.

3. Participle Prepositions
As – during, regarding, considering, barring, pending etc.

4. Phrase Prepositions
As – in front of, instead of, in spite of, on account of, in order to, by means of, for the sake of etc.

The Conjunction

(i) Definition – A Conjunction is a word that joins two words or two sentences. (Conjunction वह शब्द होता है जो दो शब्दों या sentences को जोड़ता है)

As –
(i) Ram and Mohan are brothers.
(ii) He did not work hard but he passed his examination.
(iii) She failed because she did not study hard.

Kinds of Conjunctions
1. Coordinating conjunctions
As – And, but, or, nor, for, also, either, neither, etc.

2. Subordinating conjunctions
As – that, after, because, than, though, unless, if, when, where etc.

The Interjection

(i) ‘Definition – Exclamations expressing joy, grief, surprise, approval, contempt, reproof, address, parting etc. are called Interjections.
(दुःख, आश्चर्य, प्रसन्नता को प्रकट करने वाले शब्द Interjection कहलाते हैं।)

As – Hurrah ! Ha! Ha!
Alas! Ah! Oh!
What ! Indeed !
Bravo ! Well done!
Pooh ! Hush !
File ! Shame!
Hello ! Hark!
Farewell, Adieu, Bye-bye, Good bye etc.

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