MP Board Class 11th Special English Grammar Clauses

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MP Board Class 11th Special English Grammar Clauses

1. Noun Clauses
A noun clause does the function of a noun in a sentence.
Noun clause को शुरू करने के लिए निम्न connective words का प्रयोग करते हैं
(i) That clauses.
Look at these sentences :
I expect that I shall get a prize.
He says that he won’t go.
यदि कोई clause that से शुरू हो और उस that का अर्थ ‘कि’ हो तो वह Noun clause होता है।

(ii) Wh-clauses as Noun clauses.
Look at these sentences :
Tell me where he lives.
Tell me why you do this.
I don’t follow what you say.
No one knows who he is
who, where, which, how, why, how, when आदि से रूप हनी वाले clauses noun clauses होते हैं।

Look at these sentences :
What you say is true.
How he comes here is not known.

what, where, when, that, how, why आदि से शुरू होने वाले clauses जब किसी sentence के शुरू में रहते हैं और जब उनके बाद कोई noun नहीं आता है वे noun clauses होते हैं।

(iii) If/whether clauses as Noun clauses.
Look at these sentences :
Do you know if the office is open?
I Can you say whether Rohit is in the park?
Yes or no question में if या whether से noun clause शुरू होता है।

Look at these sentences :
I don’t know whether he will help me or not.
I don’t care if your car breaks down or not.
कुछ अन्य तरह के वाक्यों में whether और if से शुरु होने वाले clauses noun एवं clauses होते हैं जब उनका हिंदी में अर्थ कोई ऐसा शब्द होता है जो कि ‘कि’ से शुरू होते हैं।

2. Relative clauses (adjective clauses)
Adjective clause, एक Adjective के समान, अपने से पूर्व आने वाले noun एवं pronoun की विशेषता बताता है।
(i) Adjective clauses निम्न connective words से शुरू होते है-(i) who, which, that, whom, where.

Look at these sentences :
This is the man who gave me money.
The man whom you saw is an engineer.
This is the house that my father built.

Who, which, that, whom, whose shift a tam clauses adjective clauses होते हैं जब इनके पहले कोई noun रहता है।

(ii) Where, when, why Look at these sentences :
This is the house where I was born. :
He arrived on the day when the office was closed.
You can’t tell me the reason why he left so suddenly.
Where, when, why

3. Coordinate Clauses
(i) जो clause एक ही rank या order के होते हैं, coordinate clause कहलाते हैं।

Look at these sentences :
Govern your passion or they will govern you.
To err is human; to forgive divine.

पहले sentence में दो clauses को or से जोड़ा गया है। दूसरे sentence में दो clauses को एक semicolon से जोड़ा गया है।
(ii) Coordinate clauses प्रायः Coordinate conjunctions and, or, but आदि द्वारा जुड़े होते हैं या कभी – कभी conjunctions के बदले comma या semi-colon का प्रयोग किया जाता है। ”
(iii) मुख्य coordinating conjunctions है and, but, or, still, yet, as well as, both… and, either …. or, however, neither ……. nor, otherwise, else, for, so, not only …….., but also आदि।

4. Adverbial Clause

Adverbial clause वाक्य में Adverb का काम करता है एवं Principal clause में व्यवहार किए गए किसी adjective, adverb या verb की विशेषता बताता है। कभी-कभी यह पूरे clause की भी विशेषता बताता है।

Kinds of Adverbial Clauses

(i) Adverbial Clauses of Time
Look at these sentences :
She decided to wait, until the train arrived.
The students stood up when the teacher left the classroom.
There was silence as the leader spoke.
One of them began to cry before I opened the door.

Adverbial clauses of time are joined to the main clause by one. of the conjunctions when, while, after, as, before, since, till, until, whenever, as long as, then, as soon as.

(ii) Adverbial Clauses of Place
Look at these clauses :
Wherever you go, wear a helmet.
You should stay where he is.

These clauses are joined to the main clause by means of conjunctions like where, wherever, whether, wherein. .

(iii) Adverbial Clauses of Reason
Look at these sentences :
He can not work hard, because he is weak.
As we can not go tomorrow, we must give up the idea altogether.
Since she says so, I must believe it.
These clauses are introduced by because, as, since, for.

(iv) Adverbial Clauses of Result
Look at these sentences :
He speaks so fast that I cannot follow him.
He is so brave that he is not afraid of any danger.
These clauses are introduced by so, that, so ….. that, such …..that.

(vi) Ahok at the Faller that
(v) Adverbial Clauses of Condition
Look at these sentences :
I shall go if he asks me.
I would not go unless you come with me.
These clauses are introduced by if, unless, provided, that, in case, whether … or, on condition that.

(vi) Adverbial Clause of Comparison
Look at these sentences :
She is not taller than her husband.
He speaks better than he writes.
He is as obstinate as a mule.
He is not so clever as you think.
These clauses are introduced by as …….. , as, not so ……. as, then.

(vii) Adverbial Clauses of Purpose
Look at these sentences :
We eat that we may live.
He ran so that suspicion many not fall on him.
In order that there may be no mistake, I have typed out : the instructions.
These clauses are introduced by these following conjunction forms that, so that, in order that.

(viii) Adverbial Clauses of Manner
Look at these sentences :
Do as I tell you.?
He acts as if he were the Prime Minister.
It looks as though it might rain.
These clauses are introduced by the following conjunctions as, as if, as though.

(ix) Adverbial Clauses of Concession
Look at these sentences :
Although he worked hard, he could not succeed.
Whatever decision is made, the basic facts remain the same.
Though he is poor, he is sincere.
Whether he works or not, he will get a promotion.

This clause is introduced by these conjunctions—though, although, however, whether …. or not, no matter, even if.

EXERCISES
Q.1. Complete the following by adding Noun clauses :
(i) They all said …………………..
(ii) He told me …………………..
(iii) I wonder …………………..
(iv) I do not know …………………..
(v) I cannot understand …………………..
(vi) It is certain …………………..
(vii) You forget …………………..
(viii) Tell me …………………..
(ix) His father was anxious …………………..
(x) He was pleased with
Answer:
(i) that India is great.
(ii) that this news is false.
(iii) why he failed.
(iv) why he will come.
(v) how did you solve it?
(vi) that he would die.
(vii) that you are an Indian
(viii) who is at round.
(ix) for he was declining.
(x) what he had done.

Q. 2. Supply Adjective Clauses :
(i) He is the man …………………..
(ii) The house ………………….. is. hundred years old.
(iii) His offense is one …………………..
(iv) I found the book …………………..;
(v). He met a girl …………………..
(vi) I know the man …………………..
(vii) No man ………………….. shall suffer in any way.
(viii) Where is the book …………………..?
(ix) Any boy ………………….. gained the prize.
(x) I know the place …………………..
Answer:
(i) who has done it?
(ii) which I saw.
(iii) that he applied at last.
(iv) which I lost yesterday.
(v) who has blue eyes.
(vi) who is the Chief of Army.
(vii) who has courage.
(viii) which I bouglic yesterday.
(ix) who had worked hard.
(x) where I was born.

Q. 3. Pick out the adverb clauses in the following sentences:
(i) I do it because I choose to.
(ii) If I make a promise I keep it.
(iii) I shall remain where I am.
(iv) Will you wait till I return?
(v) You may sit whenever you like.
(vi) As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
(vii) He advanced as far as he dared.
(viii) When I was younger, I thought so.
(ix) If you eat too much you will be ill.
(x) Take a lamp because the night is dark.
Answer:
(i) because I choose to.
(ii) If I make
(iii) where I am.
(iv) till I return.
(v) wherever you like
(vi) As he was not there.
(vii) as far as he dared.
(viii) when I was younger.
(ix) If you eat too much
(x) because the night is dark.

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