MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write four names of prominent temples of Rajput period and their places. (MP 2010)
Answer:

Name Place
1. Kandanya Mahadev Khajuraho
2. Dilwara Temple Mt. Abu
3. Lingraja Temple Bhubaneshwar
4. Sun Temple Konark

Question 2.
Write the characteristics of painting of Gupta period* (MP 2008, 09, 11)
Answer:
Characteristics of paintings:

  • Painting was based on scientific lines during the Gupta period. The finest examples of paintings are in the Ajanta caves.
  • These have been included in the world heritage sites. These paintings are mostly based on religious themes. They have depicated Buddha and Buddhisttva.
  • Descriptive scenes from Jataka stories can also be seen. These paintings are original, lively and impressive.
  • The paintings of this period can be seen in the caves of Bagh (in M.P. Dhar district). The themes of the pictures in these caves are worldly.
  • During this period beautiful colours in the pictures have been used
  • During Gupta period paintings were based on religious themes.

Question 3.
Explain the Buddhist literature. (MP 2011)
Or
What is meant by ‘Tripitikas or three baskets’ in Buddhist literature?
Answer:
Buddhism has greatly enriched the Pali and Sanskrit language Buddhism has Tripitikas meaning three baskets-Vinay pitika, Sutta pitika and Abidhamma pitika. Vinay pitika contains the rules of daily life. The Sutta pitika contains virtues and Buddha’s discourses and saying on four eternal truths. Abhidhamma pitika contains the philosophical development of teaching of Buddhas. Buddhist literature also includes Deepvansha, Mahavansa, Divyavdan, Milind Panhar, Mahabodhi Vansa, Mahavansa like Aryamanjushree, Muikaip etc.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

Question 4.
State the chief sculpture characteristics of Indus valley civilization. (MP 2011)
Answer:
The practice of metal statues started during Indus valley period. A bronze statue of a dancing girl has been found from Mohanjodaro. A bronze chariot statue of this civilization has also been found. The two-wheeled chariot is driven by two balls and man is directing the chariot. The artists depicted their artistic skills on seals in the form of Elephant, Rhinoceros and Buffalo. Humped bull is found on most of the seals found here.

Other animals on the seal include dog, pig, monkey and other birds and animals. The clay statues of women are found in large number in the Indus civilization. The seal of Indus civilization are rectangular and spherical. They are made of Gomed, chirt and clay. Copper seals have been found from Desalpur in Lothal. On one of them is Pasupati Shiva seated on a stool surrounded by Elephant, Cheetah, Rhinoceros, Buffalo etc.

Question 5.
Write a short note on Ash oka’s pillar. (MP 2010, 15)
Answer:
The best specimen of Mauryan architecture are the pillars of Ashoka, which were constructed by him for propagation of Dhamma.

These pillars are nearly 20 in number and located in various parts of India, Samath, Prayag, Kausambhi in Uttar Pradesh. Pillars have been found in Lumbini and Nigilva in the plains of Nepal. Besides these at Sanchi. Lorya, Nandgarh and at various other places too, Ashoka pillars have been found. The cipital on the pillars was extremely creative.

The famous architecture of Mauryan period are pillar edicts of Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh) and Samath Uttar Pradesh. Cave edicts of Barabara Nagaijun (Bihar), Stupas at Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh), Bodhgaya (Bihar).

Question 6.
Write the special features of the temples of Gupta period. (MP 2012, 13, 15)
Answer:
The special features of the temples of Gupta period:

  • Temples were constructed with stones and bricks.
  • The temples constructed during the Gupta period had flat roof.
  • In Gupta period the first time Shikhar was constructed at Dashavstara in Devgarh temple.
  • Many of such temples still exist such as Buddhist Shrine in Sandf in Uttar Pradesh Bheetargaon.

Question 7.
Write the differences between Nagara and Dravidian styles.
Answer:
Differences between Nagar and Dravidian style:
Nagar style:

  1. Nagar style temples were constructed mainly in North India.
  2. In nagar style the Shikhars are nearly spiral.
  3. On the top of the shikhar round dome and kalash is found.

Dravidian style:

  1. Dravidian style temples were constructed in South India.
  2. In dravidian style temples the Shikhars are rectangular.
  3. The shikar are constructed by placing rectangular blocks one over the other.

Question 8.
Write the characteristics of Medieval period fine arts in Indus valley civilization.
Answer:
Fine arts were in practice during the Indus civilization. The Agnivedica built on a raised platform found at Rakhigahri, Decorated bricked found on the floor of Kalibanga made of baked brick statues decorated ornaments glossy paint on the utensils and circle on them. Geometrical lines and depiction of birds and animals, sacred symbols of well being like swastik, chakra, sun etc. throw the light on the practice of performing arts of the contemporary society. Drama, theatre, music, dance is mentioned.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

Question 9.
Write the differences between Mathura and Gandhara art. (MP 2011, 13)
Answer:
Differences between Mathura and Gandhara art:
Gandhara art:

  1. The subject of Gandhara art were Indian while the technique was Greek.
  2. Statues were mostly built of slate.
  3. Creased clothes have been shown on the statues.
  4. Mahatma Buddha is also shown to be seated on a throne.

Mathura art:

  1. Remains of Buddhist, Jain and Brahmanical all three religions have been found at Mathura.
  2. The statues of Lord Buddha and Boddhisatvas have been found in the Mathura art.
  3. The statues of Buddha are covered with drapery.
  4. Statues have been constructed using the sand stone.

Question 10.
Explain the Jains literature. (MP 2015)
Answer:
Jains have contributed to India’s classical and popular literature. For e.g., almost all early Kannad and Tamil works were written by Jains.
(1) Some of the oldest known books in Hindi and Gujrati were written by Jain scholars. The first autobiography in the ancestor, of Hindi, Bruj Bhasha is called ‘Ardhakathanaka’, and was written by Jain.

(2) The oldest jain literature is in shaurasem and the jain prakrit. Many classical texts are in Sanskrit “Abhidhana Rajcndra kosha”, written by Acharya Rajendra suri, is only available jain dictionary to Understand the jain prakrit, Sanskrit, Ardha-magadhi and other languages, words, their use and reference with in oldest jain litrature.

Jain literture mainly emphasized on ahinsa and principle of non-violence.

Question 11.
What is meant by cultural trends?
Answer:
By cultural trend is meant the form of Indian culture which includes, painting, literature, architecture, sculpture, dance, music and other performing arts.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How did literature develop from ancient to Medieval period? (MP 2012)
Answer:
Literature is considered as the mirror of society. The Indian literature is as prosperous as glorious in Indian history.

Indus civilization had the knowledge of script. More than 2500 inscriptions has been found here till now. Indus script seems to be pictographic. But there is a stronger possibility of it depicting alphabets. The development of script among Indus inhabitants points towards their literary interest.

Vedic period literature is very prosperous from the creativity point of view. The literature of this period has a lively description of ancient life and values. Vedas are four in number- Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samveda, Arthavanaveda. The oldest of Vedic literature is the Rigveda. During the epic period epics like Mahabharat and Ramayana were written which depict the social and political life during the period. The Ramayana was composed by Maharishi Valmiki and Mahabharat was composed by Vedvyas.

Jain literature has three branches, religious books, philosophical and secular writings. These chiefly have prose, legends, grammar and dramas. Out of these most of the composition are still in the form of manuscripts and are found in the Chaityas of Gujarat and Rajasthan. The prominent books in Jain literature are Kalpasurta of Bhadrabahu, Parishisht Parwan of Hemechandra.

Buddhism has greatly enriched the Pali and Sanskrit language. Buddhism has Tripitikas meaning three baskets-Vinaypitika, Sutta-pitika and Abidhamma-pitika. Vinaypitika contains the rules of daily life. Bhuddhist literature also includes Deepvansh, Mahavansa, DivyaDan etc.

During Mauryan period two types of scripts were used Brahmi and Kharosthi, Kautilya wrote the Arthshastra during this period.

During the surga Satvahana period, there were scholars like patanjali. The famous book Charak Samliita was written during this period. The form in which literature flourished during the period of Gupts rules is unparalled. Ramayana and Mahabharat was written during this period.

Banabhatta was a great writer of the period of Harshavardhan. He wrote two books Harsha Charitra and Kadambari. There was importance of Sanskrit.

The creation of literary and extremely flowery work was towards rise during the Rajput period. Literature was predominantly romantic. During this period books were written on medicine, astrology, grammer, sculpture and various other subjects.

Along with north india there was literary creation worth mentioning in South India as well. Pulkesin’s vassal wrote a book called Shabdavater. Scholar Udaidev wrote a book called Jainendra Vyakaran. Mahendra Verma-I wrote a book “Matvilas Prahsan”. There was growth of Tamil language during the Pallavas and Cholas.

In Mugal period Kabir, Jayasee, Surdas, Tulsidas are important one. Amir Khusro was famous for his poems and puzzles.

Question 2.
Write the features of painting from ancient to Medieval period. (MP 2013)
Answer:
The growth of painting depicts on the expression of man’s thoughts through paintings. During different period paintings have been made by the painters of contemporary society. In India paintings of pre-historic times can be seen on various rocks and stones. In Bhimbetka caves near Bhopal we can see a fine examples of this art.

People of Indus valley civilization had knowledge of painting. We have enough evidence of this. Many paintings can be seen in the utensils and seals found here. Painting was also done on the walls of the buildings. In Paintings natural scenes and animals both can be seen. Colours were also used in the paintings.

On the basis of literature it can be said that these people expressed their feelings on walls, utensils and also through embroidery on the clothes.

Mauryan period painting grew as folk art paintings were depicted on buddings, pillars etc. Paintings were based on scientific lines during the Gupta period. The finest examples are seen in Ajanta Caves. The paintings were mostly based on religious themes. They have depicted Buddha and Bhodistva. During this period beautiful colours in the pictures have been used.

During Harsha’s period paintings were made on the clothes. Painters have painted various scenes. Women on this occasion painted on utensils of clay.

During Rajput period the art of painting had fully developed. During this period many regional styles of painting had developed. Such as Gujarat style. Rajputana style etc. Gujarat style has scenes depending Jain life style and religion. In Rajputana style, romantic scenes of Radha-Krishna have been depicted. The art of Miniature painting also developed during this period. These paintings were made to decorate the books.

Painting declined during the Sultanat period. Painting was looked down upon by the Sultans. Still painting remained alive in Gujarat, Rajasthan and regions of Malwa. Slowly Malwa and Rajasthan School of art developed. The Books written on birch barke in Gujarat by Jain monks have a very high quality of small illustrations.

Mughal paintings were started during the rule of Humayun Akbar gave an organised form to Mughal paintings.

Painters painted foreign plants, trees and their leaves and flowers minutest obtain of decoration architecture images of woman. Exceptional Rajasthani paintings with decorative elements. Fresco painting started for the first time during the Akbar period.

Jehangir’s period is known on the golden period of Mughal paintings. Jehangir himself was a painter. Jehangir established a painting school (Chitrashala) under guidance of famous painter Akarizh. During Jehangirs period Portrait painting, natural scenes and paintings related to persons life started.

During Shah Jahan’s reign borders and underlines in paintings progressed.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

Question 3.
Describe the architecture of Mugal period. (MP 2009)
Answer:
The influence of Islamic architecture can be clearly seen on the medieval architecture. There was intermingling of Indian architecture with Persian, Turkish and Indian styles and architecture prevalent in other Islamic countries. Primarily Mosques, Mausoleums, Palaces, Massive gates (Torans), Domes, Mehrabs and Minar were constructed in Islamic architecture.

Mughal style developed as a result of fusion between foreign and Indian styles. Hence Mughal period architecture a mixed influence of Jain, Buddhist, Rajput, Persian, Baghdad style can be seen.

The engraving of diamonds in white marble, pietra dura and running water in the palaces are some of the salient features of Mughal architecture. The chief architectural places were Mosque of Kabuli Bagh, Mosque of Panipat, Babri Mosque at Ayodhya, Mosque at Agra Fort. The most important architectural structure of Sher Shah’s period is a mosque constructed on a raised platform in the midst of lake at Sasaram in Bihar.

Buildings of Akbar’s period were constructed by red sandstone. Akbar got Fatehpur Sikri built. The chief features are intermingling of Chapakar and Dhamik styles. Fatehpur Sikri’s Diwan-i-Aam, Diwan-i-Khas, Agra Fort, Palace of Jodhabai, Panch Mahal, Jama Masjid, Buland Darwaza are specimens of Akbar’s period architecture.

Shah Jahan’s periods is known as the golden age of Mughal architecture. The chief features of architecture of the period were carved Meharbs, and minars. The famous building of Shah Jahan’s period are Red Fort Delhi, Diwan-i-Khas, Jama Masjid and Taj Mahal at Agra. The biggest achievement of this period is Taj Mahal. It is 313 ft high Square mausoleum made of white marble which has been built on 22ft high platform. The four comers of Mausoleum have a minar. It has a dome on the top.

Harmindar at Amritsar is a unique example of Gurudwaras. It was constructed between 588 to 1601 A.D.

Question 4.
How did the sculpture developed in the Medieval period? (MP 2009, 12)
Answer:
Early medieval period: The statues of Buddhist and Brahmanical religion of this time are comparatively more beautiful. The status of the period have more religious expressions. The influence of Tantric ideology during the later Rajput period can be seen on the statues. Multihanded statues started to be sculpted during the period. In this four handed statue of Vishnu and Goddesses statues are famous.

Linga statues of Shiva are found in a large number. Many statues of Boddhisatvas of the contemporary time have been found in North India. The chiseling out of rock into double storey Kailash temple at Ellora is a fine example of sculpture. The Shal Bhanjika Statue of the early medieval period to the 10th-11th century found from Ghiyaspur in Vidisha is famous in the world for its decoration and expression.

Presently it is kept in the Gujari palace museum at Gwalior. Beautiful specimens of stone and metal sculpture have also been found from southern India. Various Gods and Goddesses have been sculpted. The Natraj bronze statue is famous for being artistic.

There was a splendid development in the field of sculpture in south India during the Medieval period statues and sculpture were used to decorate the interiors and out side of temples. The art of sculpture developed during the Akbar’s period. It was also encouraged during Jahangir’s reign. In Agra Fort Amar Singhs and Kam Singhs statues were put up beneath the window. The palace of Fatehpur Sikris Elephant gate entrance is decorated with two massive elephants.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

I. Choose the correct alternatives:

Question 1.
Where has the chariot driven bronze statue been found from:
(a) Daimabad
(b) Mohanjodaro
(c) Kalibanga
(d) Punjab
Answer:
(b) Mohanjodaro

Question 2.
When did the first Urbanization take place:
(a) New stone age
(b) Indus civilization
(c) Maurya period
(d) Gupta period.
Answer:
(b) Indus civilization

Question 3.
Who talked about scientific basis of teaching:
(a) Vatsayan
(b) Ashoka
(c) Samudra Gupta
(d) Kumar Gupta
Answer:
(c) Samudra Gupta

Question 4.
Which dynasty started coins with vina emblem:
(a) Maurya dynasty
(b) Gupta dynasty
(c) Vardhan dynasty
(d) Rajput dynasty
Answer:
(b) Gupta dynasty

Question 5.
Who was the originator of Quwali:
(a) Akbar
(b) Shahjahan
(c) Tansen
(d) AmirKhusro
Answer:
(d) AmirKhusro

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

II. Fill in the blanks:

Question 1.
Literature is the …………… of society.
Answer:
Mirror

Question 2.
Near Bhopal …………… caves are found (MP 2012
Answer:
Bhimbetaka

Question 3.
During the period of Harsha paintings was done on ……………
Answer:
Clothes

Question 4.
The art of sculpture attained new heights during the …………… period.
Answer:
Gupta

Question 5.
The temple of Kalika Devi is situated in …………….
Answer:
Chittorgarh

III. Match the following:

A B
1. The sun temple (a) Jainendra vyakaran
2. Lingraj temple (b) Humayunama
3. Gulbadan (c) Vrihat Sanhita
4. Abul Fazal (d) Bhuvneshwar
5. Kalidas (e) Raj tarangini
6. Kalhan (f) Konark
7. Varahmihir (g) Akabamama
8. Vijaydev (h) Abhigyan Shakuntalam
9. Vishakh Dutta (i) Mudra Rakshas (MP 2009)

Answers:
1. (f)
2. (d)
3. (b)
4. (g)
5. (h)
6. (e)
7. (c)
8. (a)
9. (i)

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:

Question 1.
Indus valley civilization has a knowledge of script.
Answer:
True

Question 2.
Indian culture is a valuable asset of human society.
Answer:
True

Question 3.
During Rajput period Patanjali was a scholar.
Answer:
False

Question 4.
Jainism has three branches.
Answer:
True

Question 5.
Gupta period was called the golden period of literature.
Answer:
True

Question 6.
There was downfall of paintings in Sultanate period.
Answer:
True

Question 7.
In medieval period the development of sculpture developed in southern India.
Answer:
True

Question 8.
The period of Shah Jahan was known as the golden period of Mugal architecture.
Answer:
True

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

Question 9.
Initially Urdu was known as Zaban-e-Hindavi.
Answer:
True

Question 10.
The originator of Quwali was Amir Khusro.
Answer:
True

V. Write the answer in one word:

Question 1.
Who composed Tamil Ramayan?
Answer:
Kamban

Question 2.
In which period the Nalanda University established?
Answer:
Gupta period

Question 3.
Living place of monks.
Answer:
Vihar

Question 4.
The epics to be read in frests.
Answer:
Arnayk

Question 5.
The important epic of Someshwar and Sarangdev.
Answer:
Sangit Ratnakar

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 11 Major Cultural Trends

Question 6.
In which period was the mugal painting developed?
Answer:
Humayu

Question 7.
Caves made by cutting the rocks.
Answer:
Guha

Question 8.
The temple of Mahabalipuram is situated.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu.

MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions

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