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MP Board Class 12th General English Essay Writing
1. The Unemployment Problem [2009, 12, 18]
The Main Reason – Unemployment results when there are more job seekers and less jobs. What are the reasons of its origin and growth? Well, the major reason is our rapidly growing population. Since 1950 our population has grown two and a half times but our economic growth, which creates jobs, could not keep pace with it. Hence, unemployment, which was a problem even in 1950, has acquired gigantic1 proportions and requires some drastic2 measures otherwise it may go out of hand.
The Nature of the Problem – As unemployment is directly linked to population growth, its in-depth analysis may indicate the nature of the problem as well as help in identifying the measures needed to deal with it.
When we look at the pattern of population growth we find that it is growing faster in the rural areas resulting in (a) bigger landless families forcing migration towards town for employment mostly as unskilled workers, and (b) dividing land-holdings into unviable entities resulting in underemployment of youth who need self-employment opportunities.
In the urban areas, though it is not growing that fast, unemployment results from defective educational planning. Our educational system is producing far more matriculates as well as graduates in sciences and humanities who have very little employment potential. Graduates in commerce and agriculture and information technology have better employment potential and there isn’t much unemployment in this group.
Measures to Mitigate it – In the light of the above, the following measures may go a long way in mitigating3, if not eradicating, the problem. For the rural sector a two pronged attack’1′ is required. Projects for infrastructure development leading to industrial development creating jobs for the unskilled workers coming from the landless families. And for the other group, as they would have some money to invest, efforts should be made to promote cottage and village industries.
For the youth of the urban areas, our educational system should be reorganised so as to provide better employable youth. This would need creating more and better opportunities for technical and vocational education.
[1. विशाल। 2. कठोर। 3. कम करना। 4. दो तरफ हमला।]
2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Television
TV as a Medium of Education
Educational Value of Television 
Introduction – On September 13, 1959, AIR set up an experimental television service in India. This was the beginning of the television era’ in our country. The experiment was a success. The TV centres have been set up all over the country, in all the States and in big numbers. There are now TV sets in the cities as well as in the villages. The credit goes to late Smt. Indira Gandhi for spreading TV service so widely.
Advantages – There are mhny advantages of the TV services. The most important ones may be mentioned here.
(a) Education – It can play an important role in furthering the cause of education. It can assist2 teachers to a great extent. What they teach in the classes can be reinforced on the TV. Even additional knowledge can be imparted. The students also retain easily the information received on it because of its visual aid. Television viewing does not demand the strain and discipline needed in reading books. Moreover, dull and dreary things become interesting when viewed and heard on the TV. Thus, Television can vitalize teaching a good deal. For, learning through the eye helps remembering things better.
(b) General knowledge – Besides the students, people in general can benefit from Television. Since it provides words with pictures and sound effects, its programmes are as interesting as cinema-films. It is definitely a better medium than the radio which reproduces only the sound. Thus, the TV can teach people without straining them. It broadcasts messages, it discusses their typical problems, it informs them about national and international happenings. In one word, it keeps the people well informed on all important matters. It also pushes them towards modernization.
(c) Entertainment – Television is perhaps the easiest and the cheapest means of entertainment. It considerably reduces the number of our visits to cinema houses, which is a costly affair. What is there in a cinema house that we cannot enjoy at home with a TV set? Sitting on a sofa we watch along with other members of our family a film, a dramatic play, a mushaira, kavisammelan, various kinds of witty and informative competitions, and so ’ on and so forth, who failed to enjoy the ‘Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi’ series?
Disadvantages – But it does not mean that the gift of television is all joy and profit. It is attended also by its own disadvantages.
(a) Bad effect on the eyesight – First and foremost long, continuous watching the TV is harmful to the eye, it weakens the eyesight. It is believed that watching the colour TV is more injurious. Watching the TV for long hours is bound to overstrain4 the eye.
(b) Waste of time – All the TV programmes are not good or profitable for the people. But once the TV is on, we do not care to switch it off whether we enjoy the running programme or not. Careless of our valuable time we keep on sitting in front of our TV set. We sometimes forget to do our most important work.
(c) Neglect of duty – TV watching also causes neglect of duty in the case of children and parents. At the cost of their study the students want to watch the TV. They delay going to bed. And when they go to bed late they naturally rise late, which is a bad habit. They do not like to miss day long matches, serials and many other purely entertaining shows. This is also true of the elder people. They find it easier to cancel their visit to a sick friend than to miss their favourite serial. If a visitor comes, nobody talks to him, he is forced to watch the film running on the TV.
Conclusion – These are some of the most important advantages and disadvantages. In fact the television is not bad in itself. The viewers need self-discipline5. They should make a judicious use of this great gift of science, like any other gift of science.
[1. युग। 2. मदद करना। 3. आधुनिकीकरण। 4. जोर देना। 5. आत्म अनुशसन।]
3. The Value of Games and Sports [2009,18]
Importance of Games and Sports [2010,11,13,16]
Advantages of Games and Sports 
Introduction – Games and sports are an important part of education. They help in the development of the physique and mind of the student. A sound body possesses a sound mind. If we are weak and sick we cannot have fertile1 brain. Games and sports keep us healthy. They keep us active, make us smart.
Physical and Mental Education – Gandhiji said, “Physical training should have as much place in curriculum as mental training.” Mere bookish knowledge would not lead to proper development of a personality. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. Mere studies would not suffice. Similarly, mere sports won’t do. The two should be blended in a suitable proportion2 so that the students can have the best of them. They should not only develop the mind but also the body. Both are essential for a wholesome personality.
Other Benefits – Games and sports do not merely keep us healthy and physically fit, they also inculcate in young people the duty, of loyalty. These qualities can be summed up in a word ‘sportsmanship’. The first and the foremost thing that games teach us is to take victory and defeat alike. In every game, there are two parties. One wins and the other loses. The winners need not be over-zealous and the loser ones should not get asperated. Both the parties should greet each other heartily after the game. Secondly, games and sports teach us discipline. Every player must obey his or her captain.
He has to play obeying all the rules of the games. He has also to abide by the decision of the referee or umpire. Thirdly, games broaden our outlook. The players need have no bias. They should treat other players alike. The players ought not to differentiate between one another on the basis of nationality, caste, creed or colour. The games promote international brotherhood and affection amongst the people of the world. Thus, they promote world peace too.
International Appeal – Games are beneficial not only to players; they are equally beneficial to the public at large. When a match is being played, spectators3 also enjoy it. They become one with the game and in a way take active part in it. Besides enjoying the game, they learn many things from them. Radio and TV have increased the number of people taking interest in games. Nowadays, people in any part of the world can enjoy listening to running commentaries of matches on radio or watching them on the Television.
Value in Student Life – Games and sports have great value in student’s life. The foundation4 for a virtuous life is laid in school. If at an early age a student develops the taste for studies and sports in a proper way, he can become an ideal citizen in his later life. The sports arena teaches many things to the students. It gives him discipline. It develops his sportsman spirit, mental outlook, cheerful nature, sense of humor and strong physique – all these are important traits5 of a successful life. If a student studies seriously and diligently and still takes part in sports and games he would make an ideal personality.
[1. उपजाऊ। 2. अनुपात। 3. दर्शक। 4. नींव। 5. विशेषताएँ।]
4. The Use of Computers in Modern Age 
Educational Value of Computers 
Advantages of Computers in Our Daily Life 
Role of Computers in School Education 
Introduction – The computer is the gift of the 20th century. In 1947, India got independence and the world got the first computer called Electronic Delayed Storage and Calculation [EDSAC]. It was fully automatic. It could store data and instructions and execute the stored instructions. Though much progress has been made in the computer technology, we are yet only in the midst of the computer revolution.
Its popularity – Though the history of the computer is very recent; there is hardly any sphere of human acti vity where computers are not being used. The impact of the computer revolution is being felt everywhere and it is bringing many changes in our society.
What is a computer? – To a layman, a computer is an electronic machine with mystical powers, a superhuman that can perform any job and do anything that was impossible before. But, in fact, a computer is much like any other machine used by man. Like any other machine it has its limitations and, like any other machine, it is an obedient servant of man and can do wonders with the help of human intelligence and imagination.
The basic function of a computer – There are three basic functions that a computer can perform. They are :
(i) arithmetic operations – addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of values,
(ii) comparison operations – testing of relationships of two values, and
(iii) storage and retrieval operations – storing and reproducing of values when required. A computer performs these operations at a very high speed and for a very long time, maintaining high level of accuracy, without fatigue. These features make a computer unique and distinctly superior to other machines capable of performing such functions.
Basic components – A computer system has at least three basic components, namely
(a) input device,
(b) central processing unit [CPU], and
(c) output device.
The input device helps the user to give data and instructions to the CPU. The CPU performs the computation and thus is the real computer – the brain of the system. On the output device the computer prints the end results of the data processing.
Types of computers – Various types of computers are being used depending upon the purpose and data processing requirements. In terms of size, computers may be classified in three broad categories :
(i) Main frame, the biggest one with very large memory used only in big organizations,
(ii) Mini computer, the smaller one, and
(iii) Micro computer, the smallest one.
Computers can also be classified on the basis of the type of input they accept:
(i) Digital Computers which accept input in the form of digits,
(ii) Analog Computers which accept physical quantities as their input,
e.g., pressure of air and water, temperature, etc. Robot is a good example of this type.
Conclusion – The development of computer technology is, at present, in its fourth generation where it has witnessed many breakthroughs. It has made computers smaller, cheaper, more efficient, more friendly to the user and easier to maintain. However, this is not the end. Very serious efforts are being made to increase the storage capacity of computers at a substantially reduced cost. The fifth-generation computers, which are about to come in a very big way, shall have the artificial intelligence that shall approach quite close to human intelligence.
5. Science in Daily Life [2011,14,16]
Our Daily Life and Science 
Science : Its Uses and Abuses 
Wonders of Science 
Man’s Journey of Life and Science 
Science and Technology – Boon or Curse [2012,13,18]
Introduction – Science in itself is neither good nor bad. Its use determines1 its character. If it is used for constructive1 purposes, it is good; it is a good servant. If it is used for destructive1 purposes, it is bad; it is a bad master.
A good servant – Many are the gifts of science, which have made life, happy and comfortable. It has given us electricity, the wonder of wonders, cheap and quick transport and countless time and labor-saving devices. It has helped progress in medicine and surgery. It has helped the farmer grow more food. It has relieved human suffering in hundreds of ways. It has brought in the age of plenty and prosperity. These and many other things show that science is a good servant.
A warning – Nobody should question the importance of science. But we should not shut our eyes to the harm that science does or can do. We should always remember that science is meant for man, not man for science. Material progress should be accompanied4 by moral and spiritual progress.
A bad master – If foolish and power-hungry men control the knowledge of science, science becomes a bad master. In their hands science may cause suffering and destruction. It may help colonialism5 and imperialism6 It may keep backward nations in slavery. It may cause mass destruction through nuclear weapons or rockets. It may cause mass poisoning and germ warfare. Then science will no more be a good servant but a bad master.
Conclusion – The truth about science is that, like fire, science is a good servant but a bad master. We should be careful to put science to good uses only. We should remember that science exists7 for man; man does not exist for science.
[1. निश्चित करता है। 2. रचनात्मक। 3. विनाशक। 4. जुड़ी हुई। 5. उपनिवेशवाद। 6. साम्राज्यवाद। 7. अस्तित्व रखता है।]
6. A Great Indian Leader: Mahatma Gandhi 
The Man I admire most 
The Person I like most 
The Person Whom I Respect most 
Introduction – “Some men are bom great, some achieve greatness and some have greatness thrust upon them.” Our beloved leader Mahatma Gandhi belongs to the second category1 of people, that is, he is one of those who achieved greatness by their own effort. He was not only the Father of Indian nation but one of the greatest figures of world history.
His early life – He was bom on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar. After his matriculation, he was sent to England to study law. After a brief practice in India he went to South Africa to plead a legal case.
In South Africa – He was greatly shocked to find Indians suffering from many disabilities in South Africa. The ill-treatment2 given to Indians there hurt his patriotic feelings. He himself was called a ‘Coolie Barrister’. He had read Thoreau and Tolstoy. From them he had learned the doctrine3 of civil disobedience and passive resistance. On these principles he started a peaceful campaign4 against the Government of South Africa. He was sent to jail.
His fights for India’s freedom – Sometime after his release he returned to India. He had tested the mighty force of his weapon of civil disobedience and passive resistance. He applied the same weapon against the injustice of the English rule in India. He was shocked and horrified5 by the massacre of Jallianwala Bagh. In 1920, he started the Non-cooperation Movement which shook India from end to end. His movement attracted worldwide attention. He became the leader of the Indian National Congress. Besides many top ranking IndiAnswer:the masses joined his movement. Under his influence, a silent but powerful revolution took place in mental, social and political life of the country. His efforts for Indian independence were crowned with success in 1947.
His guiding principles – Truth and non-violence were the guiding principles of his life. He himself practiced as-well-as taught these principles to his people and to the world. He also preached6 the noble doctrine that the means should be as clean and pure as the end. The right end did not justify the use of wrong means. This he preached and this he himself practiced.
The last phase – India became free, but India was partitioned1 to Gandhiji’s great sorrow. He was very much pained at the communal riots that followed Independence. He died a martyr’s death when he was shot dead by a fanatic young man.
Conclusion – Not only India but the whole world was made poorer by Gandhiji’s death. His death was rightly mourned all over the world. Long will he live in the history of the world.
[1. श्रेणी। 2. दुर्व्यवहार। 3. सिद्धान्त। 4. आन्दोलन। 5. दुखी। 6. सिखाया। 7. विभाजित हुआ। 8. जातीय दंगे।]
7. The Population Problem in India 
The Most Pressing Problem of Our-Life
Any Current Problem in India [2013,17]
Introduction – The problem of population in India means the problem of over-population in the country. This problem is not peculiar to our country; it is a world-wide problem. But since ours is one of the most populous countries, its problem is the gravest’ one. In order to solve the problem we must think over the cause of problem and find out remedy or remedies for it. But, first let us know the size of the problem.
The size of the problem – India has about 15 percent of the world’s total population. That is, every seventh person in the world is an Indian. In
1971, India’s population was 54-81 crores,butby 1981 it rose to 68-38 crores. The annual increase in India’s population is estimated to be one crore and thirty lakhs of people. These figures show the seriousness of the population problem in our country.
Causes of the problem – The-causes of the increase in population are not far1 to seek.2. High birth rate and low death rate are two main causes. The development of modem medical science has led to a marked decline3 in death rate, many of even those diseases which were considered incurable4 are cured now. The decrease in death rate should have been accompanied by a decrease in birth rate to keep the population under control. This has not been so. The birth rate remains continuously high. The result is constantly rising population. Early marriages and unrestricted growth of families are also among causes of population explosion5.
Harms of over-population – Over-population is a curse because it gives birth to host6 of problems which adversely affect the quality of our life. With every rise in population we need more clothing, more houses, more schools, more hospitals and more jobs. The tremendous8 economic progress made by our country after the achievement of freedom in 1947 has failed to improve’the economic condition of our people. India is still a poor country. To make the condition worse, number of ill-fed, ill-clothed9, illiterate and unemployed people is increasing every day. The ever-increasing population and inadequate employment opportunities are throwing a large section of people below the poverty line. Why is it so? The simple answer is that our production and opportunities of employment fall too short of our rapidly rising population.
The remedy – In order to meet the challenge of over-population we can do only two things. One is to increase food supply and the other thing is that we should check the increase in population besides doing what we can do to increase production of necessaries of life.
Check or reduction in population can be achieved through Family Welfare Planning. It is noteworthy11 that.India was one of the first countries to realize the importance of family planning for general economic development. It started the ‘planning’ as long ago as 1952. But it has not yet been able to achieve the desired result. It needs to be practical and free of all politics and religious biases. It should be imposed12 rigorously13 and on all people irrespective14 of caste and creed. Persuasion would, of course, accompany compulsion.
Conclusion – Our population problem is a matter of top national priority15 and deserves all attention and action. Unless we reduce or control population, we are all going to suffer badly by the turn16 of this century.
[1. गम्भीरतम। 2. खोजना कठिन नहीं है। 3. कमी। 4. असाध्य। 5. जनसंख्या विस्फोट। 6. बहुत-से। 7. विपरीत दिशा में। 8. बड़ी। 9. भोजन और वस्त्र के अभाव में ग्रस्त। 10. जीवन की आवश्यकताएँ। 11. ध्यान देने योग्य। 12. लागू करना। 13. सख्ती से। 14. कोई ध्यान किये बिना, अनपेक्षित। 15. प्राथमिकता। 16. मोड़।]
8. Environment: The Problem of Pollution 
Impact of Pollution on our day to day life 
Pollution and Our Existence 
Pollution Problem : A Great Challenge 
Introduction – Environment1 means all the surrounding conditions which influence the growth and development of life. The environment is composed of gases and substances1 which exist in a certain proportion. When, for any reason, one of the constituents increases or decreases the balance of the whole atmosphere is disturbed. This imbalance of the constituents3 is called pollution of the environment. The pollution4 is chiefly of two kinds – air pollution and water pollution.
Air pollution – Air pollution means loss of balance of proportion of oxygen, carbon dioxide and other gases which are found in the air. To be precise, when carbon dioxide increases and oxygen decreases in the air, air pollution take place. We all know the oxygen in the air is constantly being used up and turned into carbon dioxide when animals breathe and things bum. But nature has its own way to replace the used-up oxygen. The green leaves of all trees and plants absorb5 the carbon dioxide from the air and break it up into carbon and oxygen. The carbon is used to make starch and oxygen is released into the .atmosphere. That is how trees help to replace the used-up oxygen and maintain equilibrium6 in the environment.
Causes of air pollution – But the equilibrium in the environment is being constantly destroyed by man himself. Since long man has been cutting down trees and plants in order to use them as fuel and wood for building. This has resulted in deforestation1 leading to unbalanced or unhealthy environment. Thus, deforestation is the first cause of air pollution.
Another cause is too much use of motor-cycles, scooters, tempos, cars, buses, steamers and aeroplanes. They all burn oil or coal and add to the carbon dioxide in the air.
Yet another cause is the modem industrialization which has given and is giving birth to innumerable mills and factories. Their chimneys incessantly pour out poisonous gas and smoke which spoils the environment.
The effect of air pollution – Air pollution affects our health very badly. While we breathe, poisonous gas and smoke also enter our lungs along with oxygen. They cause diseases of lungs and heart. They cause even such incurable diseases as cancer.
Remedies – In order to prevent air pollution, we should first check deforestation and plant as many trees as we can. Secondly, mills and factories should be built away from human population and their chimnies should open high up in the sky. Finally, the use of coal should be replaced by electricity and solar energy.
Water pollution and its cause – The second kind of pollution of the environment is water pollution. Water gets polluted when gases, n.inerals and other substances, which exist in it, lose their due proportion. The desired proportion is disturbed mostly when such things as soap, soda, D.D.T., kerosene oil, poisonous medicines, injurious chemicals, and other impurities are poured into wells, rivers and lakes.
The effect of water pollution – Like air pollution, water pollution is also a great danger to our health. When polluted water is drunk, it causes such diseases as jaundice, typhoid, cholera and cancer. It may cause birth of disabled children.
Remedies – The dirty water should be cleaned by mechanical and other devices before it is poured into rivers and lakes. Dirty injurious rubbish8 should not be thrown into water sources. We should purify our drinking water by boiling and filtering it.
Conclusion – The environment is our sacred and invaluable heritage. Our very existence depends on it. It is, therefore, the duty of every man to keep the environment clean, pure and safe. We should set up environment clubs, ecological10 development camps, and organize seminars and symposiums with a view to protecting and developing human environment.
[1. पर्यावरण। 2. पदार्थ। 3. घटक। 4. प्रदूषण। 5. आत्मसात करना। 6. सन्तुलन। 7. वनों का नाश। 8. कूड़ा-कचरा। 9. छानना। 10. पारिस्थितिकी-विज्ञान सम्बन्धी।]
9. Quality Education at Primary Level 
Introduction – Education is a very important factor in the life of people. Most of the people in India are illiterate. After independence, the attention of the government and our leaders was drawn towards this and several steps were taken to educate people.
Primary Education – In our country the condition of Primary Education is poor. Children are not sent to the schools. They are asked to help the family in the work of earning money. Work on fields, factories, construction of buildings etc. is taken from them. Poverty is the reason for this. The number of schools is also not sufficient. Good teaches are not available.
Importance of Primary Education – Primary Education is very important in our education system. It is the nursery where the children are reared as plants. As a building needs firm foundation in the same way the life of individual depends on primary education. The course and syllabus of primary classes is also not proper. There is a great variety in the structure of Indian society. There is no uniformity. There are several languages. The social and cultural structures are also different. The course and syllabus of primary classes should meet the future requirements of the society. The quality and syllabus should be better.
Dropping Problem – Several students leave their education in the middle way. The reasons are failures, illnesses the parents reluctance and nonavailability of the teachers. For this awareness among the people is needed. The teachers should take interest. They should understand the problems of students and make the school an attractive place for students.
Right to Education – On 1 st April 2010 the right of children to Free and Compulsory Education Act has been passed. The act makes it obligatory on the state to guarantee education and pnsure compulsory to admission of children. This act provides some measures to make it successful.
Conclusion – Well educated children are the backbone of society. Child is the future citizen. And on citizens depends the prosperity, progress and well being of the country.
10. An Election Scene
Introduction – An election scene is a common sight in a democratic country like India, where members of Parliament, Legislative Assemblies and local bodies are elected from time to time. They are elected by adult persons who are given the right to vote in public elections. We have laws for conducting elections. For examples, canvassing, which plays an important role in elections, has to be stopped a day before the election; voters are required to go to the fixed polling stations to register their votes.
The Polling Station – A polling station [or a polling booth] is a place where people go to register their votes. At a polling station the voters of only a particular constituency1 can cast their votes. Often a placard2 is exhibited outside the polling station, the constituency for which that station is meant.
Inside the booth a polling officer and his assistants do their work. When a voter comes in, an assistant traces out his name in the electoral roll. When he is satisfied with the identification of the voter, he puts a mark of indelible3 ink on the little finger of the voter. The voter then receives a ballot paper. He puts his signature on its counterfoil. With this’ ballot paper he is asked to go to a closed comer where a stamp and an ink pad are available. The voter stamps the ballot paper against the name of his candidate. Then he folds the ballot paper as required and puts it into the ballot box through a hole on its top and walks out. Nowadays Electronic Voting Machines [E. V. M.] have been introduced. Here you have to push a button and your vote is cast.
Outside the polling station – The main part of an election is accomplished5 inside the polling station. But its live6 and picturesque1 part is seen outside the booth. At a distance of 100 metres from the booth, agents of various candidates contesting election put up their tents. They issue identity slips to those voters who come to them. A volunteer of the particular agent helps the voter reach or enter the polling booth.
This area outside the polling station presents an exciting and . fascinating scene almost like that of a village fair. There are of course, neither merry-go-rounds nor giant wheels nor shops to attract women and children. Instead, we have the tents of polling agents; but they are decorated with colourful buntings8 which give atmosphere of a festive look9. There is hustle and bustle all round here. People, especially women, can be seen in their best clothes, flocking together10 talking and gesticulating11. Some tents have long rows of voters standing in front of them to receive identity cards. But there are also other tents which present a deserted look. To complete the show; there are also policemen posted at all strategic points to guide the crowd and maintain law and order.
Disputes – Sometimes disputes also break out. For example, the identity of a voter is questioned and it is an occasion for quarrel. In such a case, which is called “challenging the vote”, the Presiding Officer hears both the parties of the dispute and decides whether the voter is to cast vote or not. Sometimes a person impersonates12 a voter and casts vote in his place.
If he is caught red-handed he is handed over to the police for action.
Scenes of rowdyism13 – Sometimes great rowdyisms are enacted. The supporters of two contestants sometimes come to blows and sometimes even to bullets when one group or another indulges in mischief. The supporters or goondas of a losing candidate try to temper with a ballot box or run away with it.
Conclusion – On the whole an Indian election scene is a peaceful one, which is indeed, a great thing because India is a vast country with a huge number of voters.
[1. चुनाव-क्षेत्र। 2. इश्तहार, विज्ञापन। 3. अमिट। 4. मतपत्र। 5. पूर्ण किया जाता है। 6. सजीव। 7. नयनाभिराम। 8. झण्डियाँ। 9. उत्सव-सम्बन्धी दृश्य। 10. एक साथ जाते हुए। 11. उँगलियों आदि के संकेत करते हुए। 12. पररूप धारण करना। 13. हुल्लडबाजी, गुण्डागर्दी।]
11. Important of Newspaper 
Power of the Press
Introduction – Newspaper is a powerful mass media. It plays a very important role in a democractic country. It helps people to form their opinion which is the backbone of democracy. Newspaper have proved that pen is more powerful than sword. They are a good means of expressing one’s thought.
Changing Role of Newspaper – Gone are the days when newspaper was read just to know the news. Its role was very narrow and limited. But today news is only a part of the newspaper. It provides classified news. There are different pages for different categories of news. We have separate pages for local news, international news, sport news, commercial news etc.
Knowledge and Entertainment – Newspapers give us both knowledge and entertainment. They publish articles on science, medicine, health, cookery, fashion etc. They also entertain us through short stories, jokes, articles, quiz etc. They publish interesting comic series, picture quiz etc., for children.
Career Guidance – Most of the newspaper publish very important career guidelines once or twice a week. They inform us about the different academic and vocational courses and competitive examinations. They help us to choose a suitable course and career.
Advertisement – Newspaper publish classified advertisements such as situations vacant, educational, matrimonial, sale and purchase of vehicles, property advertisement. Most of them are very useful. Matrimonials provide a wide choice of matches. ‘Situations Vacant’ column helps us to get a job.
Demerits – Newspapers have some demerits as everything else has. Some advertisements are false. They misguide and deceive the reader. Sometimes biased articles are published. They cause communal riots, hatred and disunity.
Conclusion – Healthy censorship removes these demerits to a great extent. The conscious reader cannot be misguided and deceived by yellow journalism.
12. The Festival You Like Most [2014,16]
Introduction – Diwali is a very’ nice festival of the Hindus. It often comes in the month of October or November every year. It is celebrated in the memory of Ram’s return to Ayodhya from forests after 14 years. The people of Ayodhya welcomed Lord Ram heartily. They decorated their houses with flowers. They lighted earthen lamps before their houses. Diwali is a remembrance of that day.
Preparations – Days before the people start preparations for this festival. People clean their houses completely. They whitewash them. The merchants paint their shops and set them. The market gets a new look.
How Celebrated – People buy new clothes and new dresses. They buy many things for this festival. Children buy crackers. Ladies buy sarees and material for preparing sweets. People give presents to friends and relatives. They send greeting cards to their far off friends and relatives. Main days of celebration of Diwali are three ‘Dhan Teras’, ‘Roop Chaudas’ and ‘Diwali’ on Amavasya day. In the evening ladies and children bum candles and lamps. Many electric bulbs of several colours are also lighted. The rows of lamps look very beautiful.
Worship of Goddess Laxmi – On this day, people worship Goddess Laxmi. They pray her for health, wealth and happiness for the whole year. Children let off fireworks. People eat sweets. They distribute ‘Prasad’ of Diwali. The rich and the poor enjoy Diwali. All classes of the society are happy. Diwali also marks the end of the year.
Importance – Diwali is an all-India festival. People of all parts of India and all communities celebrate it. It is a festival of national importance. It promotes national unity also.
For All People – All age groups of people enjoy celebration of Diwali. Children, youth and the old, gents and ladies feel freshness at the coming of Diwali. The rich and the poor all celebrate it as per their capacity.
Conclusion – Diwali is a very nice festival. People forget their differences. There are some bad customs too. Some people gamble and drink wine. This is not good. Some persons get injured during burning of crackers due to carelessness. However, Diwali brings happiness to every home in India.
13. The Problem of Terrorism in India 
Introduction – Terrorism is a great danger to human civilisation. The whole world is faced with this problem and India is no exception1 to it. India has been facing terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir for long. The North-Eastern states including Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, parts of Bihar and Orissa are also faced with the same problem.
Various terrorist organisations are active and have their own demands and objectives. These organisations have been trained in terror tactics and are supported by other organisations in foreign countries.
Causes : The chief causes of terrorism include acute nationalism as exhibited by Hitler who promoted nationalist feelings among his countrymen and a hatred for others. Second is economic disparity? The charm for leading a luxurious life and be a part of high profile section of the society somehow urges them to make money at any cost. The third and the most important is communal disharmony. When people are discriminated’ on account of caste, colour, creed etc. they rise in resentment and opposition.
Need for Peace: India is a peace loving country. She was always tried to counter terrorism and establish world peace. There is a need to enforce the rule of law and punish the, guilty. Unnecessary delay in judicial process should also be avoided. There are some examples of terrorists who were punished rightly but after much delay.
Conclusion : Nations should also try to curb6 arms race. Energy resources should be used for peaceful purposes and not threatening weaker nations. And lastly to have wisdom to realise our purposes and fight the evil out with the increase in knowledge, power and resources.
[1. अपवाद। 2. राष्ट्रवादी। 3. असमानता। 4. भेदभाव। 5. आक्रोश 6. रोकना।]
14. The Cleanliness Drive
Our India, Clean India 
Introduction – India is a big country. It enjoys a special place in the world. These traditions and customs are rich. These are followed by people all over the world.
Meaning of Cleanliness Drive – When Shri Narendra Modi became The Prime Minister of India, he felt that the people of this country must be inspired for cleanliness crowd them. So he started a nationwide cleanliness drive. He appealed to the countrymen to clean their surroundings. The cleanliness drive covered cleanliness from own houses to the entire nation.
Impact of This Drive – The cleanliness drive received a big applause from people throughout the country. People from all sections of society exhibited great interest in it. Eminent citizens including politicians academicians sports persons, film actors etc. got associated with this drive. In fact the cleanliness drive became national affair within a short period of time.
Its uses – The cleanliness drive has many uses. A clean surrounding always gives better and safer atmosphere to live. Many diseases are automatically removed due to cleanliness. The surroundings look better. As a result, we feel happy and pleasant.
Conclusion – Cleanliness is not a work which we should do forcefully. It is a good habit and healthy way of our healthy life. All type of cleanliness is very necessary for our good health whether it is personal cleanliness, surrounding cleanliness, environment cleanliness, pet animal cleanliness or work place cleanliness [like school, college, office, etc]. We all should be highly aware about how to maintain cleanliness in our daily lives. It is very simple to include cleanliness in our habit. We should never compromise with cleanliness, it is as necessary as food and water for us. It should be practiced from the childhood which can only be initiated by each parent as a first and foremost responsibility.
The cleanliness drive is a wise step by the government. It is in the interest of all the countrymen. It is a good sign that people are becoming aware and are getting associated with this drive.
15. Our Present Prime Minister : Mr. Narendra Modi 
Introduction – Full name of Narendra Modi is Narendra Damodardas Modi. He was bom on 17 September, 1950 in Vadnagar, Mehsana district, Bombay state [present day Gujarat].
Narendra Modi is an Indian Politician and is currently the Prime Minister of our country India. He is a member of Bhartiya Janta Party [B JP]. He was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001-2014. He is the Member of Parliament1 from Varanasi Lok Sabha constituency.
Education – He has been described as an average student and a good debater with keen interest in theatre by his teachers. He completed his higher secondary education from Vadnagar itself in 1967 and obtained a masters degree in Political Science from Gujarat University. His formative years taught him tough lessons as he balanced his studies and non-academic life. He completed his studies against all odds. His saga of struggle began when as a teenager, he alongwith his brother, used to run a tea stall near a railway station in Ahmedabad. He was introduced to Rastriya Swayamsevak Sangh [RSS] when he was just eight years old. After graduating from school, Modi left his home because he rejected an arranged marriage. Modi travelled India for around two years and visited various religious centres. Then after coming back to Gujarat he shifted to Ahmedabad and became a full time worker for RSS.
Political Career – In 1987, Narendra Modi joined Bhartiya Janta Party [BJP] and entered into politics. He was appointed as General Secretary of the partys’ Gujarat Unit within a year. He was appointed as Chief Minister of Gujarat. Modi was Gujarat’s Chief Minister for four consecutive terms.
Due to Modi’s success, fame and style he was declared one of the candidates by BJP in 2014 general elections? BJP won the elections and Modi was announced as India’s 15th Prime Minister on May 26, 2014. As the Prime Minister of India, Modi has emerged as a dynamic, decisive and development-oriented leader who has given a hope of accomplishment to the dreams and aspirations3 of a billion Indians. His love for technology is evident from his presence across different social media platforms. Besides, the government’s ambitious programmes such as Digital India and Make in India vouch for the same. Despite being a Prime Minister of the country, he comes across as a very humble human being.
Through the radio show ‘Mann ki Baat’, he regularly addresses the nation. He is quick to respond to all the questions, that are put across to him by the people of India. He is also famous for ‘Note Bandi’ and G.S.T.
Modi is a big yoga enthusiast and never forgets to do it, no matter how busy he is. During his speech at the United Nations General Assembly, Modi proposed the idea of celebrating International Yoga Day. An unprecedented 172 nations voted in favour of this and now June 21 is celebrated every year as International Yoga Day. The idol of Modi’s is present at London’s Wax Museum in Madam Tussads. Apart from this, he has been given fifth place in Fortune Magazine’s list of the world’s greatest leaders. He has been named among the 30 Most Influential People on the Internet.
Public Welfare Schemes Introduced – Our honourable Prime Minister has inaugurated many schemes for the betterment of different classes of people with extra focus on women empowerment and security.
Some of them are:
- Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana,
- Atal Pension Scheme,
- Make in India,
- Swachh Bharat Abhiyan – Clean India Movement,
- Krishi Bima Yojana,
- Digital India,
- Skill India.
Conclusion – Mr. Narendra Modi sir has proved that leadership is all. about leading by example. He is an inspiration and hope for millions of Indians. We wish and hope that under his leadership our country will realize its full potential and once again regain the place on top where it once was.
[1. संसद सदस्य। 2. आम चुनाव। 3. आकांक्षाएँ/अपेक्षाएँ।]
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