MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 15 Biodiversity And Conversation
Biodiversity and Conversation NCERT Text Book Question and Answers
Name the three important components of biodiversity.
Three important components of biodiversity are :
- Genetic diversity.
- Species diversity.
- Ecosystem diversity.
How do ecologists estimate the total number of species present in the world?
The diversity of living organisms present on the earth is very vast. According to an estimate by researchers, it is about seven millions. The total number of species present in the world is calculated by ecologists by statistical comparison between a species richness of a well studied group of insects of temperate and tropical regions. Then, these ratios are ‘ extrapolated with other groups of plants and animals to calculate the total species richness present on the earth.
Give three hypotheses for explaining why tropics show greatest levels of species richness.
There are three different hypotheses proposed by scientists for explaining species richness in the tropics :
- Tropical latitudes receive more solar energy than temperate regions, which leads to high productivity and high species diversity.
- Tropical regions have less seasonal variations and have a more or less constant environment. This promotes the niche specialization and thus, high species richness.
- Temperate regions were subjected to glaciations during the ice age, while tropical regions remained undisturbed which led to an increase in the species diversity in this region.
What is the significance of the slope of regression in a species-area relationship?
The slope regression (z) has a great significance in order to find a species-area relationship, it has been found that in smallar areas (where the species-area relationship is analyzed), the value of slopes of regression is similar regardless of the taxonomic group or the region. However, when a similar analysis done in larger areas, then the slope of regression is much steeper.
What are the major causes of species losses in geographical regions?
The following are the major causes for the loss of biodiversity around the world:
1. Habitat loss and fragmentation: Habitats of various organisms are altered or destroyed by uncontrolled and unsustainable human activities such as deforestation, slash and burn agriculture, mining, and urbanization. This results in the breaking up of the habitat into small pieces, which effects the movement of migratory animals and also, decreases the genetic exchange between populations leading to a declination of species.
2. Over-exploitation: Due to over-hunting and over-exploitation of various plants and animals by humans, many species have become endangered of extinct (such as the tiger and the passenger pigeon).
3. Alien species invasions: Accidental or intentional introduction of non-native species into a habitat has also led to the declination or extinction of indigenous species. For example, the Nile perch introduced in lake Victoria in Kenya led to the extinction of more than two hundred species of native fish in the lake.
4. Co-extinction: In a native habitat, one species is connected to the other in an intricate network. The extinction of one species causes the extinction of other species, which is associated with it in an obligatory way. For example, the extinction of the host will cause the extinction of its parasites.
How is biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning?
An ecosystem with high species diversity is much more stable than an ecosystem with low species diversity. Also, high biodiversity makes the ecosystem more stable in productivity and more resistant towards disturbances such as alien species invasions and floods.
If an ecosystem is rich in biodiversity, then the ecological balance would not get affected. Various tropic levels are connected through food chains. If any one organism or all organisms of any one trophic level is illed, then it will disrupt the entire food chain. For example, in a food chain, if all plants are killed, then all deer’s will die due to the lack of food.
If all deer’s are dead, soon the tigers will also die. Therefore, it can be concluded that if an ecosystem is rich in species, then there will be other food alternatives at each trophic level which would not allow any organism to die due to the absence of their food resource. Hence, biodiversity plays an important role in maintaining the health and ecological balance of an ecosystem.
What are sacred groves? What is their role in conservation?
Sacred groves are forest patches for worship in several parts of India. All the trees and wildlife in them are again treated and given total protection. They are found in khasi and jointia hills in Meghalaya. Westen Ghat regions of Karnataka and Maharashtra, etc. Tribals do not allow anyone to cut even a single branch of tree in these sacred groves thus sacred groves have been free form all types of exploitations.
Among the ecosystem services are control of floods and soil erosion, how is this achieved by the biotic components of the ecosystem?
- Control of soil erosion: Plant roots hold the soil particles tightly and do not allow the top soil to be drifted away be winds or moving water. Plants increase the porosity and fertility of the soil.
- Control of floods: It is carried out by retaining water and preventing run off rain water. Litter and humus of plants function as sponges thus, retaining the water which percolates down and get stored as underground water. Hence, the flood is controlled.
The species diversity of plants (22 %) is much less than that of animals (72 %). What could be the explanations to how animals achieved greater diversifications?
Animals have achieved greater diversification than plants due to following reasons:
1. They are mobile and thus can move away from their predators or unfavourable environments. On the other hand plants are fixed and have fewer adaptations to obtain optimum amount of raw materials and sunlight therefore, they show lesser diversity.
2. Animals have well developed nervous system to receive stimuli against external factors and thus can respond to them. On the other hand, plants do not exhibit any such mechanism, thus they show lesser diversity than animals.
Can you think of a situation where we deliberately want to make a species extinct? How would you justify it?
Yes, there are various kinds of parasites and disease causing microbes that we deliberately want to eradicate from the earth. Since these micro-organisms are harmful to human beings, scientists are working hard to fight against them. Scientists have been able to eliminate smallpox virus from the world through the use of vaccinations. This shows that humans deliberately want to make these species extinct. Several other eradication programmes such as polio and hepatitis B vaccinations are aimed to eliminate these disease causing microbes.
Biodiversity and Conversation Other Important Questions and Answers
Biodiversity And Conversation Objective Type Questions
Choose the Correct Answer:
Wildlife conservation act was inforced in India in:
Indian board of wildlife was established in:
NBPGR is situated at:
Number of biosphere in our country is :
National park related with white tiger is:
The first national park of Madhya Pradesh is :
Plant fossils national park is situated in :
Kanha national park is famous for:
Bandipur national park is the habitat of:
(a) Deer Project
(b) Peacock Project
(c) Elephant Project
(d) Tiger Project
(d) Tiger Project
Animal which is extinct in india:
(b) National Park
Which is in-situ conservation method:
(a) Tissue culture’
(b) National park
(c) Botanical garden .
(b) National park
Which of the following are not done in a wild sanctuary:
(a) Conservation of flora
(b) Conservation of fauna
(c) Use of soil and flora
(d) Prohibition of hunting.
(c) Use of soil and flora
In India maximum area covered by forest
(b) Arunachal Pradesh
(c) Madhya Pradesh
(d) All of the above
(b) Arunachal Pradesh
(a) Destruction of natural sources
(b) Environmental Pollution
(c) Genetic disorder
(d) All of the above
(b) Environmental Pollution
Forest Research Institute (FRI) is situated in:
World environmental day is celebrated on :
(a) 15th March
(b) 15th April
(c) 4th May
(d) 5th June.
(d) 5th June.
Species which are continuously distinct:
(a) Long lasting animal
(b) Dangerous animal
(c) Simple animal
(d) None of these.
(c) Simple animal
Kaziranga national park is situated in:
(a) West Bengal
Bandhavgarh national park is situated in:
Kanha national park is located in :
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Madhya Pradesh.
(a) Uttar Pradesh
National wildlife (Protection) Act was formulated during:
Fill in the Blanks:
- Planting of trees and forests on waste land is called ……………………..
- Wildlife protection act is come in force in …………………….
- UNESCO has started Man and Biosphere programme in ……………………..
- ………………….. is the first Biosphere Reserve of India.
- Kajiranga wildlife sanctuary is famous for ………………………
- Red Data book is related with ……………………..
- World Environment Day is celebrated on ………………………… of every year.
- FRI is situated at ……………………..
- …………………….. is the main source of energy.
- National parks are made for the conservation of ……………………….
- ………………………….. is the main region of forest depletion.
- Indian Lion and Cheetah is ……………………….. animal.
- ………………………….. is called the development of forest on barren land.
- World environment day celebrated on ………………………
- Endangered species
- 5th June
- Threatened species
- Growing population
- 5th June.
Match the Following:
Answer in One Word/Sentence:
- In which place of India, lion is found?
- When does World Environment Day is celebrated?
- When does Wildlife Protection Act was formed in India?
- In which state Ghana bird Sanctuary is situated?
- Where is Tiger Project situated?
- Name any two National Parks of India.
- Where does Kanha National Park situated?
- Name any two threatened species.
- Name the state having maximum forest area.
- Name the National Animal and National Bird of India.
- Name any one book associated with the conservation of wildlife.
- Gir forest, Gujarat
- 5th June
- Bharatpur, Rajasthan,
- Kanha, M.P.
- Rajaji Park and Gir National Park
- Lion, Wild buffalo
- Chattisgarh (C.G.)
- Tiger and Peacock
- Red Data Book.
Biodiversity And Conversation Very Short Answer Type Questions
When does WLF-India was established?
Where does Tiger project is established in Madhya Pradesh?
Kanha national park.
Where does wild Ass is found?
Runn of Kutch.
Where does great Indian bustards are found in India?
Rajasthan, Punjab, Gujrat.
Write other name of biodiversity.
Which part of the world are known as lesser biodiversity?
Poles has lesser biodiversity.
What is the basic concept of biodiversity of biosphere?
Name the two plants which are worshiped any two states.
- Kadamba in Rajasthan.
- Mango in Odisha.
Which part of the world which has more biodiversity?
Write the full form of IUCN.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Who perform important role in nature balancing?
Name the branch of science in which done the study of forest animal conservation.
When, started the programme of social forestry?
Write the modern name of sanctuary.
Biodiversity And Conversation Short Answer Type Questions
Explain conservation of biodiversity.
Conservation of biodiversity: India is one of the richest (among the 12 mega centres of the world) countries in biological diversity. This rich biodiversity is due to a variety of climatic conditions prevailing on different ecological habits ranging from tropical, subtropical, temperate, alpine to desert. These varied conditions harbour a plethora of organisms, which forms an important natures wealth, responsible for socio-economic development of life in our country. But the biodiversity of organisms are under serious threat and there is an urgent need for biodiversity conservation on war foot level.
What is social forestry?
The planning of social forestry started in India since 1976, which is related with the conservation of forests. This project is useful for local people in various ways, such as it fulfil their requirements, provides work to unemployed, use of wasteland and help to maintain O2 and CO2 balance in the atmosphere, etc. Thus, project is started by Indian government, the chief objectives of this project are as follows :
- Plantation of useful plants in the forest.
- Development of forests on personal lands by the cooperation of government.
- To prevent the harmful effects of pollution by development of artificial forest.
- Preservation of endangered wild animals.
Write importance of forests.
Importance of forests :
1. Forests play a vital role in the life and economy of all tribes living in forests, by providing food, medicines and other products of commercial value.
2. Forests are large biotic communities. It provides shelter and sustenance to a larger number of diverse species of plants, animals and microorganisms.
3. Forests prevent soil erosion by wind and water. The trees provide shade which prevents the soil from drying during summer. Trees reduce the velocity of raindrops or wind striking the ground so that dislodging of the slil partiles is reduces. The root system of plants firmly binds the soil.
Write any five features of Indian forests.
Indian forests are characterized by :
- Indian forests are mainly tropical forests.
- Himalayan forests are characterized by the presence of coniferous trees.
- In few parts of our country having temperate forests.
- Our forests contain a large number of useful varieties of plants and animals.
- A great variations are present in indian forests.
Enumerate any five reasons for the destruction of wildlife (animals).
The main reason of destruction of wildlife (animals) are:
- Entertainment, personal profit, earning money by wrong methods are the human illattitudes, unkindness toward wild animals has brought the animals at endanger level.
- Huge reduction in the natural habitat of wild animal so.it has reduced their living area due to urbanization, industrialization and deforestation.
- Exhorbitant extraction and consumption is harmful for wild animals like skin of animals, Teeth of elephant etc.
- Various types of pollution has force the reduction of wild animals. .
- Very loose and unpunishable, wildlife act which has increase poaching, huntidg of wild animals.
Biodiversity And Conversation Long Answer Type Questions
What do you understand by Threatened species? Explain its types.
Species which have been greatly reduced in their number or whose natural habitats have been disturbed due to which these are near extinction and may become extinct if the causative factors continue are called threatened species. It is estimated that about 25,000 plant species and 1,000 vertebrate species and subspecies and many invertebrate species are threatened with extinction. It is believed that at least 10% of the living species are in danger.
The organisms which are near extinction are of following types :
1. Endangered (E) species: The species which are facing danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue to operate. These are the species whose number have been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats have been so drastically reduced that they are deemed to be in immediate danger of extinction. For example, Indian rhinoceros, Asiatic lion and the great Indian bustard, snow leopard etc.
2. Vulnerable (V) species: These are the species having sufficient number of individuals in their natural habitats. However, in the near future, they might represent the category of endangered species if unfavourable factors in the environment continue to operate. e.g„ Musk deer, black buck, golden langur, etc.
3. Rare (R) species: These are species with small population in the world. At present these are not endangered and vulnerable but are at risk. These species are usually localize within geographical areas or habitats or are thinly scattered over a more extensive range. e.g., Indian elephant, Asiatic wildass, gharial, wild yak etc.
4. Threatened (T) species: The species which do not fall under the endangered or vulnerable categories but indications are available that such species may come under any of these two categories if appropriate measures are not taken to protect them.
What are National Parks? Explain any five National Parks found in India.
Natinal park is an area which is strictly reserved for the betterment of the wildlife and where activities like forestry, grazing or cultivation are not permitted.
Five national parks of India are :
- Shivpuri park: It is located at Shivpuri near Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh). Wildlife present in this park tiger, cheetal, sambhar.
- Gundi deer park: It is locssssated near Chennai (Madras) in Tamil Nadu. Wildlife found here are Alvino deer, black buck, cheetal and famous snake park.
- Betia national park: It is located in Palamu at Bihar. Wildlife found in this national park are elephant, tiger.
- Dachigham national park: It is located at Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir. Wildlife
leopard, black beer, brown bear, musk deer, hangul, scrow, etc.
- Bandhavgarh national park: It is located at Shahdol in Madhya Pradesh. Wildlife such as white tiger, panther, cheetal, bison, nilgai, barking deer, wild boar, etc. are found here.
Write in brief, the reasons necessary for conservation of wild species.
Necessity for wildlife conservation : The conservation of wildlife is required . for the following reasons:
1. To maintain balance in nature: The wildlife helps us in maintaining the balance of nature. Once this equilibrium is disturbed it leads to many problems. The destruction of carnivores or insectivores often leads to an increase in the herbivores which in turn affects the forest vegetation or crop.
2. Economic value: The wildlife can be used commercially to earn money e.g., Animal products like hides, ivory, fur etc. are of tremendous economic value. The collection and supply of dead or living specimens of wildlife for museums and zoos fetches good amount of money. Wildlife can increase our earning of foreign exchange if tourism is promoted properly.
3. Scientific value: The preservation of wildlife helps many naturalists and behaviour biologists to study morphology, anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviour biology of the wild animals under their natural surroundings.
4. Recreational value: The wildlife of any country provides best means of sports and recreation. Bird-watching is a hobby of many people all over the world. A visit to the parks and sanctuaries is an enjoyable proposition for children as well as for adults.
5. Cultural value: The wildlife of India is our cultural asset and has deep rooted impact on Indian art, sculpture, literature andreligion. Indus valley civilization shows the use of animals symbols in their seals.
6. Preservation of human race: The destruction of wildlife in an area may eventually lead to the end of human civilization.
Describe the National and International efforts prescribed for the conservation of forests.
The forest conservation is started in India on national level since British government. In 1856, Lord Dalhousi had formulated a policy for the conservation of forest in Burma. In 1894, Indian government also prepared a forest policy on national level. The main points of this policy are:
- Forest management,
- Proper use of forest land,
- Policy for protected forests,
- Improved forest production.
Indian government established national parks, sanctuaries and zoological parks. The F.A.O. of United Nations is also functioning on forest conservation on international level. This organization also provides financial help for this purpose. In 1952, Indian government also prepared India’s New National Forest Policy under the direction of F.A.O. Forest policy has been planned for
- Prevention of deforestation of hill plants.
- Reforestation of grazing land.
- Development of grazing land,
- Plantation of economically useful forest trees.
- Increase in the profit of government from forests.
Write a short note on wild animals in India.
India as a country has a diverse range of wildlife. India is home for many species of wild animals. More than 25% land are dense forest in India and around 400 national parks. Some of the most important and popular wild animals in India are as follows :
(A) Animals: In Indian forest, below mentioned animals are found :
- Deer: Its many species are found in India-e.g. Musdeer, Sambhar deer, chital, etc.
- Antelope: These are same as deer e.g.-Nilgai, Barasingha (Swamp deer), four- homed antelope (chousingha) etc.
- Elephant: Elephants are large mammals of the family elephantidae. It is found in Kerela and North India.
- Rhinoceros: It is found in Himalaya region and in the forest of Bengal and Assam. Humans are the biggest threat to
- the Indian rhinoceros as the have been hunted to the brink of extinction for their horns.
- Wild Ass: Wild asses are not found in any part of the world. Now in India, it is found in die little Rann of Kutch in the Gujrat state of India.
Carnivorous animals: Some India wild carnivores are :
(a) Indian lion (Asiatic lion): Now it is confined to forests in the fall.
(b) Cheetah: It is on the verge of extinction.
(c) Lion: Lion is a national animal, at present its population in our country are more than 3,000.
(d) Leopard: It is similar in cheetah but smaller than cheetah.
(B) Birds: Peacock, wild fowl, many types of duck, stork, pigeons, partridge, quail, vulture, kite, piquant, owl, indian paradise flycatcher (dudhraj) are found in forests of our country.
(C) Reptiles: Crocodiles, alligators, tortoise, lizards, snakes and other reptilians are found in Indian forest.
Many vertebrates and invertebrates are also found in Indian forest.
What is the main rules of Indian forest act?
The Indian forest act, 1927 was largely based on previous Indian forest acts implemented under the British. Things which are included in this act are as follows :
- Forest arrangement: Due to this act give the protection and arrangement to forest and wildlife.
- Appropriate use of forest land: Uses of extra land for forest animals and grow some plant these are useful in wild animals.
- Act for protection of forest: This act, stop passion of deforestation and must be conservation of forest and wild animals.
- Increasing of forest product: Due to this act try to increasing of forest product and discovered new information which are better for wildlife.
Write an essay on measures of forest conservation.
Forest conservation: Forest conservation and management are essential to maintain the forests in their natural state and also to prevent the depletion of wildlife and forest wealth. For the success of conservation it is necessary to know the cause of depletion and destruction of forests. Forests are generally destroyed by fire, improper cutting of trees and by animals.
Essentiality of forest conservation: Forest is a complex system which is responsible for the ecological balance in nature. Deforestation causing natural imbalance and affects the biotic components of the environment resulting floods, drought, epidemics, environmental pollution. Many ecologically important species of plants and animals are lost due to which economically important substance like wood, medicines, resin, lac and various food materials will not be available for us.
Measures of forest conservation: The following measures or efforts are prescribed for reforestation:
- Establishment of conserved forests and their conservation in proper way.
- Reforestation on deforested land. Old and damaged plants would be replaced by new plants.
- Proper management of forests.
- By promoting public awareness about forests.
- Replacement of burnt off areas of the forests.
- Plantation of trees that increase forest productivity.
- Forestation of plants on hills and wastelands and prevention of grazing by cattle.
- Prevent forests from fire, diseases and insects.
- Providing basic protection for all forests by law.
- Regulating human activity in the forest such as grazing by cattle and collection of firewood and fodder etc.
- Provide special attention for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species under the inspection of specialists.
- Removal of undesirable trees and vegetation for the better growth of desirable species.
- Forestation of industrially useful plants.
- The government will arrange the management of useful forests.