MP Board Class 9th Social Science Important Questions Chapter 15 Development of Rural Economy
Short Answer Type Questions
Explain the rural economy of India before arrival of the British. (MP 2011)
Structure of working community: There were three main components of the working population or community in ancient village Farmers, Artisans and village officer.
(1) Farmers: The most important component of the rural economy was the farmer. The special feature was that every farmer in the village had his own house and share in the land. They were resourceful. Livelihood was the primary objective of farming.
(2) Artisans: In every village all types of artisans were there carpenters, blacksmith, potters, goldsmith, craftsman, cobbler, weaver etc. They fulfilled the needs of villages in the village itself. The remuneration of their work was paid in the form of grain or commodities.
(3) Village officer: The village officer were of the three types:
- Head: He was the chief officer of the village and was liable to collect the rent from the farmers and then pay it to the ruler.
- Malgujar: Record keepers of land revenue.
- Kotwal: Who informed about criminals and provided other important information to the ruler.
Why did the transfer of land holding start after the arrival of Britishers? (MP 2012)
The transfer of land holding started after of the arrival of Britishers because:
(1) Poverty: After the arrival of Britishers village community was divided into various parts previously only farmers, artisans and workers were the prominent group but later on people of village were divided into zamindar, farmers, land lords, artisans, farmers labour, etc. Because of this division agriculture was brought towards backwardness and farmers became more and more poor. Due to this transfer of land started.
(2) Debtness: Farmers started meeting their requirements by taking loans due to poverty. But they were not able to repay the loan. This made them indebted and poor. Due to inability to pay loans the money lenders starting confiscating their land. Thus agriculture land was transferred from farmers to money lenders.
(3) Jamindari system: The jamindari system started by Britishers had a bad effect on farmers and farming. Neither the government nor the zamindars showed interest in improvement and productivity of land which resulted in exploitation of farmers and they were compelled to transfer land.
(4) Illiteracy: Indian fanners were illiterate and so its undue advantage was taken by Britishers. They were exploited by Britishers regarding repayment of loan. They never kept the correct account of loan amount.
Why was barter system prevalent in ancient India? (MP 2012)
Barter system of exchange was prevalent in the ancient rural economy. In those d£ys wants of human being was limited so could fulfil his wants by barter system. The fanners obtained the required goods and services from artisans and money lenders and gave them food grains in exchange. All the payments for the services of pandit, doctor, barber, washerman were made in-freeform of grains or other things. This is because money was not prevalent.
What changes occurred in the structure of rural economy after independence?
Even after half a century of India’s independence 72.2% of the total population of India resides in villages and only 27.2 per cent population resides in urban areas according to census of 2001. Today also India is a country of villages and the economy is agro-based. 2/3rd population of the country directly or indirectly depends upon agriculture for their livelihood. But the contribution of agriculture to the gross product of the country is only 26%. Rapid economic growth has taken place through the five year plans.
Why is agriculture called the mainstay of Indian economy? Write four reasons of it.
India is an agricultural country. Two-third of its population are farmers engaged in agriculture. So, it is the mainstay of agriculture.
The reasons are as follows:
- It supply food products to the vast population
- This is the mainstay of the 70% of Indian population for earning their daily food and clothings
- Raw materials for agro based industries are supplied by agricultural products like cotton, jute, silk, wool, sugar cane, etc.,
- To produce other agricultural products like tea, honey, vegetables, etc.
Write short notes on cottage industry.
Cottage industry: It is characterized by hand manufacture of local raw materials at home. The work is done by the family or by some trained labours and the consumption of the product is done either within the family or sold in the market.
The main articles produced in the cottage industry are foodstuff, fabric clothing, mats, fish nets, hats, containers of many sorts from cotton, silk, hemp, jute, straw and palm leaves etc.
Why was there the migration of rural population towards cities? (MP 2008, 09)
Why did the population migrate from village to cities after independence? Explain. (MP 2009)
In ancient times due to the limited requirements and lack of transport and communication facilities the rural population resided in villages. It was prosperous and happy. It fulfilled its requirements in village only. But after the arrival of Britishers the happy and prosperous villagers began to become poor and starved. They became unemployed. Their land was snatched from them and they became debtors. They became homeless and landless. The land production decreased. Due to the lack of these basic facilities, rural population started migrating towards city.
In 1951, out of the total population, the percentage of rural population was 82.7 per cent which came down to 72.2 per cent in 2001 whereas the percentage of urban population in 1951 was 17.3 which increased to 27.8 in 2001.
What is meant by self sufficiency of villages? (MP 2010)
Villages were self reliant and self-sufficient. Self sufficiency means that villagers fulfilled their needs through local resources only. It was possible because of two seasons. First the needs of villagers were limited and second there was lack of means of transport and communication.
Long Answer Type Questions
Make a comparative study of ancient and modern rural economy (MP 2009)
Comparative study of ancient and modern rural economy:
- Villages were completely independent.
- The type of farming was subsistence.
- Contribution of agriculture was maximum.
- There was prosperity, well being in the villages.
- Each farmer owned a house and had a share in the land.
- Methods of farming were old and irrigation facilities were traditional.
- Loan was provided by big farmers, money lenders (Sahukars and Mahajans).
- There was complete absence of geographical and professional mobility of labour.
- There was lack of roads and means of transportation. The only means of communication was messengers.
- Self sufficiency of villages came to an end.
- Commercialization has become the chief objective.
- Contribution of agriculture is decreasing.
- Poverty, unemployment still exist but is decreasing steadily.
- Zamindari system was abolished but there is no improvement in the condition of landless farmers.
- At present both the ancient and modem methods are in use.
- Today local money lenders (Sahukars), Cooperative Credit Societies, Rural Bank institutions are providing loan.
- Both geographical and professional mobility has increased.
- After Independence the network of roads and railways has been greatly extended. The facilities of communication have been extended through post, telegraph, phone, fax, and mobile phones. Computers are also available in the gram- panchayats.
Why did the people migrate from village to cities?
The cause of migration from village to cities are:
(1) Poverty: As a result of the policies of the British the handicraftsmanship in Indian villages declined. The artisians of the villages became unemployed. Many farmers became indebted. Under such situation people started migrating from village to cities.
(2) Unemployment: Agriculture is done for six months only. Rest of the periods the farmers remains unemployed. So in search of jobs people from villages come to the cities.
(3) Better chances employment in towns and cities: In rural areas the people cannot get regular and good jobs so they run to the urban areas where there are better chances of employment.
(4) Stagnation of agriculture: Because of small land holdings and non-availability of finance and marketing facilities, agriculture no longer holds any charm for rural people. They cannot make their both ends meet by depending on agriculture so they rush to urban areas.
(5) Lack of basic facilities: In villages there is lack of basic facilities like education, transportation health, electricity etc. But in cities there facilities are easily available. Because of this reason also people migrate from villages to cities.
What are the characteristics of an ‘Ideal village’? (MP 2010)
Thus an ideal village should have the following characteristics:
(1) Advanced agricultural system: For the development of agriculture the small non-economic farms should be merged into one big farm. Consolidation of land should be adopted. Group farming, use of bio and chemical fertilizers to increase the quality of crop, use of high yielding variety seeds and modem facilities of irrigation should be in practice. There should be proper arrangements for storage of crops and sale of crops through cooperatives and government assistance.
(2) Housing facilities: In villages there should be proper facilities of housing. The houses should be clean whether they are kuchcha or pucca and along with this there should be toilets and bathrooms within the houses. There should be separate space for animals and a proper system of preparing biogas by collecting cow dung.
(3) Drinking water facilities: The wells, tanks and pucca well with steps should be renovated for clean and safe drinking water. Arrangements should be such that no villager can dump waste into it. Attention should be paid for raising underground water in villages. Thus in villages there should be arrangements for proper drinking water for villagers.
(4) Health facilities: In every village, there should be primary health centres, as well as doctors and medicines so that the problems of villagers can be solved at the village level itself. The villagers can avail the benefits of the government plans regarding health.
(5) Educational facilities: Efforts should be made to educate each and every child of the village. There should be awareness among villagers for education of girls. There should be provision of adult education in villages along with traditional education. Nutritive and clean midday meal should be provided.
(6) Facilities of transportation: For proper facility of transport there should be roads in villages so that it can be connected with nearby villages, small towns and district headquarters. Roads should be such that they can be used in all seasons by all people.
(7) Communication facilities: There should be proper provision for communication facilities, telephone, post offices, internet facilities should be available.
(8) Awareness towards energy and environment: There should be a provision of electricity for power in villages. If possible alternative energy should be used. There should be awareness among villagers towards their environment. Such a system should be developed by which the villagers use the refuse in a proper way and if possible recycle it. Villagers should be active towards the use of trees and plantation so that greenery spreads in villages.
(9) Industrial Development: The agro-based industries should be developed in village for example dairy industry, poultry industry etc. Cottage industry should be developed in villages through which villagers can get employment in their own villages and their income can also be increased.
(10) Facility of Finance: The villagers mainly depend on local money lenders for finance who often exploit them. In an ideal village, facilities of rural banks and cooperative banks should be provided, so that villagers may have facilities of finance. The saving habits in villagers can be increased by making them aware towards self-help groups.
Discuss the efforts made to make a village self-sufficient and developed.
The following efforts should be made for the village to be self sufficient:
(1) Literacy: Literacy is very essential for village people. In some tribal areas people are very backward. Without education we cannot imagine the upliftment of villages.
(2) Removal of poverty: Poverty is a great challenge for villagers. Because of it their development is not possible. Indian farmer always remain under the burden of debt. So eradication of poverty programme should run by the government.
(3) Unemployment: Indian farmers remain unemployed for few months because of this they ran towards cities. To avoid this migration some employment scheme should be opened in the villages. Just like road construction, bridge making should be done during of the summer season. So that people will get employment.
(4) Sufficient irrigation facilities: Indian agriculture is a gamble of monsoon because if it rains timely the crops are grown properly otherwise it fails. Thus our crops depend on amount of monsoon rains. Thus in India irrigation facilities are essential. In Indian villages still there facilities are not available to our fanners economic conditions of our fanners can be improved only by providing them facilities of irrigation.
(5) Scientific agriculture: In villages people are still backward and illiterate our farmers are using unscientific method of agriculture. For progress of the villages the new techniques and methods of agriculture should be adopted.
(6) Training to the farmers: Time to time the farmers should be given training and education regarding fanning, use of fertilizer, making bio manure, proper storage of food grains. Government should make provision of providing proper supported price to the crops which farmers grow.
What efforts are made by the government for the development of rural economy after independence? (MP 2010)
From the very beginning, central government and state government have endeavored for the development of villages and village economy through five year plans and have achieved enough success. But, a lot of work is still to be accomplished. The government emphasised on the public participation for the development programs through self help groups and Panchayati Raj institutions. The government efforts can be explained on the basis of the following points:
(1) Land Reforms: Through the abolition of Zamindari system, land ceiling, land consolidation and by bringing cultivable wasteland under cultivation uneconomic land holdings have been made profitable. For restoration of land and to restrict its transfer in rural areas, the government has distributed the wasteland and land obtained through ceiling of land holdings and ‘Bhoodan’ among the farmers.
Crop insurance policy has also been introduced. The loan facilities has been provided for the modernisation of agriculture by establishing rural banks and government banks for the fulfilment of rural finance. The government decides a minimum support price for the sale of crops at reasonable price. The facility for storage and marketing is also provided.
Efforts have been made to connect all the villages through road network. An aim to connect rural areas throughout the year through roads under the Prime Minister road scheme of central government has been made.
(2) Housing, cleanliness and health: The government has introduced Indira Awas Yojna in villages for healthy housing system in place of unhealthy housing system. The Central rural cleanliness programme contributed a lot for the cleanliness of rural areas. It has some other aspects also to bring quality to life and to prov ide dignity to women.
Attention is also being paid towards cleanliness of drinking water and basic needs in schools. In villages awareness regarding food, health and education is being spread through family welfare centre and Aagunwadi Kendras. Television and Radio are also playing an important role in this work.
(3) Cottage and small scale industries: Cottage and small scale industries play a significant role for the development of rural areas. The government is continuously making efforts to develop them in rural areas. Such as:
- Government has established special institutions to solve the problems of these industries. All India board of Handloom Industry, Indian Cottage Industry Khadi Gramudhyog etc. are examples of these type of institutions.
- Bhartiya Laghu Udhyog is established for financial help.
- The government departments give preference to these sector over other sector in making purchase of goods produced by small scale industries. Apart from this, fare, exhibition, temporary markets are arranged to promote their sale in foreign countries as well as our country.
- Training centres have been set up for technical assistance.
- Thus by providing various type of protection to these industries their competition with large industries has been ruled out.
In this manner through the efforts of government all efforts are being made for the upliftment of villages. The ideals of Mahatma Gandhi father of nation have been made the basis and efforts are being made for strengthening the rural economy.
What contribution is made by small scale and cottage industry in economy of India?
Contribution of cottage and small scale industries can be studied under the following heads:
(1) To provide employment opportunities to villagers: Cottage industry is based on local raw material people of village get full opportunity of self employment in these industries. They need not go anywhere else in search of work. Indian agriculture provide work only for six month, rest of the months they can work in cottage industry only.
(2) Increase in per capita income: By providing job opportunities to people cottage industry helps in increasing the income of every individual. For example if the rice mill is opened near the village many people will get the various jobs related to the activities of it. It will raise per capita income also.
(3) Increase in National income: High National income depends on high per capita income. By increasing per capita income National income can be raised. Thus, cottage industry helps in making our economy strong.
(4) Rise in purchasing power of people: When people in villages get work in cottage industry they earn money and thus their purchasing power increases. By increasing their purchasing power they can get more things in their daily life.
(5) Proper utilisation of raw material: Mostly cottage industries are based on raw material available at the local areas. Thus raw material available from nearby places is fully utilised some people get the work opportunities in growing the raw material needed for cottage industries.
(6) Establishment of markets and use of machines: When our agricultural products are used in cottage industries as raw material many villagers came to know how to use many machines. Many machines are used in farms also. For example tractors, threshers, drilling machine etc., are used nowadays in our agricultural farms.
Cottage industry provide many things for local market. Many people get chance in doing those activities which are connected with the activities of local market. Thus it help in developing the villages more and more. Economically also the villagers become self-independent.
I. Choose the correct alternatives:
Who owns resources in a capitalistic economy:
(d) None of these
Which Mughal ruler gave priority to construct canals to increases irrigation facilities:
(a) Mohammad Tughlaq
(c) Shah Jahan
(a) Mohammad Tughlaq
Before the arrival of Britishers the rural economy was based on:
(a) Currency system
(b) Self sufficiency
(d) None of these
(b) Self sufficiency
The percentage of rural population India in the year 2001 was:
When was land reform introduced in India:
(a) After independence
(b) Before the arrival of Britishers
(c) In vedic period
(d) None of these
(a) After independence
II. Fill in the blanks:
India nearly …………… population resides in villages.
Indians soul resides in ……………
In ideal village the arrangement of …………… and …………… should be there.
Gramin Bank, Cooperative bank
In direct exchanges goods are exchanged with ……………
Indian economy is …………… economy.
III. Match the following:
|1. Ideal village||(a) Lack of basic facilities|
|2. Artisans||(b) Backwardness of agriculture|
|3. Head||(c) Means of communication|
|4. Exploitation of farmers||(d) Artist|
|5. Shiting of population towards||(e) Village officer|
|6. Zamindari||(f) Lord Cornwallis|
IV. Write ‘true’ or ‘false’:
Who owns less than 2 hectares of land are called small farmers.
Modern villages are becoming aware of education and health.
For financial help to cottage and small scale industries Bharatiya Laghu Udhyog is established.
India is a land of villages and its economy is not based on agriculture.
After Independence there was no progress in health and education.
Before the arrival of Britishers, the rural economy was based on imports.
V. Give the answers in one word:
Direct exchange of one commodity for another. (MP 2010)
Introducer of zamindari system in India.
In Indian the percentage of village population.
Who own land up to 2 – 10 hectares.
Important part of Indian economy. (MP 2012)