MP Board Class 7th Science Solutions Chapter 18 Wastewater Story
Activity – 1
We have given one example of the use of clean water. You can add many more?
Activity – 2
Locates an open drain near your home, school or on the roadside and inspect water flowing through it? Record color, odour and any other observation. Discuss with your friends and your teacher and fill up the following Table?
Table: Contaminant survey
Wastewater Story Text Book Exercises
Fill in the blanks:
- Cleaning of water is a process of removing ……………………….
- Waste – water released by houses is called ………………………
- Dried ……………………… is used as manure.
- Drains get blocked by …………………….. and ………………………..
- Plastic, sludge.
What is sewage? Explain why it is harmful to discharge untreated sewage into rivers or seas?
Sewage is waste – water released by homes, hospitals, offices, industries and other users. It also includes rainwater that has run down the street during a heavy rain or storm. The water that washes off roads and roof tops carries harmful substances with it. Basically sewage is a liquid waste. Most of it is water, which has dissolved and suspended impurities which are called contaminants. That is why it is harmful to discharge untreated sewage in to rivers or seas.
Why should oils and fats be not released in the drain? Explain.
Oils and fats should not be released in the drains because they harden the soil in the pipes and block them. Fats get clogged in the holes of the soil in the drain and block it. It does not allow the waste – water to flow and thus the whole sewer system is blocked.
Describe the steps involved in getting clarified water from waste – water?
Treatment of waste – water involves physical, chemical, and biological processes, which remove physical, chemical and biological matter that contaminates the waste – water.
1. Waste – water is passed through bar screens. Large objects like rags, sticks, cans, plastic packets, napkins are removed.
2. Water goes to a grit and sand removal tank. The speed of the incoming waste-water is decreased to allow sand, grit and pebbles to settle down.
3. The water is then allowed to settle in a large tank which is sloped towards the middle. Solids like faces settle at the bottom and are removed with a scraper. This is the sludge. A skimmer removes the float able solids like oil and grease. Water so cleared is called clarified water.
4. The sludge is transferred to a separate tank where it is decomposed by the anaerobic bacteria. The bio gas produced in the process can be used as fuel or can be used to produce electricity.
5. Air is pumped into the clarified water to help aerobic bacteria to grow. Bacteria consume human waste, food waste, soaps and other unwanted matter still remaining in clarified water. After several hours, the suspended microbes settle at the bottom of the tank as activated sludge. The water is then removed from the top.
What is sludge? Explain how it is treated?
Sludge is the collected solid waste from the waste – water during the treatment in water treatment plant. Sludge is decomposed in a separate tank by the anaerobic bacteria. The activated sludge is about 97% water. The water is removed by sand drying beds or machines. Dried sludge is used as manure, returning organic matter and nutrients to the soil.
The treated water has a very low level of organic material and suspended matter. It is discharged into a sea, a river or into the ground. Nature cleans it up further. Sometimes it may be necessary to disinfect water with chemicals like chlorine and ozone before releasing it into the distribution system.
Untreated human excreta is a health hazard? Explain?
Untreated human excreta is a health hazard. It may cause water pollution and soil pollution. Both the surface water and groundwater get polluted. Groundwater is a source of water for wells, tubewells, springs and many rivers. Thus, it becomes the most common route for water borne diseases. They include chlorea, typhoid, polio, meaningities, hepatitis and dysentery.
Name two chemicals used to disinfect water?
Explain the function of bar screens in a waste – water treatment plant?
Bar screens clear the waste – water of all the physical impurities. Large waste objects like napkins, plastics, can sticks, rags etc. are removed from the waste – water through the bar screens.
Explain the relationship between sanitation and disease?
Untreated human excreta is a health hazard. It may cause water pollution and soil pollution. Both the surface water and groundwater get polluted. Groundwater is a source of water for walls, tubewells, springs and many rivers. Thus, it becomes the most common route for water borne diseases. They include cholera, typhoid, polio, meningitis, hepatitis and dysentery. That is proper sanitation is must to avoid some of the deadliest diseases.
Outline your role as an active citizen in relation to sanitation?
As active citizen we should take care of our personal and environmental sanitation. We should make people around us, aware of the benefits of sanitation we should help the municipal corporations and gram panchayats to cover all the open drains and remove the unhygienic and disease causing substances thrown in open.
Here is a crossword puzzle: Good luck!
- Liquid waste products
- Solid waste extracted in sewage treatment
- A word related to hygiene
- Waste matter discharged from human body.
- Used water
- A pipe carrying sewage.
- Micro – organisms which causes cholera.
- A chemical to disinfect water.
Study the following statements about ozone:
- It is essential for breathing of living organisms.
- It is used to disinfect water.
- It absorbs ultraviolet rays.
- Its proportion in air is about 3%.
Which of these statements are correct?
- (a), (b) and (c)
- (b) and (c)
- (a) and (d)
- All four.
2. (b) and (c).
Extended Learning – Activities and Projects
Construct a crossword puzzle of your using the keywords?
- Mixing with air.
- Decomposed product of leaves.
- Does not read oxygen
- Needs oxygen.
- Necessary for hygiene
- Solid waste
- Pipes to carry sewage
Then and now: Talk to your grand parents and other elderly people in the neighbourhood? Find out the sewage disposal systems available to them. You can also write letters to people living in far off places to get more information. Prepare a brief report on the information you collected?
Visit a sewage treatment plant?
It could be as exciting and enriching as a visit to a zoo, a museum, or a park? To guide your observation here are a few suggestions?
Record in your notepad:
Place ……………….. Date …………………… Time
Name of the official at the plant ………………………. Guide/Teacher …………………………
- The location of the sewage plant.
- Treatment capacity.
- The purpose of screening as the initial process?
- How is air bubbled through the aeration tank?
- How safe is the water at the end of the treatment? How is it tested?
- Where is the water discharged after treatment?
- What happens to the plant during heavy rains?
- Is bio gas consumed within the plant or sold to other consumers?
- What happens to the treated sludge?
- Is there any special effort to protect nearby houses from the plant?
- Other observations.
Do with the help of your subject teacher.
Wastewater Story Additional Important Questions
Objective Type Questions
Choose the correct alternative :
This is not the cause of water pollution?
(d) Open defecation.
To improve sanitation following new technique is being used?
(a) Vermi – processing toilets
(b) Sewer system
(c) Onsite sewage disposal
(d) Both (a) and (b).
(d) Both (a) and (b).
Following should not be disposed off in the drains?
(a) Tissue Papers
(c) Oils and Fats
(d) Waste water.
(c) Oils and Fats
Following process is not a part of waste – water treatment?
(b) Grit and Sand Removal
Polluted water causes disease likes –
In a public sewerage system, the largest sewers are –
(d) None of these.
Fill in the blanks:
- …………………… bacteria is used to treat sludge.
- Sewage is a liquid waste which causes water and soil
- Waste – water is treated in a sewage treatment ………………………
- …………………… and …………………….. are the products of water clarification.
- By – products of waste – water treatment are sludge and ………………………
- Addition of disease causing organisms in water is called water …………………….
- …………………………… in open cause health hazards.
- ……………………….. is used as manure.
- To improve sanitation, low cost ……………………….. sewage disposal systems are being encouraged.
- Adopting good sanitation practices should be our way of ……………………………….
- Sludge and bio gas
- Bio – gas
- Activated sludge
Which of the following statements are true (T) or false(F):
- Sewage contains pure water for drinking.
- Used water is waste – water.
- Waste – water could not be reused.
- Open drain system is a breeding place for flies.
- Manholes are located at every 50 m to 60 m in the sewerage.
- Waste – water is passed through for screens.
- Eucalyptus trees absorb all surplus waste – water rapidly and release pure water vapour into the atmosphere.
Wastewater Story Very Short Answer Type Questions
Sewage is water that contains waste products produced by human beings. It is also called waste water.
Which is the world water day?
Which is proclaimed as the International Decade for action on water for life?
United Nations proclaimed the period 2005 – 2015 as the international Decade for action on “Water for life”.
What do you mean by cleaning of water?
Cleaning of water is a process of removing pollutants before it enters a water body or is reused.
What is sewage treatment?
This process of wastewater treatment is commonly known as “Sewage Treatment”.
In how many steps sewage treatment divided?
The sewage treatment in most cities involve two main steps primary and secondary treatment. Some cities also require an additional step called tertiary treatment.
What do you mean by primary treatment?
The primary treatment removes the heaviest solid material from sewage. This process removes about half the suspended solids and bacteria in sewage. Sometimes chlorine gas is added to kill most of the remaining bacteria.
What do you mean by secondary treatment?
The secondary treatment removes from 85% to 90% of the solids and oxygen consuming wastes remaining in sewage after it has undergone primary treatment. The most common methods of secondary treatment are the activated sludge process and the trickling filtration process.
Why should we plant eucalyptus along sewage ponds?
These trees absorb all surplus waste – water rapidly and release pure water vapour into the atmosphere.
Write certain inorganic impurities in the waste – water?
Metals, phosphates and nitrates.
Name certain disease causing micro – organism?
Bacterias, Viruses etc.
Which process removes the solids like faces and other substances from the waste – water?
Grit and sand removal tank.
How is sand, grit on pebbles settled down?
Water goes to a grit and sand removal tank. The speed of the incoming waste-water is decreased to allow sand, grit and pebbles to settle down.
How is dry sludge used?
Dried sludge is used as manure, returning organic matter and nutrients to the soil.
Who decomposes the sludge?
Anaerobic bacteria decompose the sludge.
Which instrument is used to remove floatable solids from the waste – water?
A skimmer is used to remove floatable impurities.
What helps to clean the clarified water?
Aerobic bacteria helps to clean the clarified water.
Why is ozone and chlorine used?
Ozone and chlorine is used to kill the bacteria etc. present in the clarified water.
Why is air pumped to clarified water?
Air is pumped into the clarified water to help aerobic bacteria to grow. Bacteria consume human waste, food waste, soaps and other unwanted matter still remaining in clarified water.
Wastewater Story Short Answer Type Questions
Waste water including human excreta which flows from our homes into the drains is called domestic sewage. This contains microbes which cause water – borne diseases. This waste water is often dumped into water bodies.
How is water polluted?
Water is used various purposes in homes, industries and agriculture. When water is used for cleaning, bathing, washing, dying etc. it pollutes the water. Unwanted waste materials and chemicals etc get added in the water and this wastes the water.
What is done to improve sanitation?
To improve sanitation, low cost onsite sewage disposal stem are being encouraged. Examples are septic tanks, chemical toilets, composting pits. Septic tanks are suitable for places where there is no sewerage system, for hospitals isolated buildings or a Luster of 4 to 5 houses.
What is vermi process toilet?
A design of a toilet in which humans excreta is treated by earthworms has been tested in India. It has been found to be a novel, j low water – use toilet for safe processing of human waste. The operation of the toilet is very simple and hygienic. The human excreta is completely converted to vermi cakes resource much needed for soil.
Wastewater Story Long Answer Type Questions
How defection in open cause health hazards?
Due to lack of proper sewage disposal system a large amount of people in India defecates in open. They use riverbeds, railway lines, fields and drains for this purpose. These excreta dries down and percolate in soil with rain water. It pollutes the ground water.
Excreate along river bed pollutes the river water. In this way water on the ground and under the ground get polluted. This polluted water contains the micro – organisms of various communicable diseases like cholera, typhoid, hepatitis and meaning it is dysentery etc.
Suggest some better house keeping practices?
1. Cooking oil and fats should not be thrown down the drain. They can harden and block the pipes. In an open drain the fats dog the soil pores redunt. Its effectiveness in filtering water. Oil and fats should he thrown in the dustbin.
2. Chemicals like paints, vents, insecticides, motor oil, medicines may kill microbes it help purity water. So they should not be thrown in the drain.
3. Used ten – leaves, solid food remains, soft toys, cotton, sanitary towels, etc. should also be thrown in the dustbin. These waste choke the drains. They do not allow free flow of oxygen. This hampers the degradation process.
What is the composition of sewage?
Sewage is a complex mixture containing suspended solids, organic and inorganic impurities. nutrients, saprotrophic and disease causing bacteria and other microbes.
1. Organic impurities:
Human faces, animal waste, oil, urea (urine), pesticides, herbicides, fruit and vegetable waste, etc.
2. Inorganic impurities:
Nitrates, phosphates, metals. Nutrients Phosphorus and nitrogen.
Such as which cause cholera and typhoid.
4. Other microbes:
Such as which cause dysentery.
How is sewage treated?
Domestic sewage should be treated before being discharged into the river. Sewage is treated by first separating the solid material by sedimentation and filtration. Compressed air is then passed through the liquid which is then chlorinated to kill micro – organisms. The solid matter separated from sewage can be used to generated bio gas which can be used as fuel. The sludge that is left can be used as manure in the fields to grow organic foods.
What are the different ways in which solid waste can be disposed off?
The different ways are as:
- Domestic wastes like fruit and vegetable waste, leftover food, leaves of potted plants can be converted into compost and used as manure.
- Most of the solid waste is buried in low lying areas to level uneven land. This is called landfill.
- Wastes coming from industries such as metals can be recycled and used again.
- Broken plastic articles like plastic bags, buckets, bowls, cups, plates, etc. can be melted and remolded to make new articles.
- The waste disposal on a large scale is done by the municipality of a city using incinerators. The solid waste is burnt at high temperature. Ash is removed from time to time.
Explain sewage treatment plant.
Sewage is water that contains waste products by human beings. It is also known as waste water. In fact sewage comes from the sinks and toilets of homes, restaurants, factories and office buildings. The sewage mainly consists of dissolved material that cannot be seen and bits of such solid matter as human waste and ground up rubbish.
It also contains harmful chemical and disease producting bacteria. Most sewage ultimately goes into lakes, rivers and oceans. However, in many western nations, the sewage is treated in some way before it goes into the waterways as a semi – clear liquid called effluent. Most methods used to treat sewage convert organic sewage into inorganic compounds viz. nitratres, sulphates and phosphates. Some of these compounds serve as food for algae. As the algae decay using excess of oxygen from water, the fish and plants in water will ultimately die.
Explain rural sewerage system?
Many rural areas not served by public sewers. In such areas, most home owners use septic tanks to treat their sewage. These tanks are concrete or steel containers buried underground at home and buildings. Sewage flows into a septic tank through a pipe connecting the tank with a building.
Solids in the sewage sink to the bottom of the tank as sludge or float to the surface as scum. Effluent then flows from the tank into a system of pipes with open joints that allow sewage effluent to be gradually distributed into the soil. The soil bacteria then destroy the remaining organic material in the influent.
In a septic tank, bacteria in the sewage attack and digest the sludge and scum. The digestion process changes most to the wastes into gas and a harmless substance called humus. The gas then escapes into the air. The humus in the tank should be pumped our periodically and taken to a sewage treatment plant.
Explaining urban sewerage system?
In a public sewerage system, the largest sewers, known as interceptors, carry the sewage to a wastewater treatment plant. The sewage treatment in most cities involves two main steps, primary treatment and secondary treatment. Some cities also require an additional step called tertiary treatment. At a treatment plant, sewage first passes through a screen that traps the largest pieces of matter. It then flows through a grit chamber, where heavy inorganic matter, such as sand, settles down.
The liquid next flows into a large primary sedimentations tank. Many suspended solids sink to the bottom of this tank and form a muddy material called sludge. Grease floats to the surface, where it is removed by a process called skimming. The effluent is then released into waterways.
Primary treatment removes bout half of the suspended solids and bacteria in sewage. Sometimes chlorine gas is added after primary or secondary treatment to kill most of the remaining bacteria. The secondary treatment removes about 85 to 90 percent of the solids and oxygen consuming wastes remaining in sewage after it has undergone primary treatment.
Explain the most common methods of secondary treatment in urban sewerage system?
The most common methods of secondary treatment are:
- The activated sludge process.
- The trickling filtration process.
In case of activated sludge process, the influent from the primary sedimentation tank flows into a second tank called an aeration tank. The useful bacteria move through the liquid and change the organic matter into less harmful substances. The liquid then flows into a final sedimentation tank, where the sludge settles down to the bottom.
The influent is then discharged into waterways. In case of trickling filtration process, the filters are filled with crushed rocks. As sewage is distributed over the rocks, it reacts with slime that develops on the rocks. The slime contains useful bacteria that change organic material in the sewage into less harmful substances. These substances are removed in a final sedimentation tank, where they fall to the bottom as sludge.
Sometimes tertiary treatment is also used after primary and secondary treatment to produce purer effluent. The tertiary treatment methods include chemical treatment, microscopic screening, radiation treatment, etc. Tertiary treatment makes effluent safer to discharge into waterways.