MP Board Class 10th General English Grammar Clauses

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MP Board Class 10th General English Grammar Clauses

जब किसी sentence में एक subject और एक predicate (अर्थात् एक ही verb) हो तो वह simple sentence कहलाता है।

Example :

  • Subject + Predicate (Verb + other words)
    Harish is playing football.

Simple sentences जब जुड़कर complex sentences बन जाते हैं तो clauses कहलाते हैं।
Complex SentenceThis is the picture which was drawn by me.

Simple sentences to forest conjunction (योजक शब्द) से जोड़कर Complex sentence बनाया जाता है।

Clauses दो प्रकार के होते हैं-
(i) Principal Clause व
(ii) Subordinate Clause.
I love him because he is my son.
I love him वाक्य अपने आप में पूर्ण है। अतः यह Principal clause है। because he is my son को अकेले नहीं लिखा जा सकता। पूरे अर्थ के लिए यह I love him पर निर्भर है। अतः यह subordinate clause है।

Subordinate Clause तीन प्रकार के होते हैं :
(i) Noun Clause
(ii) Adverb Clause
(iii) Adjective Clause.
आपके पाठ्यक्रम में Noun Clause ही हैं।

Noun Clauses

वे Clauses जो Noun का कार्य करते हैं, Noun Clause कहलाते हैं। ये निम्न कार्य करते हैं

  1. Subject of a verb.
  2. The object of a transitive verb.
  3. The complement of a verb.
  4. The object of a preposition.

(1) Subject of a Verb
जब कोई Clause किसी verb के subject का कार्य करता है तो Noun Clause कहलाता है। जैसे-

That he is ill is not true.
(i) What he said.
(ii) That pleased me.
These two sentences can be combined to form a complex sentence.

What he said subordinate clause है। यह sentence । में subicet का कार्य करता है। What he said noun clause है तथा pleased का subject है।

Exercise 1

Combine the following sentences :
1. He is ill. It is not true.
2. What he says. That is wrong.
3. What he did. It was a mistake.
4. You pass or not. It doesn’t interest me.
5. Whom God loves. They die young.
Answer:
1. That he is ill is not true.
2. What he says is wrong.
3. What he did was a mistake.
4. Whether you pass or not doesn’t interest me.
5. Whom God loves die young.

(2) Object of a Transitive Verb
जब कोई simple sentence दूसरे simple sentence से इस तरह जुड़ता है कि जुड़कर उस sentence की Finite Verb के Object का कार्य करे तो इस तरह Noun का कार्य करने के CRU Noun Clause OEMICITI

Transitive verb में sentence का structure होता है–
Subject – Verb — Object Object कोई Noun/Pronoun होता है।

अतः निम्न sentence में
I know where he lives.

इस complex sentence में I know main clause व object के रूप में जुड़ा है। where he lives Noun clause

Exercise 2

Combine the following sentences :
1. Tell me this. Where the school is.
2. Lthink this. You are right.
3. Give it to me. What I gave you.
4. Mohan fears this. He may fail in the exams.
5. He found ………
He was late.
Answer:
1. Tell me where the school is.
2. I think that you are right.
3. Give me what I gave you.
4. Mohan fears that he may fail in the exams.
5. He found that he was late.

(3) Complement of a Verb

जब कोई Clause किसी Verb के Complement का कार्य करता है तब उसे भी Noun Clause कहते हैं।

जब कोई sentence दूसरे simple sentence में इस तरह जुड़ता है कि जुड़कर उसकी incomplete verbs के Noun complement का कार्य करे तो इस तरह जुड़ा वाक्य Noun clause कहलाता है। जैसे-

The problem is this.
How can we reach there in time?
Answer:
The problem is how we can reach there in time.

Exercise 3

Combine the following sentences :

1. I am.
What I am.

2. Her problem is this.
How she can become a doctor.

3. This is it.
How he became rich.

4. Gandhiji’s appeal was …….
We should give up bad customs.

5. The question was this.
How she could come to him.
Answer:

  1. I am what I am.
  2. Her problem is how she can become a doctor.
  3. This is how he became rich.
  4. Gandhiji’s appeal was that we should give up bad customs.
  5. The question was how she could come to him.

(4) Object of a Preposition

जब कोई simple sentence दूसरे simple sentence में इस तरह जुड़ता हे कि जुड़कर उस sentence के किसी Preposition का Object बन जाये तो वह Noun Clause कहलाता है जैसे-
Listen to What your mother says.
It all depends on how she does.

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में prepositions to व on के बाद के शब्द subordinate noun clause हैं। इस प्रकार के clause के पहले oral Preposition अवश्य आता है

Exercise 4

Combine the following sentences :
1. Pay attention to the teacher’s words.
The teacher says the words,

2. Don’t jump upon conclusions.
You conclude conclusions.

3. He was punished for his misdeed.
He had done the misdeed.

4. Be careful about things.
You take things in your hands.

5. You will be answerable for your deed.
You do the deed.
Answer:

  1. Pay attention to what your teacher says.
  2. Don’t jump upon what you conclude.
  3. He was punished for what he had done.
  4. Be careful about what you take in your hands.
  5. You will be answerable for what you do.

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