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MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 5 Dilemma of the Scientist (J. Bronowski)
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Dilemma of the Scientist Textual Exercises
Refer to a dictionary and find out the meaning of the words given below and use them in sentences of your own:
sympathy, practical, evade, miserable, dictate, dignity, dissent, impose, penetrate, achievement.
- Sympathy – pity towards a suffers – I expressed my sympathy in
- Practical – suitable for use – We should be practical at every step.
- Evade – avoid by trick)’ – The thief evaded the police.
- Miserable – full of misery – Don’t look so miserable.
- Dictate – say words aloud to be written or recorded – the teacher dictated the students.
- Dignity – full of honour – Everyone likes to lead a life of dignity.
- Dissent – disagree – Those who dissented with the organization formed another party.
- Impose – introduces a new rule, law, tax, etc. to order that a rule be used – New tax is imposed on fuel.
- Penetrate – make a way into or through – The Sun’s rays penetrated through the leaves to reach the earth.
- Achievement – accomplishment – Amit’s parents are proud of his wonderful achievement.
For each of the words given below, find a word from the text that has the opposite meaning:
admirable, aggressor, construction, enemies, happiness, notice, overt, peace, permissible, repair
- admirable — miserable
- aggressor — pacifist
- construction — destruction
- enemies — allies
- happiness — distress
- notice — ignore
- overt — invert
- peace — war
- permissible — formidable
- repair — damage.
Notice the use of the adjective ‘heavy’ in the phrase heavy heart’.
It is not the same as that in ‘heavy box’ or in ‘heavy metal’ The adjective changes the literal meaning so that the phrase means ‘sad’.
(a) Explain the use of adjectives in the following phrases:
quizzical eye, single handed,first baud, heavy handed, soft spoken.
(b) Write five such phrases and use them in sentences.
- quizzical eye — quizzical—enquiring
- single handed— single—alone
- first hand —first — experience something yourself
- heavy handed — heavy:not showing a sympathetic understanding of the feelings of other people.
- soft-spoken — soft — having a gentle and quiet voice.
Complete the ladder puzzle below with the help of the clues given.
The last letter of each word is the first letter of the next word:
- dislike – abhor
- difficult – choice dilemma
- A letter that has been signed by a large number of people – round robin
- Bad dream – nightmare
- Hire, have in – employs
- Infrequently – seldom
- Crude, temporary – makeshift
- One-part absolute – totalitarian
I. Look at the following sentences from the text:
(a) The atomic scientists who had made the bomb in America were therefore shocked and distressed to hear that it was still intended to use it, against the Japanese.
(b) I am, therefore, out of sympathy with the cry that the scientist ought not to discover formidable sources of power, or at least should not disclose them to his frail and destructive fellowmen. Clauses with ‘therefore’ have been used in these sentences. These are called clause of reason, as they denote reasons for there actions mentioned in the main clause. Now join the following pairs of sentences into complex sentences by using the conjunction ‘therefore’. One is done as an example.
Example: There was no petrol in the tank.
The car stopped during the journey.
There was no petrol in the tank therefore the car stopped during the journey.
1. The attendance in the class is poor.
It is raining.
2. Sweta is down with fever.
She has not come to school.
3. The captain has broken his finger while practicing.
He is not playing today.
4. Her father died and she had to take a job.
She could not complete her studies.
5. Mother is unwell today.
Sumer is cooking food in the kitchen.
6. Someone has broken the toy.
The child is crying.
7. She passed the examination.
She is very happy.
8. The teacher is on leave.
The children are making a lot of noice.
9. I am tired.
I want to have some rest.
10. The dog is hungry.
It is barking.
- It is raining therefore the attendance in the class is poor.
- Sweta is down with fever therefore she has not come to school.
- The captain has broken his finger while practicing therefore he is not playing today.
- Her father died and she had to take a job therefore she could not complete her studies.
- Mother is unwell today therefore Sumer in cooking food in the kitchen.
- Someone has broken the toy therefore the child is crying.
- She passed the examination therefore she is very happy.
- The teacher is on leave therefore the children are making a lot of noise.
- lam tried therefore I want to have some rest.
- The dog is hungry therefore it is barking.
(A) Briefly explain the following statements from the text:
1. “The scale of the damage at Nagasaki drained the blood from my heart then, and does so now when I speak of it.” ,
2. “Wars are neither made nor unmade by weapons, it is the other way about, the weapons grow out of the wars.”
3. “We do not change the world by what we wish but how we act.”
4. “The scientist in this work is the servant of the nation, and he must hot dictate to it, even about his own discoveries.”
5. “I believe that nations can choose wisely, and democracy can prove its powers, if scientists are willing to become teachers to them.”
- The writer is extremely shocked to see the damage at Nagasaki. It is still haunting and tells the tale of its pain and suffering.
- The writer means to say that wars are not the result of weapons. There are, infact, the choice of the human being which put the nations at war. The wars create necessity of weapons.
- The writer tries to co-relate our responsibility in the making of the world. Merely wishes can’t change the world. We need to act for it.
- Here, the helplessness of the scientists have been highlighted Scientists are employed or hired to work for the nation by the government or other agencies. They have no right to dictate the government of their employees anything proper. They can’t even explain their own discoveries with all detail.
- Highlighting the intelligence and capability of the scientists the writer says that everything can be set properly, and democracy can prove to be real if scientists become teachers.
(B) Answer the following questions in brief (30 – 40 words)
What forced the Applied scientists to invent an atomic bomb?
During the World War II it was believed that Germans were working to make hydrogen bomb. Scientists over the continent of England and America were aware of the devastating power of such bomb. So the allied scientists were forced to invent an atomic bomb to save their position otherwise the monopoly of Germans in this bomb would have made Germans a super power of the world.
Why, according to the writer, did the Nazis lose the race to invent the atomic bomb?
As the writer thinks the Nazis lost the race to invent atomic bomb because they believed that the fast chain reaction of an atomic bomb was impossible. They had made fundamental science a poor eye and the questioning mind the urge to find the facts for oneself. Moreover, there were not enough unconventional ideas in the German atomic projects.
How did the Allied scientists react to the information that the atomic bomb they had invented to defeat Germany was still intended to be used?
The Allied scientists were shocked and depressed when they learnt that the atomic bomb they had made to defeat Germany was skill intended to be used. They wrote a round robin to President Truman pleading against the decision. They tried to convince him that it was not simply a bigger bomb. It should be demonstrated to the world not on men and women but in desert place.
Why is the writer against the people who say that the scientists should not invent or discover sources of fearsome power?
The writer thinks that if the scientists are employed they would do their work. It is the choice of the community or the government to decide whether they want in peace or war. The scientists are not to be blamed for making sources of fearsome power because they do only what they are asked for.
What freedom does the writer demand from the society for the scientist?
The writer demands for the scientists the freedom to give their reason and to speak their mind. Community should not impose its own view on them. Society should not dictate them. A scientist should be free to follow his own conscience as any citizen should be free in peace or in war.
Trace the history of the invention of the atomic bomb and write in about 150 words. .
It was a German scientist, named onto Habur, w ho was successful in making the atom bomb by splitting the atom. He got the Nobel Prize for 1944 – 45. It was America which first tested the atom bomb in the deserts of Mexico. Later on. to bring the Second World War to an end, America dropped two atom bombs on Japan. The first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6. 1945. After three days, on August 9, 1945, the second bomb was’ dropped on Nagasaki. The world was horrified. Both the cities of Japan were made deserted within seconds. Nothing was left there. America came out as the biggest and the mightiest country of the world.
Slowly and steadily a number of countries began to make the atom bomb with the break up of the former Soviet Union the nuclear race between the USA and the Russian states has ended. But China has also succeeded in making the atomic bomb. India has also successfully conducted underground nuclear explosions, though she is committed to use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes only. Pakistan has also conducted underground nuclear” explosion. Thus, we see that several nations have involved in this nuclear race.
(work in groups of four/five)
The teacher will read aloud the statements given below. Each group will write reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with the statement. One student from each group will tell the class the point of view of their groups.
- Wars are neither made nor unmade by weapons.
- Let science help mankind and not rule it.
1. It will be wrong to say that wars occurred because these are ‘weapons. The reality is that wars are not the result of weapons. There are, in fact, the choice of the human beings which put the nations at wars. Once a war is waged, it creates the necessity of weapons. Several destructive weapons are began to be used which make the war more horrible. It is also not right to ‘say that wars can be ended by weapons. Wars can be ended by holding peaceful talks among concerned nations. Mutual understanding among nations would also be helpful in creating peaceful environment.
2. Science has revolutionised our life. It has considerably altered the world by its wonderful discoveries and inventions. It has created mysteries. No aspect of our life remains untouched of science, whether at home or in school or in office. It is predominant in every walk of life. It has given us life saving drugs and test tube babies. But on the other hand it has given us atom bomb also. One symbolizes life and the other the doom. The risks of war have become so great that the continued existence of our species either has become or so will become incompatible with the new methods of scientific destruction. In this age of science we have forgotten clarity and tolerance and forbearance.
We have become so engrossed in the material things that we have ceased to think about the non-material matters. One thing we must keep in our mind that science is a boon when it acts like a servant, but a bane when it becomes our master. We must not let science act like our master. We must learn to use science for good purposes.
1. The tragedy at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was man-made. Some -calamities are bought by nature. Tsunami was one such calamity. Suppose you are a journalist. You visited Tsunami-affected coastal areas of Tamil made a week after the calamity. Write a report for your newspaper describing the scene of disaster and the measures taken for rehabilitating the affected people. You can use information about the following.
- Effects of Tsunami
- People’s reaction about relief measures
- People’s expectations
- NGO’s work.
On December 27. 2004 no newspaper of die world knew any data other than the Tsunami “Tsunami Strikes,” ‘Bolt From The Blue,” etc were the headlines that underlined each newspaper’s mast head. Yes, a deadly Tsunami had struck the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal, on Dec. 26. It killed over 200000 people across all nations, like India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Somalia, Myanmar, etc. Many people said to be in thousands, are still missing, in India, Tamil Nadu and Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the most affected. Sri Lanka and Indonesia have lost many lives, a loss that can never be compensated. This Tsunami has also affected European countries, especially Sweden, whose tourists were enjoying Christmas at tourist places like Thailand mid Indonesia.
People from various comers come forward to with their helping hands to manage the disaster in the best possible manner. They also gave solace to the affected people. Help from various parts flood in for the Tsunami victims. Most of the government offices, employees, contributed a day’s or a month’s salary ’
People expected more and more support for the rehabilitation.
As they had lost every thing, they had begin and establish a new life. They also needed help from the government. NGO s played vers active and supportive role to give a new lease of life to tire affected people, A number of national and international NGO’s reached the affected areas. They provided them food and shelter, They helped them amenities to start their life afresh.
2. Write an article for a newspaper based on a WWF report, which says that the ecosystem is likely to collapse if, plunder of earth’s resources continues.
You can use the following information in your article:
- we are using 25% more resources than are renewed naturally in a year.
- if left unchecked, this mishalance would reach the mark of 100% by 2050.
- there was a 30% decline in populations of land species between 1970 and 2003.
- the same was found true for marine species.
- Over-fishing is affecting die health of most oceans, The most dramatic decline is seen in India and South-East Asia.
- The report proposes five ways to cut the global ecological deficit; people having smaller families; the affluent can cut consumption and still improve their quality of life; resources used in production of goods can be greatly reduced; better management can reclaim land; rigorous protection of soil, fisheries and forests will help the planet produce more resources.
The Editor The Hindustan Times 17 July 2007 Sir,
Through your esteemed newspaper I would like to draw the attention of the people and the authorities towards the exhausting resources. In fact, it has created a crisis for our life. The crisis is going to be greater if we don’t work wisely.
As the population of our country is more than a billion. There is an unimaginable consumption of our resources which are very limited, We use 25% more resources than are renewed naturally in a year, as has been reported by WWF. If die tendency is not checked it would create a great imbalance to mark of 100% by 2050. There was 30% decline in population’s land species between 1970 and 2003. The same was found to true for marine species. Over-fishing is affecting the health of most oceans. The most dramatic decline has been observed in India and South-East Asia.
It is an alarming situation which is going to be even worse collapsing the whole eco-system. If we do not stop plundering die earth’s resources. Providing some of the measures to check this decline, The report proposes five ways. It says people should have smaller families and die affluent may cut consumption and still improve the quality of their life.
Resources used in production of goods can be greatly reduced. Better management can reclaim land. Rigorous protection of soil, fish and forests will help the earth produce more resources. Hence, highlighting the above facts I wish to arouse consciousness of the people not to be the enemy to their own life. They should act wisely and instantly. Otherwise, the whole eco-system would collapse and we would in no way be spared;I hope you would give place to my article in the interest of the people at large.
Think it Over
(a) How could the quizzical eye and the questioning mind make a nation great? Think of at least five things and have a group discussion in the class and list out the points on the blackboard.
(b) War is the statesman’s game, the priest’s delight, the lawyer’s jest, the hired assassin’s trade.
…. Shelley Elaborate the statement by Shelley and list the answer on the blackboard.
Do it yourself.
Think To Do
Find out what some of the great pacifist of all ages have to say against war and violence. Write down selected quotations and organize a debate in the class on at least two of the quotations.
Read the following passage and answer the questions:
February – 5, 2007
We had successfully put spacecraft into orbits. It is equally important to get them back from the orbit, and also more complex considering that the satellite is moving at a speed of 29,000 km per hour and there is tremendous heat generated by re-entry that needs to be taken care of. At one stroke, we were able to decipher the entire technology of breaking the orbit, re-entry, precise landing in the ocean and of course, subsequent retreival.
This can be a small step towards a man-mission for the future. The SRE-I weighed 500 kg but a manned capsule for the future will weigh about three tonnes. Scaling up is possible. But to make it habitable, we have to go a long way to develop the technology. Aspects like life-support system, shielding against radiation, conditions for the astronaut to live with in the capsule for at least a week all that will need lots more work.
(1) What is the significance of the space capsule recovery experiment, the SRE-I.
(2) Why is it more complicated to get it back from the orbit?
(3) Why is this success called “a small step towards a future-man- mission to put India on the moon.”
- The space capsule recovery experiment, the SRE-I is very significant because it is a small step forwards a man’s mission for the future.
- As it moves at a speed of 29,000 km per hour and there is tremendous heat generated by re-entry, it is more complicated to get it back from the orbit.
- It is called so because it has made scaling up possible.
- Complete the following table by listing out all the areas mentioned in the paragraph:
|1. What are the things to be considered to bring out the space craft from the orbit.
|The satellite is moving at a speed of 29,000 km per hour and there is tremendous heat generated by re-entry that needs to be taken care of.
2. What are the things that we are able to decipher at one stroke.
|entire technology of breaking the orbit, re-entry,’ precise landing in ocean and of course, subsquent retreival.
|3. What are the technology aspects that we need to take care of to make the space craft habitable.
|life-support system, shielding against radiation.
II. Use the following words in sentences of your own.
2. at one stroke
- Habitatle—The earth is the only habitable planet.
- At one stroke—He did the work at one stroke.
- Decipher—Nobody has yet deciphered the code of the existence of
- Orbit—The spacecraft is moving in its orbit.
- Precise-He put his views in precise manner.
Dilemma of the Scientist Summary in English
‘The Dilemma of the Scientist’ is a science fiction which explains the making of an atom bomb. The writer while narrating the super devastating weapon, says that it always haunted the scientist’s after its result in Nagasaki. Nagasaki was one of the victims which was devastated during the World War. Even the scientists think themselves how had they blundered. The writer puts this question before history which had witnessed the making of atomic bomb; The fission of Uranium was discovered by the two German scientists just a year before the War. Within a few months it was ready.
They were not sure whether it was atomic bomb. But one thing was sure that if the fission of Uranium could be used explosively it might in theory make an explosion a million times larger than the other. It was believed that the monopoly of such an atomic bomb would make Hitler. The Master of Europe and the world and slavey to the whole world. The Scientists were well aware of its devastating power. They alerted Albert Einstein w ho was a pacifist all his life. He never thought anything from one side. He thought it better to leave the nations, to use their conscience in making use of it. Before Hitler’s invasion in Poland Einstein alerted President Roosevelt about his apprehension of the use of the atomic bomb by the Germans.
Scientists in England, Canada and America also began making the atomic bomb. They did it thinking it to be their duty to use their skill in the interest of the nation. They were in the race against Germany. But the writer thinks that what the scientists did was pitiful. They created a series of devastation. However, the Germans failed but the allies succeeded in testing the first atomic bomb in July 1945. In the meantime Germany was defeated and Hitler was dead.
The scientists made a plea to President Truman against the decision of the use of the bomb. They were of the view that the demonstration of the bomb should be tested in deserted place but not on human habitation. However, it was ignored and Hiroshima and Nagasaki were made deserted.Scientists believed that the hydrogen bomb would change the scenario of the world. The nations would come to their senses about war. But the writer thinks, the wars are not made a unmade through weapons. The evil roots are the wars themselves.
There is no logical sense in saying that such weapons should have not been discovered. Actually in a democracy we people are responsible for what happens. We do not change the world, by what w’e wish but by how we act.There is no escape from the choice which the community make between a bomb or no bomb, between planning a war or peace. Scientists have been employed for doing reasonably. They are the hangmen who have no choice whether to kill or no. It is none of their business to take a decision. They can’t dictate any policy. Community is responsible for such consequences.
Scientist should also be allowed to think as a free man. He should have right to think freely by his own conscience. If he detests war or thinks his research against humanity, he should be allowed to choose another job. Above all the dissenting scientists should be allowed to put their reasons and to express their views. They also bear the responsibility in the making of the society. It is the world in which scientists penetrate every sphere of life. In a democracy every man has the ability to form a judgement on every issue. Scientists, if willingly teach the community, can change the whole scenario. They can give a new meaning to our lives.
In fact they know’ the method to teach by which one can assure promises against achievement.
But the irony is that the man who has worked on the issue of life and death, guided a missile or hydrogen bomb is seldom free to speak as he would like. It is a great loss on the part of the whole community. There is no conforming or totalitarian science. The dilemma persists whether there would ever be an educated democracy.
Dilemma of the Scientist Summary in Hindi
‘The Dilemma of the Scientist’ एक विज्ञान कथा है जो परमाणु बम के निर्माण की व्याख्या करता है। लेखक महाविनाशकारी हथियार की व्याख्या करते हुए कहता है कि नागासाकी में इसके दुष्परिणाम के बाद यह हमेशा वैज्ञानिकों को कचोरता रहा।
नागासाकी उन भुक्तभोगियों में एक था जो विश्वयुद्ध के दौरान नष्ट कर दिया गया था। वैज्ञानिक भी यह सोचते हैं कि उन्होंने यह कैसी भारी भूल की। लेखक इतिहास से यह प्रश्न करता है जिसने परमाणु बम निर्माण की प्रक्रिया को देखा था। यूरेनियम का विखंडन दो जर्मन वैज्ञानिकों ने महायुद्ध से ठीक एक वर्ष पहले किया था। कुछ ही महीनों में यह तैयार हो गया। वे इस बात से आश्वस्त नहीं थे कि यह परमाणु बम था। लेकिन सिद्धांत रूप में एक बात निश्चित थी कि अगर इस यूरेनियम के विखंडन को विस्फोट के रूप में किया जाता तो यह अन्य विस्फोटों की तुलना में करोड़ों गुणा ज्यादा विनाशक होता। यह माना गया कि ऐसे परमाणु बम पर एकाधिकार होने से हिटलर यूरोप और पूरी दुनिया का नियंत्रक बन जाएगा और संपूर्ण विश्व उसका गुलाम हो जाएगा। वैज्ञानिक इसकी विनाशकारी शक्ति से पूर्णत: विज्ञ थे। उन्होंने अल्बर्ट आइंस्टीन को इस बात के प्रति आगाह कराया जो अपने जीवन में शांति के पुजारी थे। वह किसी भी चीज को एकतरफा नहीं सोचते थे। उन्होंने राष्ट्र के आत्मनिर्णय पर यह छोड़ दिया कि वे इसका प्रयोग करें या न करें। हिटलर के पौलेंड पर आक्रमण से पहले राष्ट्रपति रूजवेल्ट को परमाणु बम के जर्मनों द्वारा प्रयोग के प्रति आगाह कराया।
इंग्लैंड, कनाडा और अमेरिका में भी वैज्ञानिकों ने परमाणु बम बनाना शुरू कर दिया ऐसा उन्होंने राष्ट्र हित में अपनी दक्षता और कर्तव्य सिद्ध करने के दृष्टिकोण से किया। वे जर्मनों की दौड़ में शामिल हो गए। लेकिन लेखक यह सोचता है कि वैज्ञानिकों ने जो किया वह दुखद था। उन्होंने विनाश की एक श्रृंखला तैयार कर दी। यद्यपि जर्मन असफल हो गए और मित्र देश जुलाई 1945 में परमाणु बम के परीक्षण में सफल हो गए। इसी बीच जर्मनी की हार हुई। हिटलर मारा गया। वैज्ञानिकों ने राष्ट्रपति ट्रमैन को परमाणु बम के प्रयोग के विचार के विरोध में अपना ज्ञापन दिया। उनके विचार में बम का परीक्षण किसी मरूस्थल जैसी जगह पर किया जाए न कि मानवीय आबादी वाली जगह के आसपास। हालाँकि इस ज्ञापन की अनदेखी कर दी गई और हिरोशिमा और नागासाकी को मरूस्थल बना दिया गया।
वैज्ञानिकों का विश्वास था कि हाइड्रोजन बम संसार की तस्वीर बदल देगा। सभी राष्ट्र युद्ध के प्रति सचेत होंगे। लेकिन लेखक सोचता है कि युद्ध न तो हथियारों से शुरू होते हैं न ही समाप्त। खतरनाक जड़ युद्ध स्वयं हैं। यह कहना सही नहीं होगा कि हथियारों की खोज नहीं की गई। वस्तुतः प्रजातंत्र में जो कुछ होता है उसके लिए हम सभी जिम्मेदार है। हम अपनी सोच से दुनिया नहीं बदल सकते बल्कि अपने काम से इसे बदलते हैं। हथियार बनाने या न बनाने और युद्ध या शांति के बीच चुनाव से हम भाग नहीं सकते। वैज्ञानिकों को जरूरत के तौर पर बहाल किया गया है। ये ऐसे जल्लाद हैं जिनके लिए मारने या न मारने के बीच कोई अपनी चाहत या इच्छा नहीं रह जाती है। अपना कोई निर्णय लेना उनके वश में नहीं। वे किसी नीति का निर्धारण नहीं कर सकते। ऐसे दुष्परिणामों के लिए समाज जिम्मेदार है।
वैज्ञानिक को भी एक स्वतंत्र व्यक्ति की तरह सोचने का अधिकार होना चाहिए। इसे अपनी अंतरात्मा के अनुसार स्वतंत्र सोच रखनी चाहिए। अगर वह युद्ध से घृणा करता है या सोचता है कि उसका शोध मानवता के खिलाफ है तो उसे दूसरा काम चुनने की आजादी होनी चाहिए। निष्कर्ष के रूप में हम कह सकते हैं कि भिन्न विचार वाले वैज्ञानिकों को अपना तथ्य और विचार रखने का मौका देना चाहिए। समाज के निर्माण में उनकी जवाबदेही है। यह ऐसा संसार है जिसमें वैज्ञानिक जीवन के हर क्षेत्र को प्रभावित करते हैं। प्रजातंत्र में हर व्यक्ति हर निर्णय के लिए योग्य है। वैज्ञानिक यदि स्वेच्छा से समाज को शिक्षा दें तो संपूर्ण दृश्य बदल सकता है वे जीवन को नया अर्थ दे सकते हैं।
वास्तव में शिक्षा देने के तरीके जानते हैं, जिससे वायदों के परिणाम सुनिश्चित किए जा सकें। लेकिन विडंबना यह है कि वह व्यक्ति जो जीवन और मरण के तथ्यों पर काम करता है, मिसाइल या हाइड्रोजन बम बनाता है, उसे ही अपने ढंग से सोचने का या कहने का अधिकार नहीं दिया जाता। यह संपूर्ण समाज के हक में सबसे बड़ी कमी है। किसी संपूर्ण विज्ञान की कमी है। दुविधा यह है कि क्या कभी शिक्षित प्रजातंत्र होगा?
Dilemma of the Scientist Word Meaning
Dilemma of the Scientist Comprehension
Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow:
1. Nearly nine years ago, on a warm autumn evening in 1945, I was driving over the mountains of southern Japan to the city of Nagasaki. The scale of the damage at Nagasaki-drained the blood from my heart then, and does so now when I speak of it. For three miles my road lay through a desert which man had made in a second. Now, nine years later, the hydrogen bomb is ready to dwarf this scale and to turn each mile of destruction into ten miles. And citizens and scientists stare at one another and ask: ‘how did we blunder into this nightmare?
(i) Where was the narrator driving over?
(ii) What did he see? What was its effect on his mind?
(iii) What difference did he find in his two visits of this place?
(iv) Explain the meaning of the expression, ‘how did we blunder into this nightmare’?
(i) The narrator was driving over the mountains of southern Japan to the city of Nagasaki.
(ii) He saw the damages at Nagasaki which was deserted in a few seconds by the atomic bomb during the World War.
(iii) There was no change in the deserted look of Nagasaki.
(iv) The writer means to say that the citizens and scientists might feed amazed at what they had done by creating the atomic bomb. They would ask themselves what a nightmarish blunder they had done.
2. Scientists on the continent, in England and America, asked themselves whether the secret weapon on which the Germans were said to be working was an atomic bomb. If the fission of uranium could be used explosively (and this already seemed possible in 1939) it might in theory make an explosion a million times larger than hitherto. The monopoly of such an atomic bomb would give Hitler instant victory, and make him master of Europe and the world. The scientists knew the scale of what they feared very well; they feared first desolation and then slavery.
(i) What was the curiosity of the scientists on the continent in England and America?
(ii) What did they fear about?
(iii) What result did they apprehend of the use of new discovery?
(iv) What is the meaning of monopoly?
(i) The scientists in the continent in England and America were curious about whether the secret weapon on which the Germans were working was an atomic bomb.
(ii) They feared about the large mass destruction if the bomb was used explosively.
(iii) They apprehended that the new discovery would make Hitler
master of Europe and the world and Germany would be the Superpower.
(iv) Monopoly-sole authority, control.
3. In short the Germans failed; it was the allies who tested the first atomic bomb in July of 1945. By this time Germany was defeated and Hitler was dead. The atomic scientists who had made the bomb in America were therefore shocked and distressed to hear that it was still intended to use it, against the Japanese. They wrote a round robin to President Truman in which they pleaded against this decision. This is not simply a bigger bomb, they said; it changes the every scale of war and of all power and it should be demonstrated to the world, not on men and women, but in some desert place. However, the protest of the scientists was ignored; and Hiroshima and Nagasaki were made desert places.
(i) When was the first atomic bomb tested and by whom?
(ii) What had happened to Hitler by that time?
(iii) Why were the atomic scientists shocked?
(iv) What did the scientists do to convince the government.
(v) What was their plea?
(i) The first atomic bomb was tested in July 1945 by the allies.
(ii) Hitler was dead by that time.
(iii) The atomic scientists were shocked because America was still intended to use the atomic bomb against Japan.
(iv) The scientists wrote a round robin to President Trumen to convince the government.
(v) Their plea was that as it was not simply a bigger bomb, it should not be demonstrated on men and women but in some desert place.
4. The scientist in society has no right to dictate to society; and this is the heart of the matter. In return society must not dictate his life to him. He must be free to follow his conscience, as any citizen should be free, in peace or in war. Like every man and woman, the scientist has a duty to himself, which demands that his work shall not only be useful, but shall conform to his sense of human fulfillment and dignity. If this prompts him to reject research for war, or atomic physics, or science itself, he must be free and able to find other work.
(i) What is the reality real status of the scientists in society?
(ii) What does the writer want for the scientist?
(iii) What is the duty of a scientist?
(iv) Find a word from the passage similar in meaning to ‘order’.
(i) The real status of the scientists in society is that he has no right to dictate to society.
(ii) The writer wants for the scientist freedom to follow his own consequence like any citizen in peace or in war.
(iii) The scientists has a duty to himself like every man and woman His duty demands that his work shall not be useful but shall conform to his sense of human fulfillment and dignity.
5. Above all, the dissenting scientist must be free to give his reasons and to speak his mind. This is his true responsibility in the blundering, warring world: not to impose his will on his fellows, but to help them to find their own wills. We live in a time when science penetrates every public issue, from a city plan to the fall in the death rate, from a fuel crisis to cigarette smoking or margarine. The faith of our democracy is that, at bottom, every man has the ability to form a judgment on every issue: and therefore the life of democracy hangs by his willingness to educate his judgment.
(i) What sort of freedom should a scientists be given?
(ii) What is the responsibility of a scientist?
(iii) What is the role of science in our life today?
(iv) What is the faith of democracy?
(v) Find a word from the above passage which is opposite to ‘dictatorship’.
(i) The scientist should be given freedom to dictate his reasons and to
speak his mind.
(ii) The responsibility of a scientist is not to impose his will on his fellows but to help them to find their own wills.
(iii) Science penetrates every public issue, from a city plan to the fall in the death rate, from a Field crisis to cigaratte smoking or magazine.
(iv) The faith of democracy is that at the bottom every man has the ability to form a judgement oh every issue.
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